%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150723034057+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150723034057+01'00') /Title (Reading Gladstone) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4345 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reading Gladstone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The line of modern British Prime Ministers is remarkable for the numerous authors included in its number. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Grey wrote a volume on the causes of the French Revolution. Disraeli produced a shelf of novels. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour contributed volumes of philosophy. Churchill put his indelible mark on the writing of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international and British history. Ruth Clayton Windscheffel invites us to move our attention away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician as author to the politician as reader in her impressive and well-grounded study of William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone. Hers is a novel approach to her protagonist, but one that she demonstrates from numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary comments interested observers at the time. Windscheffel herself has devoted several years? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study to the Gladstone materials housed in St. Deiniol?s Library and further extensive research in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript repositories. Her elegantly written volume will no doubt primarily interest a niche audience who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has already read most of the major works on Gladstone, but she does introduce the reader to a private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone whom even authors concerned with his intellectual and authorial life have not previously explored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone to be sure was no mean author. Volume after controversial volume flowed from his pen on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homeric topics, constituting the largest body of 19th-century English prose on the subject. He also wrote in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great depth on matters of church and state. His political pamphlets, such as )] TJ ET BT 396.296 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vatican Decrees and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bearing on Civil )] TJ ET BT 117.020 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allegiance \(l874\) and )] TJ ET BT 224.660 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East)] TJ ET BT 455.000 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1876\) were literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as political events. If collected, his journal articles would fill several stout volumes. He engaged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(787)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Windscheffel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230007659)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Turner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6662 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major figures of contemporary science, such as T. H. Huxley, in his rejection of scientific naturalism. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote autobiographical fragments and edited Bishop Joseph Butler. His sheer authorial energy is nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than astounding. What he, as well as other Victorian authors, might have accomplished with computer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word processing one can hardly imagine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bebbington more than any other historian has led us through the world of Gladstone the author and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious thinker. Windscheffel picks up the stick from the other end to look at Gladstone as the reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer, collector, and arranger of books and other printed materials and the founder of St. Deiniol?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library. Her approach is a refreshing one as much for the light she throws on the world of the wealthy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically engaged Victorian working his way through the burgeoning print culture of the day as for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific details she provides of Gladstone?s bibliophilic adventures. Impressively Windscheffel resists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating oddities in Gladstone?s reading and collecting and chooses rather to follow him in a very empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion as he confronted the world of books as a very young man and then made them his own and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually sought to open that world to others across the boundaries of gender and class. On the whole, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very attractive portrait though sadly except for the firm of Bernard Quaritch virtually all of the dealers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops Gladstone frequently have passed from the scene. Their passing, which has occurred across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic world, represents a real loss to the culture and the loss of one \(though admittedly only one\) path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the encounter with the printed word.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is well for the current generation to be reminded of a world of engagement with and dispersal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed word that existed before radio, television, video games, ipods, and iphones ? a world to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ironically the Kindle may be returning us. This world that we have lost at least temporarily was the world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the easily portable book that fitted into one?s pocket or purse and that could be carried on journeys to fill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise idle moments. Here the first image of Gladstone is the young man reading in the midst of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family and then purchasing books for them, vigorously reading beyond the demands of his Eton instructors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the approval of his Eton contemporaries, and then of the young Oxford student and post-graduate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traveling about both Britain and the Continent filling almost every otherwise vacant moment by reading a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Gladstone?s bibliographic activity at this period of his life and ever after is that of the compulsive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader and energetic collector working his way through vast amounts of material in several major European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. What sets him apart is how omnivorous was his taste and the subjects that engaged him. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the never-fully-abandoned evangelical moral hesitancy of pursuing the utter enjoyment of reading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting when other callings of moral duty beckoned. In this respect, earnestness, not unsurprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked Gladstone?s collecting and reading endeavor. Books were to be read for instruction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement. If read aloud to his family or household, they were to edify.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s career covered more major areas of political endeavor than any other minister of the day. