%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228114321+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228114321+00'00') /Title (Jack Lynch: A Biography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4126 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jack Lynch: A Biography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Macmillan once said that what he feared most was ?events?. Jack Lynch was one of those politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was ambushed by ?events?. Before 1969, he seemed to have a talent for avoiding the arrogance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mud that normally congeal on those who climb the greasy pole, and projecting himself as gentle, decent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate, honest, and dutiful. Born in Cork city in 1917, into a relatively comfortable working-class family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he worked as a law clerk and was called to the bar in 1945. Sparkling success in Cork hurling and football )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made him a prized asset in Ireland?s intensely localist political culture, and he was courted by parties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and radical proclivities. He opted for Fianna Fil. Elected to Dil ireann in 1948, he rose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily in the pecking order. His image as one who embraced power with reluctance was consolidated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1966 when he agreed to run for Taoiseach to save the party an unprecedented contest for the leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between George Colley and Charles J. Haughey. The future looked settled. Lynch?s predecessor, Sen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemass, had deftly abandoned Fianna Fil?s traditional autarkic and irredentist policies, revitalized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy, set Ireland on course for accession to the European Economic Community, and opened cordial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the Northern Ireland government. Then the North erupted in August 1969. Lynch?s reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would forever hang on attitudes towards his response, and his handling of the aftershocks, from the dismissal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Haughey from the cabinet and the ?arms trial? in 1970 to Haughey?s come-back as Taoiseach in 1979. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would also be confronted with post-war Europe?s first recessions in the 1970s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(784)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dermot Keogh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780717134694)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(639pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gill and Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmett O'Connor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dermot Keogh?s is the third biography of Lynch, following two shorter, more interpretive, and more critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes which appeared in 2001, Bruce Arnold?s )] TJ ET BT 277.304 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.288 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.288 768.819 m 424.280 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.280 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and T. Ryle Dwyer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch)] TJ ET BT 229.988 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.988 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.988 754.563 m 246.980 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.980 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It shares with Arnold a forthright concern to vindicate Lynch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but is also virtually an official biography, written by a self-styled ?insider? with the help of Lynch?s widow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mirn. Keogh nails his colours to the mast in the preface. A journalist with the pro-Fianna Fil paper, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Press,)] TJ ET BT 89.348 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1970 to 1976, and a ?strong opponent of the necrophilia of the Provisional IRA?, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply unhappy with the paper?s anti-partitionism and admired Lynch?s ?constitutional line? \(p. xii\). After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979, he feared that Lynch was ?being systematically airbrushed out of modern Irish history by Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haughey and his entourage? \(p. xii\). As the preface suggests, there are two salient problems in attempting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective assessment of Lynch. First, he is seen through the prism of emotive events. Those who believe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish government did well to avoid a military engagement with the North are driven to heroise Lynch?s role. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh devotes almost 40 percent of his biography to Northern-related matter. Secondly, attitudes towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch and his nemesis, Haughey, usually amount to a zero-sum. They differed not only on the six counties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in personality and political style. Haughey?s abrasive command of Fianna Fil sustained a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nostalgia for Lynch, and his fall from grace after corroboration of corruption in the 1990s helped to restore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch?s popularity. Keogh?s dislike of Haughey is evident in repeated sideswipes. At one point he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compares him with Josef Stalin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch was a private man, with few interests outside politics before he retired to company directorships. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never got round to writing his memoirs and restricted himself to rare and spare defences of his record after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979. What Keogh offers us, in considerable detail, is largely the public man, sportsman and politician. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all accounts, there was no hidden side to Lynch. He and Mirn ? they had had no children ? were a devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and happy couple. He gave her the final word on choices affecting his career, and occasionally on political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions too. She normally accompanied him on the campaign trail as well as on official visits, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes intervened publicly with a statement on his behalf. Keogh has published on a diverse range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics, from trade unions to religion, but is probably best known as a historian of high politics. He makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good use of public archives, augmented by ?three sacks? of personal papers supplied by Mirn. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative is searching, but supportive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How convincing is Keogh?s apologia? Three criticisms are commonly made of Lynch. The first is that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood for nothing other than, in the words of John A. Murphy, ?an affable consensus?, and offered a bland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership. There are various stories of Lynch taking a decision on the toss of a coin. According to Mirn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coin was tossed to determine whether he would enter politics, as he wished, or defer to her apprehensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stick with the bar. In Fianna Fil folklore the toss was to decide which party to join. In a party in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family tradition was esteemed, Lynch?s lack of an identifiable republican background was held against him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially after 1969. Keogh is sensitive of the negative rumours about Lynch, and manages to find a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicans in his extended family. It is certainly plausible that Lynch matured into a conviction Fianna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filer, of the Lemass rather than the amon de Valera variety. He became friendly with T. K. Whitaker, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary of the Department of Finance and architect of the shift from protectionism to free trade, shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitaker?s belief that partition could only be ended through prosperity, co-operation, and consent, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought his advice on the North. Equally, Keogh rejects the claim that Lynch was a ?reluctant? Taoiseach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it does seem as if the reluctance was Mirn?s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because his place in history is overshadowed by the North and by Haughey, Lynch is not usually arraigned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his abilities as minister or as Taoiseach first time round, from 1966 to 1973, though the record is mixed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best. He had a moderately good stint as Minister for Education from 1957 to 1959, with a few modest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives to his credit. Clerical control of education at that time restricted the role of any minister. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister for Industry and Commerce, from 1959 to 1965, Lynch was more obviously less successful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coping with the escalation of industrial unrest or reforming industrial relations. Under his tenure as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taoiseach, the ?Programmes for Economic Expansion?, initiated by Lemass, started shipping water. Lynch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned the ?Third Programme? for the lazier option of prioritizing foreign private investment, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating domestic capitalism through the building industry. A toxic chemistry evolved between Fianna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fil and property developers. Fianna Fil?s fund raising agency, Taca [support], acquired a notoriety, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.2877 769.1335 424.2797 781.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.9877 754.8775 246.9797 766.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many were shocked at the way speculators were allowed to replace chunks of Georgian Dublin with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functional office blocks. Keogh?s treatment of Taca is typical of the endemic bias which mars the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Targetting Haughey as the arch ?Tacateer?, Keogh neglects to say that Taca emerged within three months of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch becoming party leader, or that Lynch defended it, and excuses his hero with a claim that he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?alarmed? at the process of fund raising and tried to make it more ?transparent?.\(p. 126\) Patently, he didn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try hard enough. This contrast between intent and effect is at the heart of the Lynch enigma. If personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honest, he did not curb practices like cronyism in public appointments, ?pork-barrelling?, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gerrymandering. If personally progressive, he led one of Fianna Fil?s most dishonest and regressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election campaigns in 1969, combining ?red scare? tactics against the Labour Party with an egregious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvassing of convents. Keogh is disingenuous: ?Nuns too were citizens?.\(p. 155\). Lynch had blundered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly in holding a referendum to get rid of proportional representation \(PR\) in 1968. Victory in 1969 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restored his authority, demonstrating the huge appeal of his style to floating voters, and his ability to screen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil?s reputation for arrogance and corruption behind his self-effacing, mild manner. