%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 48 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 16 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828191319+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828191319+01'00') /Title (The Cosmopolitan Interior: Liberalism and the British Home 1870-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4346 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cosmopolitan Interior: Liberalism and the British Home 1870-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction to her long-awaited and extremely interesting study of the popular literature of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior decoration, Judith Neiswander prepares her readers ? and perhaps to a certain extent herself ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their predicted negative reactions to the dcor of the late 19th-century middle class home. Neiswander senses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an intractable resistance to the late Victorian room, or at least its image received from faded photographs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawings, as well as the unforthcoming black and white illustrations in the decorating books themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the late Victorian domestic interior was consciously artistic, studiedly tasteful and ostensibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reformed? from the heavily upholstered, buttoned, overstuffed and veneered furnishings of its mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian predecessors, to the modern viewer, the English home of the 1870s and 1880s can nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear chaotic with its array of fussy ?art furniture? and antiques; its muted, often muddy colour schemes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and curtains, cushions, carpets and wallpapers with rich, dense patterns, which continued to proliferate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although disciplined, flattened and reduced in scale compared to those of the 1850s and 1860s, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless very 'Victorian' in covering all surfaces with decoration. Doors and windows also received much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative attention, while walls were divided \(into three separate areas\), covered \(in contrasting papers\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often crowded \(with framed engravings, portraits and paintings, hung from a picture rail\). Most striking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of these interiors, however, was the sheer elaboration of ?things?. Although aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforming artists? and architects? pleas for restraint and simplicity, ?things? varying from objects of quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(786)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith A. Neiswander)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300124903)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press for The Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynne Walker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9336 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to aptly placed bric-a-brac were displayed, arranged and mixed in the late Victorian home with unbridled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delight, if measured profusion, from the ubiquitous Japanese fan and peacock feathers on overburdened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mantelpieces to ceramic collections ?artfully? disposed on china shelves, in niches of cabinets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overmantels, or carefully positioned on spindly ebonised occasional tables. In spite of the revival of interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and appreciation of Victorian design, which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s and took off in the 1970s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was shared by contemporary home decorators and collectors as well as scholars and curators )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.232 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.232 723.795 m 495.224 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 495.224 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something about these interiors, Neiswander observes, that ?still arouses a faint unease? \(p.6\), and for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations born and bred in the anti-ornamentalism of 20th-century modernism, they can be especially hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going. Even interiors of this period designed by William Morris?s firm, Morris & Co., which are normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered to have countered Victorian excess, often participated in this same preoccupation with rich over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all decoration, detail and pattern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is Neiswander's intention, and the book's structuring principle, to explain these interiors ? both the 'real' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imaginary spaces depicted in decorating manuals of the 1870s and 1880s ? as representations of 'cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism' \(p. 7\) which informed the educated middle classes and underpinned and animated the production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and meaning of the late Victorian home. While as early as 1977 Mark Girouard combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and architectural history in his study of the period, )] TJ ET BT 310.316 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sweetness and Light: The Queen Anne Movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1860?1900 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 554.979 m 105.008 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Neiswander, an art historian, takes her work in a related but more extended interdisciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction, not only to frame and enrich her interpretation by drawing on intellectual and cultural historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Stefan Collini and Peter Mandler, but to distinguish her assessment of the positive impact of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism on the home from social and economic historians, such as David Wayne Thomas,whose views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal ideology and culture are antithetical to Neiswander's, and John Benson , who considers, not without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason, the teeming and diverse ornaments in the Victorian home as products of the new consumer society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with domestic display in the service of social aspiration and advancement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.296 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.296 469.443 m 404.288 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.288 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Recent research covering much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same territory as Neiswander can be found in Deborah Cohen?s astute )] TJ ET BT 391.928 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Household Gods: The British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Their Possessions, 2006)] TJ ET BT 150.356 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.352 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.352 441.105 m 171.344 441.105 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 171.344 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Neiswander is much more interested in finding the ?the spirit behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian interior?