%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416144507+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416144507+01'00') /Title (Liberal Fascism: the Secret History of the Left from Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3815 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liberal Fascism: the Secret History of the Left from Mussolini to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Politics of Meaning)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg?s book is a publishing phenomena not only featuring at the top of the New York Times bestseller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists as a hardback but also, as Goldberg himself has noted in the blog he runs about the book, going into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third printing in the UK. That is enough to make many historians, used to important articles and books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving scant if any attention from a wider public, rather envious. It is best then to point out straight away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Mr Goldberg is not a professional historian, and neither, despite the presence of some scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus in the sense of endnotes, is his book a work of academic history. Rather Mr Goldberg is a US right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of centre political commentator ? who has also written for The Times in the UK ? a controversialist and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(befits the modern age, a blogger.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So while many academics may well stick to the prudent technique of rather understating findings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoiding inferences to what cannot strictly be held up by empirical evidence, Mr Goldberg uses the opposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method of rather exaggerating the points he has to make. I say this because Mr Goldberg does have some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful historical points to make in the book but they are probably not the ones that scream at us when we see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title ?Liberal Fascism?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is above all a media event. It has been widely reviewed in the US and in the UK ? itself quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonah Goldberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780141039503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(496pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Flett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual these days for any book dealing with an historical topic ? and then there is the aforementioned blog )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book, where Goldberg chronicles events related to it. Goldberg has a specific method which nods both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the prudent caution of the academic historian but also utilises the tools of the blogger in making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements designed to provoke a reaction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example he is quite careful in a number of passages in the book to point out that he is not being cavalier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about calling people fascists, or about extrapolating from an individual view or act to a suggestion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist worldview. He argues on page 393 for example that he has repeatedly made it clear that ?modern day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals are not cartoonish Nazi villains?. Since one of the points that he makes quite effectively is that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the left at certain periods have had a tendency to label anything on the right that they did not like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fascist?, as opposed to simply right-wing, bigoted, reactionary, or just conservative, it is a point well made. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However he rather spoils that caution by producing a rather thin chapter titled ?Hitler, man of the left? where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he does in reverse exactly what he accuses the left of.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps curiously for a man of the right Goldberg?s polemical technique tends towards what is sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as the ?Stalinist amalgam?. That is to say that if A is somehow associated with B and B, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known to A or not is associated with C then A and C must be closely linked. This is a knockabout style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that has little room for the nuance that is or should be the hallmark of much of the best history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg starts the book by reviewing definitions of fascism. He runs through a good number although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores what I would see as being the most relevant ? that of Trotsky, whose work on the united front to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight German fascism has remained required reading for those opposing the modern day far right although of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course he was quite unable to achieve it in Germany in the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg?s conclusion is that academics have disagreed about what fascism is, that there is no common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard and hence to use the label ?fascist? particularly from the left is to engage not in serious analysis but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in abuse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No doubt there is usage of this kind but Goldberg is missing the point and one suspects that he knows he is. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascism is a confused set of ideas with little coherence and that is deliberate. The rag bag of beliefs can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to justify different things at different times although it usually comes down to the same thing in the end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this reviewer fascism is summed up by the famous photomontage of the German anti-fascist John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heartfeld ? again unmentioned by Goldberg, which takes as its text Hitler?s words ?millions stand behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me?. But the graphic that Heartfeld uses to illustrate the words of the Nazi leader shows him as a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure overshadowed by a huge businessman who is handing him a wad of notes. The millions behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism are not the working class masses but the finances of the capitalists looking for a temporary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme way of subduing or smashing the working class movement at a time of severe economic crisis. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is indeed exactly what fascism in power in Italy, Germany, Spain and Chile did. Many leftists and trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists ? and lots of others who did not ?fit? were imprisoned and murdered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It follows as Goldberg notes with some surprise that fascism is not always anti-semitic. This will not come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a revelation to academics interested in the question but Goldberg apparently did not know that Mussolini )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not particularly anti-Jewish until Hitler forced him to be. Goldberg spends some time labouring this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As much to the point \(because Goldberg denies that fascism has any specific meaning\) is his failure to focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the history of US fascism around the Ku Klux Klan or to grapple at all with the holocaust. Of course it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to find atrocities where many ended up dead whether one looks historically at the record of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial regimes, the Russian Gulag or Year Zero in Cambodia or at more contemporary examples. However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the industrial scale of murder in the concentration camps remains, fortunately, unique. The fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg does not take this issue as seriously as it merits has received a serious rebuke from the New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times reviewer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.992 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.992 71.811 m 125.984 71.811 l S endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.9917 72.1255 125.9837 84.0055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Goldberg does not find a core to what fascism is this allows him, again in a mirror of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims the left does, to argue that some authoritarian regimes are in fact in some way fascist. The example he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns to in the book is Woodrow Wilson?s administration in the United States during the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he argues cracked down on civil liberties and centralised control. No doubt he has a point but in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s Presidency ended by entirely democratic means in 1921 and that suggests that whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exigencies of a wartime economy it was not fascist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to his treatment of fascism then Goldberg is sloppy in definition and risks giving offence ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably not a huge concern to a professional controversialist ? by rather downplaying or ignoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of genuine fascism. When it comes to the modern era his arguments about right and left in US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics may have more cogency and as a book of contemporary political history rather than any kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of fascism Goldberg works better. It is arguably a peculiarly American argument since even if one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes that the policies of New Labour and the Conservatives in the UK are quite similar it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain an argument that they are not rather different kinds of parties at root when it comes to finance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership and to some extent ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the US both the Republican and Democratic parties are parties of business interests above all. The former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is seen as more right-wing and the latter as more left-wing but this is within quite a narrow spectrum of ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg argues that John F. Kennedy was not really the hero of the left that he might he held up to be, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although whether the left might hold up as a hero the man who got the US into the Vietnam War on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant basis and almost destroyed the world with the Cuban missile crisis Goldberg doesn?t say. Here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the place to rehearse the many theories about who shot Kennedy and why but Goldberg sees JFK as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing in a line of Democratic leaders through to Hilary Clinton ? who he agrees is not a fascist ? whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas are not as left-wing as some might suppose and sometimes more right-wing than enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans. However to suggest, as Goldberg does \(p. 205\), that Kennedy was in the mould of Mussolini is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not really a serious argument. I think many British readers might say ?so what?? at this stage, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines the US focus of Goldberg?s arguments. Even so Goldberg?s point that perhaps that we should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look more at what politicians actually do in practice rather than what they claim they will do or argue they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support is a reasonable argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does however range rather more widely than official US politics in the sense that he touches on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of ?political correctness? and various lifestyle choices sometimes associated with the left that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mirror some of those on the right. Goldberg argues that the new left of the 1960s had authoritarian and right-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing tendencies perhaps primarily because ?free speech? was occasionally denied to those who otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a career out of effectively denying it to others. Equally Goldberg has noticed that some on the left and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some fascists are vegetarians although this perhaps does not tell a great deal either. Indeed Goldberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to thoroughly confuse himself in this area. He argues for example that not all environmentalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have political positions that place them on the political left. I would certainly agree. But should not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative like Goldberg be welcoming the fact that he has some political allies here rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that they are either socialists or fascists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As might be expected from a controversialist Goldberg?s book has attracted a range of reviews and these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting in themselves. Stuart Jefferies in )] TJ ET BT 246.992 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.660 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.660 181.347 m 331.652 181.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.652 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( slams Goldberg for a lack of seriousness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigour in his desire to argue that there is a liberal fascism. Nick Cohen in )] TJ ET BT 385.964 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.616 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.616 167.091 m 468.608 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 468.608 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprisingly was more sympathetic to Goldberg?s arguments agreeing that at times the left was similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism. He notes for example the occasions when German Communists joined German Nazis to beat up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social democrats ? Goldberg doesn?t refer to this. However it must be said that this policy was both short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived and regarded as entirely lunatic by much of the left so it is difficult to sustain it as a fixed left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However even Cohen does go on to argue, correctly in my view, that Goldberg overstates his case, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons I explain above, and is moved to a rare defence of the left in conclusion. As Goldberg notes on his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.6597 181.6615 331.6517 193.5415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6157 167.4055 468.6077 179.2855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Fascism blog )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 795.075 m 152.336 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he has repaid the compliment by not reading Cohen?s recent work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing in the )] TJ ET BT 104.348 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Humanist)] TJ ET BT 175.352 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stephen Howe )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.672 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.672 768.819 m 265.664 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.664 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( enters a plea in defence of liberalism and liberals against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg, and an effective one that the book does not deal with. Howe argues that Goldberg has artificially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed a view of liberalism that simply means ?a bunch of people I can?t stand? but who otherwise do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always have a great deal in common.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe also mentions Richard Seymour?s recent book )] TJ ET BT 291.644 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Liberal Defence of Murder)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.292 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.292 699.795 m 459.284 699.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.284 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liberal pro-war ?left? in the UK and US and while he does not approve of Seymour either it might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted that the existence of people who identify themselves as liberal-left but who supported the war in Iraq )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and query much in identity politics is a problem for Goldberg?s analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless Jonah Goldberg?s book is an entertaining read, even if it tends towards the intellectually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sloppy, and perhaps should not to be taken too seriously. It would for example be to accord the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put forward in the book a gravity that they do not deserve to suggest that it is a work of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionism trying to airbrush the dreadful realities of fascism out of history. It is polemic not revisionism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a sympathetic review in the Daily Telegraph noted it is an ?entertaining political romp?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.952 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.952 573.747 m 486.944 573.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Criticising authors for books they did not write is of little value but in this case rather than simply slamming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Fascism)] TJ ET BT 112.352 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there is value in arguing that within its pages there is an interesting argument that political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labels might not always be the best guide to what actually happens in politics. In an interview about the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg argued that ?American Conservatism, with its limited ambitions for government, its belief in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperfectability of mankind, its reverence for tradition and the US constitution and its innate opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism are nearly the opposite to fascism?. If we agree that US conservatism is not the same as the neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism of Bush and Cheney, Goldberg here has a point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 397.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET BT 163.688 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 Dec 2007.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.008 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.008 396.435 m 287.996 396.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 383.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14 Feb 2009. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.684 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.684 382.179 m 257.672 382.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 369.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8 February 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.988 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.988 367.923 m 271.976 367.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 355.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 353.667 m 124.772 353.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 340.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Howe, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 340.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blog Standard)] TJ ET BT 210.008 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.776 340.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.776 339.411 m 273.764 339.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 326.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Seymour, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 326.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Liberal Defence of Murder)] TJ ET BT 304.988 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.312 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.312 325.155 m 440.300 325.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 312.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 312.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 164.012 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 February 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.332 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.332 310.899 m 306.320 310.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 286.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/feb/14/jonah-goldberg-liberal-fascism)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 256.131 m 408.308 256.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.308 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 252.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 235.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 235.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/783)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 233.625 m 322.316 233.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 208.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3761)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/feb/14/jonah-goldberg-liberal-fascism)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 795.3895 152.3357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.6717 769.1335 265.6637 781.0135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] 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