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second and central criticism of Lynch relates to the North. Lynch had his first meeting, as Taoiseach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Northern premier Terence O?Neill in 1967. He aimed to continue Lemass?s policy of fostering cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border co-operation. The emphasis in Northern policy was on nursing a rapport with Stormont. No one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected, before 5 October 1968, ?Day 1? of ?the troubles?, that nationalists would present problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management. Lynch had no instinct for handling angular Ulstermen, and it said much about him that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassed the civil rights movement by trying to replace PR with the electoral system it was so critical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the six counties. Not surprisingly, Northern anti-Unionists were more impressed by Harold Wilson than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch, and encouraged by the possibility that a Labour government in London might respond to a campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for equality within Northern Ireland. By the summer of 1969, the Irish authorities were awakening to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gravity of the situation, and warned the British government, in vain, that the Apprentice Boys? parade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derry on 12 August would lead to trouble. At the same time, the Irish underestimated the consequences, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh concedes that Lynch did little to prepare his colleagues, the Department of External Affairs, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security and intelligence services, or the public, for the impending crisis. The emergency cabinet session on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13 August to consider a response to the ?Battle of the Bogside? and rioting in Belfast was the first of a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of meetings on which there is dispute about what actually happened. One of the great merits of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography is that it offers the most painstaking account to date of who said what, to whom, and when. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail, however, is at the expense of overview and objective consideration of perceptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh makes a good case for Lynch?s ideological consistency, depicting him as steady in developing a two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronged policy. First, he sought to reassure his party by saying that partition was at the heart of the problem. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British government?s insistence that Northern Ireland was a matter for the United Kingdom authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone gave him little room to manoeuvre in this respect. Secondly, he affirmed that partition could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved by force and there was to be ?no fraternization? with paramilitaries. Does Lynch deserve an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encomium for this? He was reiterating the line taken by John A. Costello, de Valera, and Lemass during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IRA?s ?border campaign? from 1956 to 1962. Granted, his situation was more pressured, but lionizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch as a man in the gap is mythification. Historians of the period are struck by the weight of feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against, rather than for, closer engagement with the North. Lynch could rely on the backing of the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service and the army, most of his cabinet, all parties in Dil ireann, and his popularity with the electorate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh is less effective in tackling the contrast between Lynch?s policy and his political management. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perceptions are important, and Lynch failed to reassure. The style that had hitherto served him so well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a liability in the crisis. Hardliners suspected his anti-partitionism as perfunctory and believed he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked the steel to square up to the British. Moderates feared he was not doing enough to rein in his hawkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues. There were some terrible decisions. Mchel Mrin, widely regarded as incompetent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreliable, had been made Minister for Justice in July 1969. Lynch allowed the cabinet to revise his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcast to the nation on 13 August to make it sound more militant. His announcement of army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization and remark that the Republic could not ?stand by?, sent the wrong signals to the North, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking the Unionists and raising false hopes among nationalists; though what he actually did, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing field-hospitals along the border, was judicious and appreciated by refugees. He also made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to two ministerial hawks, Haughey and Neil Blaney. Both were appointed to a four-man )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7096 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security sub-committee, and a distress fund was set up to aid Northern nationalists. Haughey and Blaney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored the committee, and used the funds to import arms for use in the North.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest controversy surrounds Lynch?s culpability in the arms conspiracy. Keogh says he was not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attentive to Northern affairs as he ought to have been, a defence contradicted later by his conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?After 1969 Lynch?s focus was rarely on economic recovery? \(p. 478\). Did Lynch not know, or did he not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want to know? A crucial question is when he was informed of plans to import arms. According to his diary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Berry, secretary of the Department of Justice, told Lynch on 17 October 1969, and formed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression that the Taoiseach was not at all happy to be so briefed. Lynch always denied it, and Keogh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that he should get the benefit of the doubt as Berry ? whom he traduces repeatedly ? was ill at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. However, during the arms trial Mrin and Jim Gibbons, formerly Minister for Defence, said they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had made Lynch aware of the conspiracy. Lynch claimed he first heard of ministerial involvement in gun-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running on 20 April 1970. Yet did not act until May, when confronted with allegations by the leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition. Haughey and Blaney were dismissed from the cabinet, tried, and acquitted. Lynch could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly be sinewy where his career was at stake. He survived the convulsions in Fianna Fil and would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have won the next election in 1973 had he not underestimated the appeal of the Fine Gael-Labour coalition?