\(p. 7\), to discern what those involved understood they were doing and what their actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(meant to them. How the titular 'cosmopolitan interior' became an emblem of the liberal world view is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pursued by Neiswander with an originality of which John Stuart Mill would have approved. She argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a cluster of liberal concepts ? individuality, cosmopolitanism, scientific rationalism, the progressive role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the elite and the empowerment of women ? were embodied in both the extensive literature of home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decoration and in the decoration and arrangement of the late Victorian home. These ideas, which get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(extensive treatment in Neiswander's book, were invariably articulated and promoted by all writers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decoration books regardless of their actual political loyalties \(c.1870?90\).)] TJ ET BT 395.672 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decorating the home was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conceived as a serious, high-minded activity, and the ideas provided by the literature had implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the home's form and gave meaning to decorating itself, which was perceived to benefit the home's occupants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and society at large. Unlike successive generations of architectural and design historians since the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who have insisted upon the importance of the ideas of Pugin, Ruskin and Morris, which directly addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the relationship of art and society, Neiswander cites the more abstract, philosophical writing, moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(authority and personal and artistic connections of John Stuart Mill as having had the greatest impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ideas behind the middle class late Victorian home. Although this reviewer is sufficiently entrenched not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(agree readily with the sidelining of these key figures \(elsewhere in the book the importance of their)] TJ ET BT 509.972 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(designs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is acknowledged\), this claim does seem a distinct possibility in terms of numbers of complete interiors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(transformed. The vast literature of decoration books was generally cheap, and editions, even relatively more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(expensive ones, were often reprinted, while throughout the period, there was unflagging coverage in popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magazines and in the art press, which featured interiors, their decoration and inhabitants. Undoubtedly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(middle class householders who controlled their own decoration far outnumbered private clients of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decorating firms or professional architects and designers, who were always more costly and proportionately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fewer. However, Neiswander's reading of Mill's '"area of non-interference"' from)] TJ ET BT 424.676 114.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Principles of Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy )] TJ ET BT 81.668 100.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1847\) as 'a metaphor for the home' \(p. 39\) seems to strain unnecessarily to locate Mill in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(domestic space. But the book does show that the late Victorian home was perceived and developed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(place where its inhabitants could experience personal fulfilment away from the pressures of conformity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social anxiety, which troubled Mill. A more convincing connection between Mill's thought, the literature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 43.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(domestic decoration and the late Victorian home is derived from 'On Individuality, As One of the Elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 28.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Wellbeing', Chapter III of)] TJ ET BT 170.240 28.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Liberty)] TJ ET BT 222.572 28.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(1859\). Here the development of freedom and choice were portrayed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 17 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.2317 724.1095 495.2237 735.9895 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 555.2935 105.0077 567.1735 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.2957 469.7575 404.2877 481.6375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3517 441.2455 171.3437 453.1255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 9467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as necessary for individual fulfilment and, more generally, for the sustained progress of society and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(improvement of humanity. Amongst the progressive middle classes, individuality became in practice the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lived experience of 'personal expression, originality, and cultivation' \(p.185\) which was played out in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(material culture of the late Victorian home, through the worthy, but nonetheless enjoyable, selection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(arrangement and decoration of their domestic surroundings, as Neiswander demonstrates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neiswander's chapter on the empowerment of women is in many ways the most important for current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(debates about the nature of the home and most comfortably situated within the long liberal tradition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Informed by liberal ideas about equality and personal freedom most importantly from Mill's)] TJ ET BT 476.576 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Subjection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Women)] TJ ET BT 82.340 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(1869\), the literature on decoration represented and helped constitute a new understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(women, their nature, capacity and scope. Successful women authors of books on decoration, such as Agnes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Rhoda Garrett, Mary Eliza Haweis and Jane Ellen Panton)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.668 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.668 640.689 m 350.660 640.689 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.660 