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could \(and did\) make himself at home on issues of colonial administration, taxation, finance, land reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical disestablishment, and the details of local administration involved in Irish home rule so as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow himself to dominate the parliamentary debate called forth by such issues. In each and every case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone would master the complexities of the subject and inevitably their history by working his way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a vast pile of books. Gladstone more than most public figures of his own day or later informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself on the issues of the day from reading rather than from listening \(he was never a great listener\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being briefed. Reading was his path to the mastery of his world as well as the exploration of his soul. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commendable as such activity may be and as much as one might wish later leaders had similarly determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to inform themselves through reading, it did in a sense isolate him in the world of his reader response and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that he tended not to engage in active colloquy with others. To be sure, he was a member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metaphysical Society but such membership involving listening and modest debate rather than reading, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processing internally, and then announcing his fully formed opinion was the exception in his long career.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7215 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly there were other great Victorian readers. Indeed one only need think of any of the great Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals. For example, one can stand in awe of the reading that fills Darwin?s footnotes in )] TJ ET BT 488.612 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 509.612 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Descent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Man)] TJ ET BT 68.348 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( alone. Any of the major classicists such as Bishop Connop Thirlwall or George Grote read deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even profoundly in the ancient sources. The list could go on. But it is difficult to think of any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary who read so extensively in so many different subjects as Gladstone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as already noted, his own personal reading constituted only part of Gladstone?s engagement with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed word. He collected books ? many thousands of them. As Windscheffel presents Gladstone, he proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be an eclectic, even nervous, collector. He visited book dealers and book stalls and carefully read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogues. He was not a self-conscious connoisseur though Bernard Quaritch believed him to be more of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that he would admit. Both as a private reader-collector and as a public person Gladstone was profoundly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of the vast explosion of printed materials and the concomitant responsibility of libraries to prepare for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever-expanding collections. In his own personal libraries organized in his various places of residence he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would organize and re-organize his holdings, make catalogues, seek appropriate bindings, take care in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseeing the construction of books shelves, and deaccession books from time to time, most notably many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his historical collection in the mid l870s when he imagined he was retiring from public life. He personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indexed and annotated his books with his own private code, not an unusual Victorian activity. Eventually his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection came to reside at Hawarden, partly in his personal library denoted by his family as the Temple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peace as well as in other parts of the home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much is known about the physical arrangements of Gladstone?s Temple of Peace at Hawarden Castle, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappily not of the exact contents or arrangements of his books themselves because of their eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removal to St. Deiniol?s Library where other later family book collections were added to them. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects the Temple of Peace was a gentleman?s library, but it was also very much a working library where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books were encased for scholarly and political use rather than as decoration around the walls. Gladstone also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw his library as a local resource and allowed family members, servants, and local people to borrow books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the borrowing registers still in existence. Windscheffel also emphasizes that Gladstone allowed women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as men to borrow books. What Gladstone?s vision of the use and eventual life after his life of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library demonstrates is the remarkable Victorian faith in self-improvement through reading. The conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the personally transforming power of the act of reading lay behind much of the concept of the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-made man or woman. The ideal was possible because of the enormous power that literate Victorians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the social strata ascribed to the act of reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s engagement with books however much rooted in his public and political life was deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and even introspective. His works on Homer appeared to have convinced almost no one but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted in part from stubbornness and in part because he created his own private work of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference and understanding. His books repeatedly seem as Arnold says of Oxford the home of lost causes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the volumes on church and state, those on Homer, or his volumes of Bishop Butler. The book was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private affair for Gladstone just as the pamphlet was a vast eruption of public spirit. His reading served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inform him but it also served to confirm him in lifelong held convictions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone?s voluminous record of publication often stood rooted in his response to the books of the day that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he read. He wrote like many Victorians for money. The journals and quarterlies paid him well. But his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewing represented another manifestation of his reading and of his reaction to books read. He had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(championed the repeal of taxes on knowledge. Throughout his life Gladstone?s reading