%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 40 0 R 45 0 R 65 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141121060337+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141121060337+00'00') /Title (A History of Attitudes and Behaviours toward Animals in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Britain. Anthropocentrism and the Emergence of Animals) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4436 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of Attitudes and Behaviours toward Animals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Britain. Anthropocentrism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the Emergence of Animals)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title and sub-title of this work promised much, suggesting ? to this reader at least ? that we would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented with a monograph that could help take forward the growing international and inter-disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on the animal ? human historical relationship. The study of non-human animals within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities and social sciences has developed dramatically in recent decades. In the 1970s and 1980s, Keith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas?s )] TJ ET BT 85.676 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man and the Natural World)] TJ ET BT 219.680 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Brian Harrison?s study of animals and the state in 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and F. M. L.Thompson?s professorial inaugural lecture on Victorian England as a horse-drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society notably helped establish non-human animals as a subject worthy of incorporation within existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of historical enquiry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.668 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.668 143.625 m 182.660 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.660 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This incorporation of animals within existing discourses was similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies adopted for new historical work in other fields, most notably feminist history. Sheila )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowbotham?s ground breaking )] TJ ET BT 187.664 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hidden from History. 300 years of women?s oppression and the struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(against it)] TJ ET BT 79.028 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helped establish women as subjects of historical enquiry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.328 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.328 100.857 m 369.320 100.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.320 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, it also moved forward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall content and approach of historical research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In similar vein there has been much recent work starting to explore different ways in which animal histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rob Boddice)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780773449039)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(382pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Mellen Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lampeter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilda Kean)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.6677 143.9395 182.6597 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.3277 101.1715 369.3197 113.0515 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9191 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be constructed. In her important 2002 essay ?A left-handed blow: writing the history of animals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erica Fudge drew on ideas of Walter Benjamin to suggest a ?different organizing structure? of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in relation to non-human animals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.008 766.563 m 248.000 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Unsurprisingly, such an approach not only recognised that to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question an anthropocentric view of the world would challenge the status of the human but that different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials and historiographical approaches would be needed to think in new ways about the animal-human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. Certainly much innovative work has emanated from an inter-disciplinary approach as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified, for instance, by the work of the Animal Studies Group such as )] TJ ET BT 399.632 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Killing Animals)] TJ ET BT 475.316 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the AHRC-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded British Animal Studies Network series of seminar discussions embracing researchers from many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields including geography, science, anthropology, art, literature, history, media, and philosophy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.292 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.292 681.027 m 513.284 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.284 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary vein journals such as )] TJ ET BT 214.988 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society and Animals)] TJ ET BT 312.980 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 318.980 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anthrozoos)] TJ ET BT 373.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or a new journal from Palgrave on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals and ethics have developed the field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.308 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.308 652.515 m 260.300 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.300 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Recent books such as the six-volume series )] TJ ET BT 474.272 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Animals)] TJ ET BT 124.688 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the Reaktion series on individual animals, under the general editorship of Jonathan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burt, have been attempts to present in different ways imaginative and innovative approaches to the animal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human relationship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.344 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.344 609.747 m 143.336 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.336 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Accordingly, irrespective of the particular emphasis in Boddice?s monograph, I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipating a work that drew on recent scholarship and attempted to take forward debate in interesting ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, I was to be rather disappointed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boddice declares of his )] TJ ET BT 149.324 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(own)] TJ ET BT 169.328 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( work that ?the book provides the most complete account of human-animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations in this period of British history yet produced? \(p. 24\). The author thus does not see his work as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisional, or part of an ongoing process of developing knowledge in the field. In his keenness to promote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ?originality? Boddice often omits discussion of books that cover similar aspects of his own subject, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Christine Kenyon-Jones? discussion of bull baiting in parliament or boldly declares that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?no comprehensive history of vegetarianism? \(p. 24\) overlooking