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, demonstrated in their practice as writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and 'lady decorators' based in the home, that women could form professional but respectable new identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fostered in the home which took them into public space and facilitated paid employment and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(independence. Thus, the strict distinctions of public and private spheres, challenged by Amanda Vickery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(again do not accommodate the interactive relationship of the Victorian home, women's experience and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wider world. Lees-Maffei, Ferry, Crawford and Cohen have taken up the analysis of key women authors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decorators, most often those associated with the 'At Home' series, published by Macmillan in the 1870s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1880s)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.684 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.684 540.897 m 76.676 540.897 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 76.676 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, which Neiswander identified over two decades ago in her University of London thesis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(develops for a broader audience in)] TJ ET BT 202.328 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cosmopolitan Interior)] TJ ET BT 331.004 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. Neiswander's material is implicitly related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(current academic debates about the home as a site of production and consumption, but it is left to Lees-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maffei to suggest that the 19th-century home did not shift from production to consumption as has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(envisaged since Alice Clark's path breaking study. In fact, Neiswander's material provides good evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(taking up Lees-Maffei's project of rethinking the Victorian home)] TJ ET BT 346.232 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as a site of production)] TJ ET BT 453.572 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 471.572 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(especially as they intersect with gender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How far the prescriptive material of advice books should be, or was, taken into account in practice remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(somewhat open. Although Neiswander works around it skilfully, archival sources related to women writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of advice books and 'lady decorators' are scanty. However, the thorny issue of readers' responses has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(been investigated in diaries, letters or memoirs, nor have the correspondence columns of women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magazines been thoroughly mined. The vital issue of the audience for the advice books presented here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(highly contested by other research, although none has the depth or scope of Neiswander in the literature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(domestic decoration. Cohen has proposed that the domestic advice books were primarily addressed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(male readership with decisions on house decoration mutually agreed, but the final word went to men; while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in her consideration of the Garretts')] TJ ET BT 207.584 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suggestions for House Decoration)] TJ ET BT 373.244 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,the literary theorist, Emma Ferry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(has argued imaginatively that although ostensibly written for male readers, the feminist Garretts subverted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the genre to offer a critique of male taste and power. For Neiswander, there is an ascending arc from male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to female in the 19th century, from early male dominance of home decoration before 1870 through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(increasing female autonomy \(c.1870?99\) to a dominant position, even to male exclusion, around 1900, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(which Hermann Muthesius recorded)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.660 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.660 243.777 m 223.652 243.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.652 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, and the advice book writer, Jane Ellen Panton, enthusiastically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(portrayed. Indeed, the balance of power within the middle-class Victorian home can arguably be traced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(through the gender of the person in charge of its decoration to whom the literature of home decoration was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(addressed. The feminised late Victorian home, familiar from Penny Sparke's account in A)] TJ ET BT 464.552 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s Long as It's Pink: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sexual Politics of Taste)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.020 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.020 186.753 m 182.012 186.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.012 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 188.012 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brought new opportunities for women's autonomy and control which became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a large factor in the 'flight from domesticity', which developed as a preferred option for some late Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(men, as John Tosh has shown in)] TJ ET BT 189.020 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man's Place)] TJ ET BT 258.908 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.908 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.908 158.241 m 275.900 158.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.900 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Like gender, class is equally contested in current critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and historical writing. Until Jane Panton wrote for lower middle-class readers in 1887)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.032 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.032 143.985 m 473.024 143.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.024 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Neiswander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(portrays intended readers as affluent and upper-middle class, in contrast to Ferry who interprets the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Garretts' readers of 'modest means' in the 1870s as lower-middle-class, and Cohen prefers the less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(economically specific, but perhaps more accurate 'enlightened middle classes'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, the modern English home \(c.1870?1900\) was ideally both foreign and preferably old. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English antiques were considered better made, as well as a better investment, than new furniture, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(flood of imported goods that became available in the wake of Liberal free trade, were, as Neiswander deftly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 33.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shows, feverishly admired and ardently incorporated into English homes, but little understood by either the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6677 640.8295 350.6597 652.7095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.6837 541.0375 76.6757 552.9175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.6597 243.9175 223.6517 255.7975 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.0197 186.8935 182.0117 198.7735 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.9077 158.3815 275.8997 170.2615 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.0317 144.1255 473.0237 156.0055 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 8655 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(authors of the decoration manuals or those who avidly included them in their eclectic decorative schemes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Much excellent information can be garnered about the enthusiasm for foreign goods for domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decoration, as well as warnings of the detrimental consequences of the rush for foreign goods that affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not only their quality but distorted their distant producers? ideas about its worth and their own)] TJ ET BT 491.720 753.701 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 494.720 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Neiswander, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(however, is not tempted to pursue explicitly and fully the connections between material culture and empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as they swirled through the Victorian home and its decoration, in spite of the links between liberalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(empire, proposed by Uday Singh Mehta in)] TJ ET BT 237.656 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism and Empire: A Study of Nineteenth-Century British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Thought )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.364 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.364 695.457 m 135.356 695.457 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.356 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.This neglect is sadly normative in studies about design history, and, as Berringer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flynn point out, ironic 'since the circulation of goods and the increase of trade was a primary underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(motivation for imperial expansion'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.252 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.252 666.945 m 223.244 666.945 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.244 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Although passing mention is made of women's craft classes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(study in the collections at the Victoria & Albert Museum \(then South Kensington Museum\), not developed is)] TJ ET BT 552.980 653.909 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(t)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he cross-fertilization of the late Victorian home and the V&A, which in Berringer's phrase 'enshrined ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian imperialism')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.256 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.256 624.177 m 162.248 624.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.248 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( in terms of the acquisition, display and enthusiasm for 'objects from 'exotic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(countries where Britain had colonial or proto-colonial interests.)] TJ ET BT 347.024 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This is perhaps surprising in the light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Neiswander's own background working in museums and her insightful characterisation of the careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(selection and display of objects by late Victorian householders as 'domestic curatorship' \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The weight of evidence in the book falls on the 1870s and 1880s with the 1890s portrayed as a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(transition in which the literature on decoration took up different, competing positions representing contested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ideas and values, such as egalitarianism and the elite, simplicity and luxury, and rural and urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(allegiances, which split the progressive consensus about the idea of the home and its appearance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Significantly in Neiswander's evaluation, the literature on decoration and the ideas it promoted in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(years before the First World War provided a disagreeable contrast to those fostered by the liberal 'spirit'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The home was refashioned as '"a nation in miniature"' \(chapter 6\), which was part of a search for national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(identity as well as its symbol, asserting 'Englishness' and the traditional English way of life in a backward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(looking safe haven. Emerging from the 19th century, a cultural 'shift in national consciousness' \(p. 148\) had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(occurred, strongly registered in the home, which responded to the cumulative effects of social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(change, including the heightened consciousness of class divisions, and the growth of Socialism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(power of labour, and the increasing the sense of decline in industrial and commercial power. Neiswander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perhaps overdraws her conclusion that later writers on interiors 'redefined nationalism into something more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aggressively symbolic, more coercive, and more embedded in theories of race than the earlier authors had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imagined' \(epilogue, p. 179\), since 'theories of race', or indeed 'race' itself are not defined, and late 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(century 'nationalism' is not characterised in the text. By 1900, however, qualities of the liberal 1870s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1880s, such as individuality and self-expression, were considered not only manifestations of materialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vulgarity and unbecoming spectacle but were thought to be indicative of a larger cultural crisis, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(weakening of national character and identity. For the home, the solutions proposed by a range of mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(male authors, designers and architects such as Shaw