took him to libraries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Britain and Europe. He also gave books to libraries he admired. Through all these activities he sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to expand the access of ordinary British citizens to the world of print culture. Reading would improve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens, improve public life, and improve the civilization of the day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the interesting features of Gladstone?s reading is that he appears to have often revisited work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published and first read many decades earlier. In this respect Gladstone did not simply devour books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consign them to their proper shelf, and then move on to the next. His private collection of books was a work-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-progress as he constructed it, but also a work-in-progress as he consulted, understood, and then later )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5386 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reacquainted himself and rethought particular authors. Here may be one of the important distinctions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be recognized between the learned Victorian reader \(and Gladstone was nothing if not learned\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern academic reader. Gladstone?s library composed a universe of personal intellectual and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientation. Just as in the therapeutic age of the 20th and 21st centuries people revisit their early life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollections, memories and relationships to reframe their feelings and thoughts, a reader such as Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rethought and reframed his earlier life by re-reading book and rethinking their contents. Such was in his case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially true of the classics, history, theology, and religiously informed philosophy such as Bishop Butler.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone could famously change his mind and be led to such changes by reading as much as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity, but more than many Victorian readers with whom this reviewer is familiar Gladstone would return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to authors whom he respected and in whose works he discerned political, historical, religious, and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom. Ever the man who had rejected the Anglican priesthood in favor of a public career but still wanting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to combine each, Gladstone used his reading and his arranging of books as a process to hold those two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocations struggling within him together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In exploring Gladstone as a reader attempting to pursue the life of actively promulgating morality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel moves her analysis into the fraught world of her protagonist?s efforts to rescue fallen women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She writes of ?the eroticization of Gladstone?s reading? \(p. 121\) as he pursued this treacherous pastime. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cases, he gave women Bibles or prayer books or other works he regarded as morally improving. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also read to them from Shakespeare, Longfellow, and Tennyson and presumably other contemporary poets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well. He also became fascinated with Tennyson?s )] TJ ET BT 288.956 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guinevere)] TJ ET BT 338.936 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reading and re-reading the poem. Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears not to have collected pornography, but he was known to read books then regarded as pornographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in bookshops. He also read classical authors whose works were sexually explicit, such as Petronius. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel sees a parallel between Gladstone?s collection of books and fallen women: ?His ?collection? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women was undertaken in similar ways to his collection of books ? he sought them out and established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct and regular patters for the activity. In his own mind, the pursuits shared moral and epistemological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions: the revelation, discovery, and the learning of truths, the provision of opportunities to act upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, and the medium by which to transmit them to others.? \(p. 128\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel?s volume is particularly informative about the founding of St. Deiniol?s Library and carries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story well beyond Gladstone?s simple concern about the fate of his book collection. Toward the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his long life Gladstone had become concerned with this, hence his founding and endowment of St. Deiniol?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library. To that institution, happily still functioning to the benefit of Victorian scholars, he transferred over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30,000 volumes as well as substantial endowment later supplemented by public and family gifts. To give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some comparative idea of the size of such a personal library, it is well to recall that when the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress purchased the library of Thomas Jefferson early in the century, the collection consisted of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately 6,400 volumes. Gladstone over the years had sold or given away many thousands of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books. The possession of so extensive and varied a library cannot be ascribed to any other British Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel convincingly connects the founding of St. Deiniol?s founding to Gladstone?s evolving concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anxiety over the fate and future of the Church of England. At the same time she makes clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone never spelled out his goal as explicitly on might have been expected or desired. From at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l860s onward Gladstone stood deeply troubled with the inroads upon the culture of scientific naturalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agnosticism. Temperamentally he was religiously conservative, but intellectually and theologically he came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to believe that the Church of England must accommodate itself to modern thought through the championing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of late-century Anglo-Catholic liberalism manifested in the )] TJ ET BT 321.644 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lux Mundi)] TJ ET BT 373.976 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1889\) group. In particularly he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn to Charles Gore and Edward Talbot. These late-century Anglo-Catholics were a different breed than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tractarians to whom Gladstone had been briefly attracted as a young man but between whom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself he placed a firm distance during the early l840s. The )] TJ ET BT 