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform package.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That was a mistake that Fianna Fil determined not to repeat, and the third major criticism of Lynch is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he sorely damaged the public finances with his ?giveaway? manifesto of 1977. Despite rising inflation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment, and state borrowing, the Fine Gael-Labour government was extraordinarily confident about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another election victory. An over-anxious Fianna Fil dazzled the voters with an alluring array of tax cuts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and increased public spending. Lynch swept back to power with a huge majority. From there, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downhill all the way. The government?s hamfisted gamble for growth exacerbated the country?s economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, and contributed to the state?s fiscal agonies in the 1980s. By 1979 there was a widespread feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the government needed a change of direction. Lynch was planning to retire in 1980. The North hastened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process. In August 1979 the IRA killed Lord Louis Mountbatten and the ensuing furore again made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch look weak. Some condemned him for not cutting short his holidays in Portugal to return to Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others felt he was bending to Mrs Thatcher?s line on the North in the wake of the embarrassment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mountbatten?s death, which occurred in the Republic. In November, Fianna Fil lost two bye-elections in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch?s beloved Cork. Then it emerged that Lynch had agreed to allow British military aircraft to overfly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the border. The overflight issue crystalized the mounting unease in the Fianna Fil parliamentary party. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch announced his resignation on 5 December. He hoped to be succeeded by Colley, who was regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a man in the Lynch mould. Incredibly, Lynch had appointed Haughey to the cabinet in 1977, and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid of that partial rehabilitation, Haughey beat Colley by 44-38 votes. It was a disastrous finale to Lynch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career, and taken as a reflection on his record.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keogh, as the reader may have gathered, doggedly defends Lynch throughout, and it?s a pleasant surprise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter some critical assessments in the conclusion. Lynch is faulted for allowing ministers too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?autonomy? and for some poor political judgment, especially in making appointments. Three explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are offered of his difficulties as leader: the ?hierarchical nature of Irish government?, the ?consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underperformance of various ministers?, and the ?pre-modern nature of Fianna Fil? party organization.\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(479\) None of these are convincing. Cabinet government has generally become more prime-ministerial since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s. Fianna Fil?s authoritarian culture was surely an advantage to a leader. If its organization was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pre-modern?, it compared very favourably with its rivals. And blaming the underlings is lame. Lynch was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outshone by some very competent ministers, and was unfortunate that two of them were Blaney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haughey. At the close of this monumental piece of research, one is left with an uncomfortable feeling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best that can be said about Lynch is that he was a nice man, and too nice to be an effective leader of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fianna Fil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Arnold, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis)] TJ ET BT 265.652 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.980 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.980 52.035 m 396.968 52.035 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9797 52.3495 396.9677 64.2295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 1487 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Ryle Dwyer, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch)] TJ ET BT 337.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.632 795.075 m 462.620 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.socialistdemocracy.org/Reviews/ReviewBookReviewJackLynch.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 740.307 m 426.980 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.980 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/784)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3762)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.socialistdemocracy.org/Reviews/ReviewBookReviewJackLynch.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.6317 795.3895 462.6197 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 740.6215 426.9797 752.5015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.socialistdemocracy.org/Reviews/ReviewBookReviewJackLynch.html) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/784) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000533 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000004793 00000 n 0000004902 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000005121 00000 n 0000008682 00000 n 0000008810 00000 n 0000008894 00000 n 0000008985 00000 n 0000016989 00000 n 0000017019 00000 n 0000017147 00000 n 0000017183 00000 n 0000017213 00000 n 0000017341 00000 n 0000017377 00000 n 0000017442 00000 n 0000025148 00000 n 0000025232 00000 n 0000032381 00000 n 0000032507 00000 n 0000032562 00000 n 0000032660 00000 n 0000034200 00000 n 0000034328 00000 n 0000034383 00000 n 0000034510 00000 n 0000034634 00000 n 0000034762 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34857 %%EOF