%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140423091842+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140423091842+01'00') /Title (The Children?s Crusade: Medieval History, Modern Mythistory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4645 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Children?s Crusade: Medieval History, Modern Mythistory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agatha Christie?s 1970 novel )] TJ ET BT 179.336 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passenger to Frankfurt)] TJ ET BT 291.332 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might seem like an unusual place to start a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Children?s Crusade in 1212. To capture the radical youth-culture of the 1960s lying at the heart of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plot, Christie invoked the Children?s Crusade as a familiar symbol of misguided and ultimately dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youthful folly. Gary Dickson, however, is not interested in history alone. As the title of his book indicates, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s Crusade: Medieval History, Modern Mythhistory, )] TJ ET BT 353.660 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he tackles both the history of that event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its long afterlife as ?mythistory?. In this engaging volume, he carefully examines the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval sources for the Children?s Crusade, and also asks how the )] TJ ET BT 362.624 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(peregrinatio puerorum)] TJ ET BT 472.952 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming mythistorical by the 13th century ? survived the Middle Ages not just in the realm of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade scholarship, but also in fiction, film, plays, music, and other media. Through the course of doing so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson interrogates the very nature of history-writing, which, he argues, is inseparable from the fabric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths and social memories that fashion our collective understanding of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter of his book, summoning figures like William H. McNeill and Hayden White )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.296 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.296 117.369 m 509.288 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.288 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dickson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces the tension and dialogue between history, which looks to contain events, setting them in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, complicating them and exposing their contingency, and mythistory, which seeks to simplify events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting them free from their context, essentializing them and obscuring their contingency. He has no interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in trying to separate history from mythistory, its ?Siamese-twin?, the sort of approach favored by 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(785)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 July, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Dickson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403999894)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Edward Whalen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.2957 117.6835 509.2877 129.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century positivist historians; rather, for Dickson, the mythistory of the Children?s Crusade provides a ?port )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of entry into medieval mentalities? \(p. 15\). Indeed, the trail of modern images, tropes, and rhetorical motifs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding that event leads him back to his medieval sources, which first began the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mythistoricizing? the Children?s Crusade. As Dickson writes, ?However we configure the mythistory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and memory of the crusading enthusiasm of 1212, we encounter the imaginings and observations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thirteenth-century chroniclers? \(p. 16\). Accordingly, he first sets his sights on their creative, textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, which provided the basis for the subsequent elaborations of the Children?s Crusade down to Agatha )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christie and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, ?History: The Pope and the )] TJ ET BT 243.644 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pueri,)] TJ ET BT 273.308 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Dickson sets the Children?s Crusade into its proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context, a time of religious revival and crusade enthusiasm overseen by Pope Innocent III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1198?1216\). ?Set within the Innocentian era,? he explains, ?the Children?s Crusade begins to make sense? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 17\). For all of his meditations on mythistory, first and foremost Dickson is an historian: he wants his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers to understand the crusading enthusiasm of 1212 as a contingent event that occurred at a specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment in the past. That process of ?making sense? out of the Children?s Crusade begins with the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currents of lay piety that characterized the early 13th century along with the institutional efforts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Church to channel \(and sometimes quash\) sentiments of ?religious impossibilism?, that is, the belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all things were in fact possible through the ineffable power of divine providence. This same era, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson reminds us, saw not just a sustained emphasis on crusading as an act of piety, but also outbursts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophetic inspiration, found in the works of figures such as Joachim of Fiore, and forms of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation that ecclesiastical authorities would ultimately define as heretical, such as beliefs and practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Amalricians. Although he is careful not to claim any direct causal link between the Amalricians and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade \(despite their chronological and geographical proximity\), Dickson sees both as a product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the same creative religious forces at play during the papacy of Innocent III, forces also manifest among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early Franciscans and Beguines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s Crusade, Dickson declares, ?was impossibilism in motion ? a revivalist mass movement, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of believers on the march? \(p. 27\). As such, the ?children? \()] TJ ET BT 378.944 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri)] TJ ET BT 404.276 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) involved in the crusade were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in a broader spiritual dialogue that included Innocent III himself, a crusading pope who placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recovery of Jerusalem and defense of Christendom from non-believers at the heart of his papacy. Nor, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarifies with references to the contemporary sources, did the Children?s Crusade consist exclusively of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young children, a misconception that has found its way into the works of such distinguished scholars as Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alphandry. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.668 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.668 343.395 m 110.660 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.660 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the same time, disagreeing with Peter Raedts, Dickson does not abandon the idea that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of children, understood by contemporaries as a distinct age-group, did in fact constitute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hallmark of the crusade, one that captured the imagination of contemporaries. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.604 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.604 314.883 m 423.596 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.596 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In these terms, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade was a ?youth movement? \(p. 35\), sharing the religious enthusiasms of the orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy, but refusing to remain within institutional confines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having set the Children?s Crusade into its moment, Dickson?s second chapter sees him find its place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin: the ?Chartrain?, the region around the cathedral town of Chartres not far from Paris. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in the past have sometimes hesitated to assign the crusading enthusiasm of 1212 ? which surfaced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both France and Germany ? a single, definitive point of origin, Dickson settles on France, specifically the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartrain, beginning in the spring of that year. The Chartrain, he argues, borrowing a concept from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American revivalism, was a ?burned-over district?, one that had been ?repeatedly inflamed? over a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of crusading activity \(p. 42\). The year 1212 was one of particular intensity due to the recruitment for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian Crusade during the previous years \(which Dickson calls the ?impetus? for the Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade\) and the immediate crisis occasioned by Almohad aggression in Spain \(the ?stimulus? for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade\). Dickson sees Pope Innocent III?s effort to rally the faithful against the threat posed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almohads as playing a key role in the genesis of the Children?s Crusade. As the Christian warriors of Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared for battle against the Muslims, the pope called for preaching, prayer, and liturgical processions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout Christendom to support their effort. This call for a processional ambulation was heeded in May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1212 at Chartres, which Dickson sees as the time and place of the Children?s Crusade?s ?birthpangs?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing in particular upon the chronicle from the Cistercian monastery of Mortemer, he argues that a group )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.6677 343.7095 110.6597 355.5895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.6037 315.1975 423.5957 327.0775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7943 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of participants in the liturgical activities at Chartres decided to preserve the ecstatic mood of the moment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to move on to bigger and better things. Dickson describes the initial Children?s Crusaders as ?ardent post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartres enthusiasts? \(p. 57\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who were these enthusiasts, what did they want, and where did they proceed from there? In the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three chapters Dickson identifies some of the key players in the early stages of the Children?s Crusade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracks it from France to Germany and then from Germany to its hazy conclusion in Italy. Drawing upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th-century chronicles of John Le Long and the Laon Anonymous, and also Max Weber?s notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?charismatic? leadership, he identifies ?Stephen of Cloyes?, a young shepherd, as the probable leader of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group whose initial pilgrimage from Chartres was directed not to Jerusalem, but rather to Saint Denis with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hope of meeting the French king, Philip Augustus \(according to the Laon Anonymous, Christ, meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen in the guise of a pilgrim, had given him letters to deliver the monarch\). Ultimately, following this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report, the king commanded the ?boys? to return to their homes. Other contemporary accounts, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply that the )] TJ ET BT 103.688 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri)] TJ ET BT 129.020 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( began to turn toward greater goals, a veritable ?pilgrimage? in search of God. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade, a mass revivalist meeting on the move, would not be so easily stopped. Drawing upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document from the French royal archives, Dickson finds the next appearance of the ambulatory youth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement near Saint-Quentin, 140 miles northeast of Saint Denis. Here, a dispute broke out between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(townspeople who, Dickson argues, agreeing with Gaston de Janssens ?unverifiable? but ?plausible? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis \(p. 79\), supported the passing throngs of children, and the local clergy who greeted them with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.352 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.352 526.467 m 99.344 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The episode at Saint-Quentin, in turn, provides a ?tantalizing ambiguous road sign? \(p. 82\), pointing from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France toward Germany, where the next chapter of the Children?s Crusade unfolded. Breaking from some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous scholars, Dickson sees a clear, sequential relationship between the French and German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of crusading enthusiasm in 1212, perceived by contemporary chroniclers as part of ?a single, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unitary phenomenon?, even if hard ?direct evidence? for such a connection is lacking \(83-4\). In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary German chronicles, he finds signs that the aspirations of the Children?s Crusaders had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to evolve: ?Long before historians and mythistorians imagined them,? he writes, ?the )] TJ ET BT 496.292 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined themselves? \(p. 89\). An increasingly heterogeneous group of youths, peasants, lowly urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laborers, and other humble elements, the crusade-enthusiasts had become the ?poor of Christ?, pilgrims with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the goal of liberating Jerusalem and recovering the relic of True Cross, seized by Saladin at the battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hattin in 1187. Under the leadership of a new charismatic figure, Nicholas of Cologne, the Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade moved onward into Italy, first stopping at Genoa, and later other cities including Rome. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened to the Children Crusaders when they not surprisingly failed to find transport to the Holy Land? As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they entered this stage of their journey, Dickson argues, they again assumed a new identity, this time as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants rather than crusaders or pilgrims. Based on the limited evidence, it seems clear that the )] TJ ET BT 511.280 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled down in various cities around Italy, some no doubt remaining poor, others finding new fortunes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Particularly in its transalpine phase,? Dickson concludes, ?the Children? Crusade was an urban migration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the geographically most impressive, large-scale urban migrations in medieval history? \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So much for the ?history? of the Children?s Crusade. In chapter seven, ?Mythistory: The Shape of a Story?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson returns to the basic problem posed at the beginning of his book, how ?mythistory? reshapes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recasts historical events in ways that give them universal applicability, moral clarity, and, simply put, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic punch. One of his most keen insights lies at the heart of this chapter: the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mythistoricizing? of the Children?s Crusade was already underway in the mid 13th century works of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontains, the English chronicler Matthew Paris, and the Dominican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopedist Vincent of Beauvais. Drawing upon earlier chronicles, oral reports, and apparently their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginations, this next generation of ?authorities? on the Children?s Crusade embellished it with many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the marvelous characteristics that still inform the popular memory of that event. Invoking the Holy Innocents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed by Herod, the crusade-enthusiasts of 1212 became younger and younger. A good story needs villains. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alberic introduced ?Hugo Ferreus? and ?William Porcus?, wicked merchants of Marseille and servants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Devil, who promised to transport the children to the holy places, but instead sold them into slavery under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Muslims. In his )] TJ ET BT 129.692 73.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speculum historiale, )] TJ ET BT 231.356 73.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent of Beavais claimed that the infamous ?Old Man of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mountain?, the leader of the feared Assassins, lay behind the whole affair, intended as a ruse to gather fresh )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.3517 526.7815 99.3437 538.6615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves for incorporation in his nefarious profession. In the hands of such writers, the Children?s Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved from ?history? into ?myhistory,? serving as a miraculous example of innocent self-sacrifice or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautionary tale against foolish ignorance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final two chapters, Dickson moves selectively across the centuries, from early modern histories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades, such as Thomas Fuller?s )] TJ ET BT 202.652 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historie of the Holy Warre,)] TJ ET BT 355.976 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the 18th-century works of Voltaire, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first professional crusade histories of Michaud and Friedrich Wilken. He locates the mythistory of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade in popular histories, including George Zabriskie Gray?s influential )] TJ ET BT 454.292 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chrildren?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusade )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.684 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.684 683.283 m 91.676 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, children?s literature, historical novels, plays, musical performances, and fiction, including not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just the work of Agatha Christie, but also Kurt Vonnegut?s anti-war novel )] TJ ET BT 392.972 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slaughterhouse Five or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 134.024 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even in its most fantastical formulations, however, the mythistory of the Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade never became outright myth. No matter how it was configured and reconfigured, Dickson reminds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us, the Children?s Crusade as mythistory assumed such meaning and durability because of its claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical status. ?So if the memorability of the )] TJ ET BT 262.340 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri)] TJ ET BT 287.672 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was to a certain extent independent of its historicity,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he concludes, ?its perceived historicity was crucial to its survival? \(p. 195\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two points about this original, thoughtful piece of scholarship need particular consideration. First, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain moments when Dickson?s desire to situate the popular enthusiasm of the Children?s Crusade within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader trajectory of institutionalized crusading piety raises questions. For example, he claims that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Crusade was the primary source of inspiration for Innocent III?s decision to mobilize all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful to take the cross during the preparatory stages of the Fifth Crusade, well aware that most of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would commute their vows into a cash payment. ?This fundamental shift in papal recruitment policy?