328.628 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lux Mundi)] TJ ET BT 380.960 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( group emphasized Catholicism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and the Incarnation rather than the clericalism and denominational exclusiveness of the Tractarians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone agreed with Gore and Talbot that religious truth had evolved and was evolving over time and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could find good in other non-Anglican Christians. Gladstone read approvingly not only the eclectic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays of )] TJ ET BT 80.672 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lux Mundi )] TJ ET BT 136.004 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also other works by those authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone appears to have founded St. Deiniol?s, which was originally very modest tin structure housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of his books, as an outpost for liberal Anglo-Catholicism ? a bastion that might in an undefined manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combat the advancing skepticism of the day he found embodied in Mrs. Humphrey Ward?s Robert Elsmere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That fictional young clergyman had lost faith by reading in the library of a skeptical squire. St. Deiniol?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would provide its patrons with another kind of library and reading experience. The very founding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library emphasizes the importance that Gladstone attached to the experience of reading itself. For a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone had imagined that St. Deiniol?s might include a religious community such as Gore?s Community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Resurrection, but after much consultation he rejected ?the idea of St. Deiniol?s as a counter-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious community? \(p. 183\) Instead it would serve daily readers and eventually short-term residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers. Gladstone also founded St. Deiniol?s in the conviction that the eventual disestablishment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of Wales would require its clergy to have new supportive institutions of learned resources. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 20th century the Library assumed the role as a center for modern learned Anglican dialogue across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum of that communion demonstrated in Gladstone?s centennial year by lectures of the controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Bishop John Selby Spong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The religious communions originally represented in St. Deiniol?s as drawn from Gladstone?s own personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library reflected the religious spectrum of Gladstonian liberalism itself. The shelves included works by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicans, Nonconformists, and Roman Catholics as well as studies of Judaism. Such was a far cry from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford denominational rancor of Gladstone?s youth when Churchmen denounced both Dissent and Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism. From the standpoint of Gladstone?s evolving religious and theological convictions, it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite likely that the lived experience of high Victorian politics may have affected his reading tastes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habits as much as the reverse, a dynamic to which Windscheffel might had given more attention. Gladstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at mid-century remained a firm Anglican resistant to Dissenters and Roman Catholics. By l875 he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged political alliances and friendships with major Nonconformist clergy. He would to be sure remain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocal critic and opponent of papal pretensions and Roman Catholic clericalism, but he sacrificed his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career for the cause of Irish Home Rule and displayed unprecedented public sympathy for Irish Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics. Moreover, despite his efforts to hold back the forces of scientific naturalism Gladstone?s library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained works by naturalistic anthropologists and other advanced scientific works. Gladstone stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to combat opinions he disapproved, but not to prevent his fellow citizens from reading those works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians and other scholars of Victorian culture are privileged to be able to benefit from Ruth Clayton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windscheffel?s exploration of Gladstone?s reading and the world that he created through that reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Windscheffel would like to thank Professor Turner for his very generous review of her book. She has no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantive comment to make other than to record her gratitude for the additional insights and suggestions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Turner has offered, undergirded as they are by his prodigious knowledge of both Gladstone and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cultural world of the nineteenth century that he inhabited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1926 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse 1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 154.700 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse 2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.307 m 154.700 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/518/200.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 313.004 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 720.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 702.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 702.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/787)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 701.289 m 322.316 701.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3766)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/libraries_and_culture/v045/45.3.straw.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 618.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/victorian_studies/v051/51.3.partridge.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/518/200.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 154.6997 793.0135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/libraries_and_culture/v045/45.3.straw.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 752.6215 154.6997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/victorian_studies/v051/51.3.partridge.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 313.0037 735.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/518/200.full) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 701.6035 322.3157 713.4835 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/787) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000005341 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000009114 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000015894 00000 n 0000015959 00000 n 0000023227 00000 n 0000023292 00000 n 0000028731 00000 n 0000028796 00000 n 0000036289 00000 n 0000036394 00000 n 0000038373 00000 n 0000038500 00000 n 0000038654 00000 n 0000038781 00000 n 0000038935 00000 n 0000039062 00000 n 0000039170 00000 n 0000039298 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39393 %%EOF