%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 38 0 R 76 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723195738+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723195738+01'00') /Title (The Virtual Representation of the Past) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3193 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Virtual Representation of the Past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume brings together papers given at the Expert Seminar held in Sheffield in April 2006. The seminar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed historians and archaeologists to share their insights into the use of digital media in their areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. Judging from the resulting book, this must have been a stimulating and fruitful occasion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume itself is the first in a series called Digital Research in the Arts and Humanities. Usefully, as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension to the wealth of web-based resources cited in print, ?a list of ongoing research projects in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and archaeology that are using advanced ICT methods? \(p. 3\) is being maintained online \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 173.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.arts-humanities.net/publications/virtual_representation_past)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 171.849 m 350.648 171.849 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.648 173.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 367.640 173.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); we are promised that this list will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly updated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(782)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Greengrass)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorna Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754672883)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(276pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Blaney)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 172.1635 350.6477 184.0435 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.arts-humanities.net/publications/virtual_representation_past) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7451 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of these papers take a roundly practical approach to the use of technology in specific projects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially so is Meg Twycross?s description of her use of Adobe Photoshop and a Video Spectral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparator \(VSC\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.672 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.672 754.563 m 142.664 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.664 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to examine an overwritten and damaged medieval Memorandum Book in York City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives. She explains how she used the Photoshop software in some detail, with a number of screenshots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her step-by-step instructions are explicit enough that anyone with access to this software and high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality manuscript images should be able to replicate her method.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along the way Twycross strongly emphasises that she was able to interrogate the manuscript in ways which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply would not be possible with the naked eye. This is not only through advanced techniques \(such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VSC analysis of the ink, which ruled out earlier speculation that some of the overwriting might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done in the 19th century\) but even through an effect as simple as the different appearance that is presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a back-lit image on screen. The exploration of a palimpsest of this complexity proves an ideal exemplar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the value of such tools for non-invasive analysis: ?As we dig down using the electromagnetic spectrum as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a spade, we bring the underlying layers to the surface without destroying the original? \(p. 47\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the strong tendency towards concrete details such as these in the presentation of the technology in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research projects that is one of the strengths of this volume. Too often papers of this kind are posed at a level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of abstraction which leaves their audience adrift only because they lack a few well-chosen examples as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moorings. Donald Spaeth?s discussion of the problems of using XML?s hierarchical structure to capture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical documents ? documents which sometimes inconsiderately refuse to conform to such orderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies ? is absorbing enough to those who like to think about such things; it becomes really vivid when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he describes assessors of probate inventories walking around a house and then doubling back on themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make trouble for the future XML encoder: ?It is not entirely clear why the appraisers returned to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chamber over the kitchen; perhaps a second pass through the chambers to list the bedding led them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discover more objects? \(p. 57\). With the example of the assessors? footsteps in mind, we are now able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the technical XML problem well enough to appreciate and evaluate the three different solutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Spaeth goes on to present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said that, the most abstract paper in this collection does happen to be one of the most incisive. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the themes emerging from these essays is the hope that the future will see more convergence of resources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manfred Thaller argues that a major obstacle is, and will remain, the lack of a standard for the representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of time in databases. In essence this means that it will not be possible to run a successful query across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple databases which record time in different ways - even if those different ways consist of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanly similar formats as dividing centuries into thirds versus into quarters. ?The different, usually very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poorly documented, semantics of existing databases with regard to time is a major obstacle to their future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interoperability? \(p. 118\). Thaller believes that the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.932 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.932 290.883 m 476.924 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.924 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a standard for defining concepts and relationships in cultural heritage information\) may offer this standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, he adds with apparent understatement, ?It will require, however, a good deal of further development? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(124\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a footnote to his discussion of how a database field might automatically be able to contain a ?location in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time?, Thaller mentions that this concept ?has a strong grounding in all information systems which handle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cash transactions? \(p. 120n\). This aside exemplifies a feature of many of the essays: the re-use in humanities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computing of software \(or software concepts\) developed with quite other aims and customers. The VSC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(software mentioned above is used as a forensic tool by the FBI and other agencies and laboratories; Vincent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaffney touches upon the notion that gaming technologies may be used to inform development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments; Ian Gregory, when talking about the use of Geographical Information Systems in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humanities and the drawback of GIS?s relatively poor handling of time, mentions ruefully that ?GIS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(software developers do not regard the academic humanities community as a major market? \(p. 145\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, of course, perfectly natural that software, as with technology generally, will be repurposed for uses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unforeseen by its originators. A point that does not emerge from thesechapters is that open-source software )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may offer even greater opportunities for this kind of repurposing for Humanities ICT. Not only is the source )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6717 754.8775 142.6637 766.7575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9317 291.1975 476.9237 303.0775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(code, by definition, open for modification, but the model of software development encourages the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distributed writing of add-on modules by a user community. The Dr Williams?s Centre for Dissenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies at Queen Mary is about to begin a project, ?Dissenting Academy Libraries and Their Readers?, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will ingeniously use KOHA, an open-source Library Management System, in tandem with historic library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records \(such as handwritten loan registers\) to reconstruct the library culture of dissenting academies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1720 and 1860.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.328 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.328 723.795 m 165.320 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear that, as is frequently mentioned throughout this book, the use of computing in the Humanities lags )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a long way behind e-Science. Gaffney adds that the use of grid technologies in the Humanities has been less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than expected, and mentions some reasons why this should be so, before summing up this technology-envy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather nicely: ?A visit to the live map of the Particle Physics Grid data brokerage site at Imperial College )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an ample demonstration of the scale of such networks, although this is not recommended for arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers of a nervous disposition? \(p. 126\). What is less clear is if there is any practical way to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this disparity, or whether the disparity is, in itself, a problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other comparison sometimes made, for example by Andrew Prescott here, is with projects which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaged and transcribed literary manuscripts. Again this is an inter-disciplinary difference that seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable. In the case of the Emily Dickinson archive, to take one of Prescott?s examples, there are a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of manuscript pages in one hand; it is, further, relatively easy to make the case for this kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript archive to be digitised in high-resolution colour. Dickinson is rather unusual in being a much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loved writer whose entire output survives in holograph but who saw almost nothing through to print herself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There could scarcely be a more persuasive case for digitising an archive than this one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is apparently an interesting difference of opinion here between Tim Hitchcock and Andrew Prescott. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitchcock speaks vigorously of the transformative effect archival digitisation could have, if the archive was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened up to keyword searching: ?If historians speak for the archives, their role is largely finished ... If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians no longer ?ventriloquize? on behalf of the archival clerk, then they are free to rethink the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social change? \(p. 89\). Prescott argues for the importance of high-quality colour images of manuscripts. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one the searchable text seems to be the thing, and for the other the manipulable image. Everyone, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would really like both, but is this a likelihood in the immediate future?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitchcock, writing about ?Plebeian Lives and the Making of Modern London? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.960 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.960 362.163 m 427.952 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.952 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcription of 530 reels? worth of manuscript material as ?a relatively small project in comparison to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EEBO or ECCO, but it reflects an important shift from the large-scale digitization of printed material to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript? \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ECCO \(Eighteenth Century Online\) uses Optical Character Recognition \(OCR\) software to make searchable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an undeniably extensive corpus of 200,000 books, but the accuracy of search results is less impressive: it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly easy to find false negatives on the very page on which your hit is highlighted; the same is true of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books, which also uses OCR with mixed results. EEBO \(Early English Books Online\) is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcription project at all but is a collection of page images of over 100,000 books, of which only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying catalogue entry is searchable; EEBO-TCP, a separate entity, does transcribe from the page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images held in EEBO \(the earlier typefaces not being considered suitable for OCR\), but has only reached the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive figure of about 25,000 books completed after nearly a decade of work and a cost of millions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pounds.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.684 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.684 179.091 m 85.676 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.676 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These are large-scale expensive projects but they are still in the far more manageable medium of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print, where OCR or outsourcing of work to keying companies is viable. The only manuscript transcription )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project I have worked on, to digitise part of the calendar to the Carte Collection in the Bodleian in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Encoded Archival Description format )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.976 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.976 136.323 m 231.968 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.968 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was expensive compared to similar transcriptions from print but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially, only consists of one hand throughout.