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes, ?bore the imprint of the )] TJ ET BT 185.660 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pueri)] TJ ET BT 210.992 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 114\). This might have been the case, but surely the fate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourth Crusaders, whose chronic lack of funds and debt to the Venetians led them to attack the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities of Zara and Constantinople, was also on Innocent?s mind when he tapped into popular enthusiasm for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crusades, a source of critically needed revenues?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, as might already be clear from the discussion above, in order to reconstruct the origins and course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Children?s Crusade, the ?hard history,? if you will, Dickson is forced to make some tenuous, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculative connections based on limited evidence. For all of his appreciation for the power of mythistory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson is an historian who still wants to recover, if not the ?truth?, than at least an ?authentic? sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened and what it meant to contemporaries. In order to link the origin of the Children?s Crusade to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liturgical procession at Chartres, and the youthful group from Chartres to the young pilgrims at Saint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denis, and the pilgrims from Saint Denise to the disturbance at Saint-Quentin and so forth into Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy, he often has recourse to phrases such as ?highly likely?, ?there can be little doubt?, and ?most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably?. At points, he explicitly notes that he is inferring connections where the evidence is suggestive but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not conclusive. This express recognition of his own creativity and limitations as an historian, however, fits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the very point that Dickson makes about the nature of history as opposed to mythistory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mythistorians,? he notes at one point, ?are invariably certain? \(p. 111\). Dickson does not claim certainty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather, offers a plausible, well-considered interpretation of the medieval sources without trying to paper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over or obscure the thin patches in his narrative. A convincing historian )] TJ ET BT 380.960 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 393.296 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythistory, a mythistorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson is not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful for such a thorough and conscientious reading. Prof. Whalen's two concluding points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are well taken and perfectly justified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickson cites William H. McNeill, )] TJ ET BT 235.004 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mythistory and Other Essays)] TJ ET BT 374.660 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 1986\); and Hayden White, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The historical text as literary artifact?, in )] TJ ET BT 267.968 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History and Narrative Reader)] TJ ET BT 433.292 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Geoffrey Roberts )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York and London, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.984 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.984 82.803 m 269.972 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Alphandry and Alphonse Dupront, )] TJ ET BT 263.324 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La chrtient et l?ide de croisade)] TJ ET BT 429.632 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Paris, 1954, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1959\), pp. 339?72. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.340 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.340 54.291 m 211.328 54.291 l S endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6837 683.5975 91.6757 695.4775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.9837 83.1175 269.9717 94.9975 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3397 54.6055 211.3277 66.4855 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 2427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Raedts, ?The Children?s Crusade of 1212?, )] TJ ET BT 302.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 439.292 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1977\), 297?323.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaston de Janssens, ?tienne de Cloyes et les croisades d?enfants au xiii sicle?, )] TJ ET BT 454.940 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin de la socit )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dunoise)] TJ ET BT 101.348 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 90 \(1891\), 109?33. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.668 752.307 m 252.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Zabriskie Gray, )] TJ ET BT 180.644 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s Crusade: A History)] TJ ET BT 351.980 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1870; New York, 1972\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.624 738.051 m 530.612 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.3.powell.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 346.364 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.364 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/785)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3763)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.3.powell.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 118.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.6677 752.6215 252.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.6237 738.3655 530.6117 750.2455 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 346.3637 695.4775 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v095/95.3.powell.html) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/785) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005355 00000 n 0000005464 00000 n 0000005574 00000 n 0000005683 00000 n 0000009244 00000 n 0000009372 00000 n 0000009456 00000 n 0000009485 00000 n 0000009613 00000 n 0000009649 00000 n 0000009740 00000 n 0000017774 00000 n 0000017804 00000 n 0000017931 00000 n 0000017967 00000 n 0000017997 00000 n 0000018125 00000 n 0000018161 00000 n 0000018245 00000 n 0000026241 00000 n 0000026271 00000 n 0000026397 00000 n 0000026433 00000 n 0000026531 00000 n 0000034539 00000 n 0000034569 00000 n 0000034695 00000 n 0000034731 00000 n 0000034857 00000 n 0000034912 00000 n 0000035038 00000 n 0000035093 00000 n 0000035205 00000 n 0000037685 00000 n 0000037812 00000 n 0000037867 00000 n 0000037995 00000 n 0000038050 00000 n 0000038178 00000 n 0000038233 00000 n 0000038360 00000 n 0000038474 00000 n 0000038602 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38697 %%EOF