Sparrow, Selwyn Image and Reginald Blomfield \(not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the female writers of the 1870s and 1880s\) included the banishment of foreign influences and a return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English-made furnishings and fittings for the home in native styles ? Elizabethan, Georgian, Arts and Crafts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(? to promote national identity and thus revitalise the country by nurturing the reticent English temperament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in culturally appropriate surroundings, unsullied by cheap, badly designed furniture from Germany, or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abhorrent still, the decadent contortions of French Art Nouveau. In the end what Neiswander's book offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(architectural and design history is the beginning of a new perspective on the English home c.1900, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(does not the duck the heavily freighted issues of 'nationalism' and nationalistic sentiment in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(another yet another version of the rural idyll. Although at times overdrawn and over-generalised, as a case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(study of material culture tied to the big ideas of the 19th and early 20th centuries,)] TJ ET BT 427.340 157.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cosmopolitan Interior)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is a far more historical study than most architectural and design historians have previously dared to write.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.051 Td /F4 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interiors and more broadly the domestic and the everyday have recently moved to the top of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(scholarly agenda in design history and related disciplines with, for example, key research, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conferences and publications produced by the Modern Interiors Research Centre at Kingston )] TJ ET BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(University and the AHRB Centre for the Study of the Domestic Interior which was based at the Royal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 20.405 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(College of Art in collaboration with the Victoria and Albert Museum and the Bedford Centre for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3637 695.5975 135.3557 707.4775 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.2517 667.0855 223.2437 678.9655 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.2557 624.3175 162.2477 636.1975 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 8823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Women at Royal Holloway College, London.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.344 795.249 m 383.660 795.249 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mark Girouard,)] TJ ET BT 141.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sweetness and Light: The Queen Anne Movement 1860?1900)] TJ ET BT 436.304 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1977\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.292 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.292 780.993 m 553.616 780.993 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.737 m 78.008 766.737 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(David Wayne Thomas,)] TJ ET BT 173.000 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultivating Victorians: Liberal Culture and the Aesthetic)] TJ ET BT 447.680 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and John Benson,)] TJ ET BT 149.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of Consumer Society in Britain, 1880?1980)] TJ ET BT 403.004 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.668 738.225 m 536.984 738.225 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Girouard, op. cit.; Nikolaus Pevsner, ?Art Furniture?,)] TJ ET BT 325.676 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Art, Architecture and Design)] TJ ET BT 515.000 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY, 1968\), v. 2, 118?31; and Elizabeth Aslin,)] TJ ET BT 335.024 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Aesthetic Movement)] TJ ET BT 452.996 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.660 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.660 709.713 m 560.648 709.713 l S BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.457 m 90.344 695.457 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agnes and Rhoda Garrett,)] TJ ET BT 190.676 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suggestions for House Decoration in Painting Woodwork and Furniture)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1876\). Panton and especially Haweis were very prolific, see for example Mary Eliza )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Haweis,)] TJ ET BT 103.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Decoration)] TJ ET BT 209.348 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1881\); and Jane Ellen Panton,)] TJ ET BT 406.664 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homes of Taste)] TJ ET BT 481.328 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1890\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 638.433 m 148.328 638.433 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grace Lees-Maffei ?Editorial and introduction?, Special Issue,)] TJ ET BT 368.000 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Design Advice, Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Design History)] TJ ET BT 137.012 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, 16, 1, 2003; Emma Ferry [on A. & R. Garrett] in ibid, 15?33; Elizabeth Crawford,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enterprising Women: The Garretts and Their Circle)] TJ ET BT 315.344 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\); and Cohen, op. cit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.336 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.336 595.665 m 544.652 595.665 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cited by Neiswander, H. Muthesius,)] TJ ET BT 237.680 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English House )] TJ ET BT 332.012 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1904\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.004 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.004 581.409 m 420.320 581.409 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penny Sparke, A)] TJ ET BT 143.660 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s Long as It's Pink: The Sexual Politics of Taste)] TJ ET BT 373.232 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London and San Francisco, CA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 552.897 m 148.328 552.897 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Tosh,)] TJ ET BT 116.684 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man's Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 492.560 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London and New Haven, CT, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.016 524.385 m 291.332 524.385 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jane Ellen Panton,)] TJ ET BT 155.672 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Kitchen to Garrett)] TJ ET BT 274.004 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1887\). 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