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Andrew Prescott laments the lack of attention paid to the provision of high-quality colour images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with transcription on websites such as those of Darwin Online, the Newton Archive, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyle Project, it is noticeable that again we are dealing with one, or predominantly one, hand. Furthermore it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the much-studied hand of a celebrated individual. If a new phase of manuscript digitisation is nearly upon )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3277 724.1095 165.3197 735.9895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.9597 362.4775 427.9517 374.3575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6837 179.4055 85.6757 191.2855 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.9757 136.6375 231.9677 148.5175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9012 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us then that is entirely to be welcomed, but this book?s optimistic picture lacks concrete proposals for how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this might be done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is often possible to gauge the worth of an online article, such as a blog entry, by seeing if it links to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references; nearly all the good ones do. Yet scholars still seem to prefer to cite print sources where an online )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version exists \(and is conceivably used by those same scholars\): ?By ignoring the proximate nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electronic representations, the impact of new technology has been largely skated over and subtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplayed? \(Hitchcock, p. 86\). Indeed digital online resources enforce rigour in ways that can only benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship: ?Editions like these have also created the obligation to display one?s evidence: it is no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient to state that a reading is there because you have seen it? \(Twycross, p. 30\). The general point is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlined again by Lorna Hughes in her summary conclusion to this volume ? a volume which should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to convince those sceptical of the value of digital resources in the Humanities, were they ever to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it: ?This is an important refutation of the argument that digital surrogates distance the scholar from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original sources. They do not. They give the scholar far greater control over the primary evidence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore allow a previously unimaginable empowerment and democratization of source materials? \(p. 192\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is unfortunate, then, that the conclusion to such an engaging book should, of necessity, end on a downbeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note, as Hughes addresses the closure of the Arts and Humanities Data Service and the ICT Methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Network in 2008. These closures will only make the sustainability of digital resources, and the viability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future projects and collaborations, more uncertain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 438.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Twycross recommends this description of the VSC technology: <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct1999/mokrzyck.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 422.691 m 366.344 422.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.344 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 383.336 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.068 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.068 422.691 m 558.056 422.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 409.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 408.435 m 184.448 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 187.448 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 201.440 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009]. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.172 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.172 408.435 m 379.160 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 395.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the time of writing the best account available on the web seems to be at <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.english.qmul.ac.uk/drwilliams/research/dissacademies2.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 379.923 m 413.660 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.660 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 430.652 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 365.667 m 118.004 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.shef.ac.uk/hri/projects/projectpages/plebeianlives.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 351.411 m 390.752 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.752 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 407.744 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.476 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.476 351.411 m 556.136 351.411 l S BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 337.155 m 90.344 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For ECCO <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.456 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.gale.cengage.com/DigitalCollections/products/ecco/index.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.456 322.899 m 482.096 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.096 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 499.088 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l>[accessed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 309.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6 May 2009]; for EEBO <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.436 309.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eebo.chadwyck.com/home)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.436 308.528 m 347.084 308.528 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.084 309.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 364.076 309.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009])] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for EEBO-TCP <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.440 295.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.lib.umich.edu/tcp/eebo/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.440 294.243 m 342.440 294.243 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.440 295.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 359.432 295.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009]. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.164 295.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.164 294.243 m 537.152 294.243 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.386 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 281.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/projects/carte/carte.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 279.987 m 389.084 279.987 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.084 281.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 412.076 281.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009];for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EAD see <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.768 267.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.loc.gov/ead/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.768 265.731 m 233.432 265.731 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.432 267.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 256.424 267.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 6 May 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.156 267.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.156 265.731 m 431.144 265.731 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 240.869 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 212.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/248.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 210.963 m 309.008 210.963 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.008 212.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 207.631 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 189.851 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 189.851 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/782)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 188.457 m 322.316 188.457 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.480 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] 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