James Gregory?s innovative study of 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century vegetarianism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.324 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.324 469.443 m 157.316 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.316 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clearly, there are always books that could be read or avenues followed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices need to be made but when a writer declares his own work to be definitive he does rather set himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to be challenged! As Boddice makes explicit, he sees much of the recent work in animal studies as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invalid. Those who have been influenced, for example, by Richard Ryder?s seminal work on ?speciesism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are summarily dismissed: ?the concept, to all but a few convinced apostles, is scarcely credible? \(p. 341\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiographically, far from being forward-looking this is a conservative book. Boddice states in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction that his ?own view on animal ethics will remain strictly off the table [sic], except where I feel I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can identify methodological weaknesses in contemporary thinking, with regard to its approach to history? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). The idea that animals should be made the subject of historical thinking is rejected as ?anachronistic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that the history of ?human-animal relations ? is a window onto the history of human thought? \(p. 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly, there is no attempt to look for new materials to explore the animal-human relationship. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boddice discusses Brian Harrison?s 1970s article on the RSPCA as a vehicle for ?re-mining the evidence? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 159\). The definite article is important here. The materials used by Boddice here are similar to those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison: minute books of the RSPCA and so forth, conventional archival material. Accordingly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is one that takes materials as a given. Nor is it the case that new questions are necessarily posed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather Boddice believes that his role is to challenge the ?deployment of erroneous historical evidence? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13\). Employing the language of detection, ?evidence? suggests that the historian?s role is secondary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Carolyn Steedman has argued, in archives ?there isn?t in fact very much there? ? what matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is how an historian uses material to imagine the past.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.996 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.996 200.835 m 301.988 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.988 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Boddice?s approach, however, suggests that there )] TJ ET BT 546.932 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a consensus amongst historians about the appropriate materials for the writing of history. However, much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the field has tried to go beyond conventional material. Many of those working in the animal-human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies field have grappled with approaches from different academic disciplines and the value ? or not ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation and the visual. However, such concerns have little place here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boddice constructs himself as a de-bunker of ?myths and inventions? that he characterises as ?bad history? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 350\). Yet, in somewhat contradictory vein, he concerns himself not only with the campaign to eradicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bull-baiting, in which the RSPCA played a prominent part, but suggests that ?the elimination of the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only consigned it to memory. It is interesting to see how bull baiting figured in the minds of those who could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember it? \(p. 216\). Despite a passing and de-contextualised reference to the work of Raphael Samuel, an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.0077 766.8775 247.9997 778.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.2917 681.3415 513.2837 693.2215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3077 652.8295 260.2997 664.7095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3437 610.0615 143.3357 621.9415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.3237 469.7575 157.3157 481.6375 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.9957 201.1495 301.9877 213.0295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7967 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian who concerned himself with the way in which the past was remembered and re-configured as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history or heritage, Boddice does not explore this potentially different way of approaching his subject \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having defined his work as the most complete account yet Boddice is then obliged to see the work of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers in very stark and critical ways, often comparing them, unfavourably, to his own analysis. The effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such a methodology that tends not to look for nuances of approach might be illustrated by discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Wright?s painting, )] TJ ET BT 162.008 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Experiment on the Bird in the Air Pump)] TJ ET BT 374.660 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1768\). Its striking lighting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzling narrative has attracted many writers keen to explore the different possible readings of the image. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his discussion of Wright?s painting, Stephen Daniels, for example, makes much of the role of the bird )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling in the pump from which air is being excluded, saying, ?the bird lies apparently lifeless, a horror-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck girl shielding her eyes from the spectacle of death?. In her recent excellent study )] TJ ET BT 455.912 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picturing Animals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain c. 1750?1850)] TJ ET BT 136.352 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Diana Donald starts her book with an extensive analysis of the same painting since, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she says, it ?encapsulates many of the ambivalences and contradictions in human attitudes towards other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(species? with which her book is concerned. In doing so she acknowledges that the behaviour of the woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the girls, looking away from the bird itself, ?is not open to a single, unproblematic reading? while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that the ?girls perform the work of sorrow and pity on behalf of the whole human race?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting, she declares, leaves the spectator with a moral dilemma. In my own analysis of the same painting I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too emphasised multiple readings suggesting that simultaneously the viewer was presented with different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings of the cockatoo as an ?exotic object of spectacle, valued pet, subject of scientific research?. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the painting was both a narrative of experimentation and contemporary attitudes towards it but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also about the role of sight in this process. I have referred here to three different analyses of this Wright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting to indicate both the attractions it continues to have for historians but also to note the multiple and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced readings that the image has attracted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.960 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.960 469.443 m 268.952 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.952 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For Boddice, however, analysis is much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward. ?The life of the bird is inconsequential. Kean gets it wrong when she highlights the explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the choice of whether to acknowledge cruelty or to turn away ? The consequences for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals seem rather secondary? \(pp.101?2\). A similarly didactic thrust permeates the text as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Boddice acknowledges that ?there is a significant gap between the history of ideas and the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of practical applications and implications of those ideas? \(p. 8\) he nevertheless devotes the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book to ?de-bunking myths? around the history of ideas \(p. 350\). He places much emphasis on unpacking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical texts and criticising the way in which a plethora of scholars have analysed them. Boddice has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen to adopt an approach in which historical or philosophical interpretations and readings of other writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are either ?right? or ?wrong?. Thus important writers such as Keith Thomas, Peter Singer, Gaverick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metheny, E. S. Turner, Mary Midgeley, James Serpell, Tom Regan and Matt Cartmill are duly castigated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not quoting a passage in full from Bentham \(p. 126\). However, Boralevi earns some praise since, ?To be fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Boralevi, she has read more than the significant quotation in question \(something I often doubt of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship in this field\)? \(p.127\). This emphasis on scrutinising philosophical texts, however, tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradict Boddice?s own claim that ?charting the history of philosophy tells us nothing about the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful ideas were mitigated in practice, nor about the social, political and cultural factors brought to bear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on them? \(p. 8\). Moreover, given that he argues that change did happen in the 18th and 19th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different definitions of cruelty towards animals did develop Boddice might have devoted more time in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first part of the book to explorations that went beyond analyses of philosophers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several historians have argued that the sight of ?farm? animals on the streets of London, then the largest city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the world, was an impetus for Martin?s Act of 1824 that gave limited protection under the law. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time it became punishable by fines and imprisonment to wantonly and cruelly ?beat, abuse or ill-treat? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain animals. In due course campaigns to close down Smithfield market as a live cattle market gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground. Much of this )] TJ ET BT 138.344 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 157.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( based on the impact on human feelings, as a patron of the Animal Friends? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society explained,? The increasing instances of cruelty in our streets have now risen to such a height that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is impossible to go any distance from home without encountering something to wound our feelings?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this campaign was not only about injured human feelings. Indeed the same Animal Friends? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society patron also writes about a ?poor? donkey whose rider was ?beating it with as stick as large as my )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.9597 469.7575 268.9517 481.6375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arm most violently on the side?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.012 795.075 m 208.004 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sight both of real animals and their representations, I have argued, helped change people?s attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards treatment of animals. While Boddice acknowledges this as a focus for discussion he concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?an aesthetic sensibility gave rhetorical form to a moral sensibility. The substance of the latter has to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critically assessed in the light of the former? \(p. 43\). Much emphasis, however, was placed by campaigners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the value of experience and of witnessing, drawing on religious rhetoric. As Reverend Haweis speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the RPSCA annual general meeting of 1875 argued, ?Every one of is bound to open his eyes and see what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on in our London Parks ? amongst these poor dumb creatures ? and put our eyes in the place of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes when we make large demands upon them for our pleasure of defence ??.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.896 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.896 669.027 m 425.888 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.888 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The act of seeing, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Burt has persuasively argued, not only gave an impetus to animal welfare reform but was a forward-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking project, creating animal welfare ? and the formation of the modern animal ? as part of modernity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 540.248 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 540.248 640.515 m 560.240 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of sight was recognised by campaigners against vivisection in particular who drew on )] TJ ET BT 526.928 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery such as the paintings of Landseer to juxtapose images of dissected dogs. Boddice argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Power Cobbe?s campaign to make public what was behind close doors failed ?precisely because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public?s experience with vivisection was at best an experience of the second order only. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument about demoralisation was far less persuasive without the ocular evidence that it was taking place? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.350\). This statement seems to contradict, however, some of his earlier comments that devalue the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of experience and sight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A theme of the second part of the book is the notion that campaigns against cruelty to animals were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about human concerns. Although non-human animals are prominent in the book?s title and chapter headings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such animals seem to play a minor part in the book. Thus, despite evidence to the contrary, Hogarth?s series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Four Stages of Cruelty)] TJ ET BT 161.348 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the reader is told, was not primarily about cruelty to animals but humans. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently, in this instance, cruelty to humans ?which principally activated Hogarth? \(p 15\). Hogarth himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared, ?The prints were engraved with the hope of, in some degree, correcting the barbarous treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals. The very sight of which renders the streets of our metropolis so distressing to very feeling mind. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have had this effect and checked the progress of cruelty, I am more proud of having been the author, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than I should be of having painted Raphael?s Cartoons.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.976 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.976 400.419 m 324.968 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.968 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, Boddice chooses simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the impact of cruelty on the human mind arguing that the maltreatment of animals was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vilified for its own sake \(p. 99\). Richard Ryder, the prominent author and campaigner, and a frequent target )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Boddice, also recognised that Hogarth was seeking to prevent the cruel treatment of animals. Ryder, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is castigated for having apparently missed ?the emphasis? in suggesting otherwise \(p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea that many campaigns that protected animals were also about human concerns is not new. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, for example, have argued that parliamentary discussions against bull baiting were within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of regulating human behaviour. McMullan has also shown that the law which prohibited dogs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pulling carts in London did not benefit the dogs since most were killed by their owners as they were too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive to be kept as pets.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.660 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.660 260.115 m 190.652 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.652 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While many of the changes in definition of cruelty and treatment of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human animals )] TJ ET BT 110.012 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 133.340 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( related to human concerns, it is too sweeping to imply that campaigners were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the position of animals as such. In a 1829 publication of the SPCA, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of sheep driven to market or pigs whipped to death, dogs being vivisected, cats thrown into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tower of London ditch to starve or drown in heavy rains )] TJ ET BT 309.632 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 325.628 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( all seen as cruel practices towards animals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While a more benign treatment of animals is seen as a mark of growing civilization it is also the case that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the SPCA argues, humans ?owe them protection?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.652 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.652 174.579 m 294.644 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.644 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, Boddice has little truck with the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century individuals or particular organisations actually seeing )] TJ ET BT 385.964 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(animals)] TJ ET BT 423.968 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a focus for concern and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better treatment. Thus in his criticism of modern philosophers and campaigners he castigates Stephen Clark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who refers to the ?iniquity of nineteenth-century practice in vivisection? for looking at such vivisection from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?presentist point of view? \(p.12\). This ignores the strength of opposition to vivisection that did exist in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and which was particularly critical of the use of dogs in experiments. Some campaigners suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that experiments on animals would lead ? and indeed had already led in some instances ? to experimentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on vulnerable humans and also argued, ? Will the man who has learnt to hear without pity the moan of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortured dog or the cry of a cat in anguish care very much for the pains of our little ones?? But dogs )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.0117 795.3895 208.0037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.8957 669.3415 425.8877 681.2215 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 540.2477 640.8295 560.2397 652.7095 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.9757 400.7335 324.9677 412.6135 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.6597 260.4295 190.6517 272.3095 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6517 174.8935 294.6437 186.7735 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 10753 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, who formed a living part of the Victorian household as well as a symbolic role of fidelity, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as sentient beings that should not be dissected by scientists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.664 780.819 m 363.656 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writing of animal-human history is topical and Boddice has undertaken extensive archival work. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain to be convinced, however, that this work significantly adds to ? or challenges imaginatively ? current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking and research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 661.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man and the Natural World)] TJ ET BT 272.348 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1983\); Brian Harrison, ?Animals and the state in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 208.316 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review,)] TJ ET BT 337.316 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 88 \(1973\), pp. 786?820; F. M. L. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian England: the Horse-Drawn Society)] TJ ET BT 281.996 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bedford College, University of London, 1970\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.636 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.636 632.019 m 555.632 632.019 l S BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 617.763 m 78.008 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheila Rowbotham, )] TJ ET BT 161.684 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hidden From History. 300 years of Women?s Oppression and the Struggle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Against It)] TJ ET BT 111.020 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.344 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.344 589.251 m 246.332 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erica Fudge, ?A left-handed blow: writing the history of animals?, in )] TJ ET BT 398.972 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representing Animals)] TJ ET BT 504.632 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Nigel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rothfels \(Bloomington, IN, 2002\) p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.684 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.684 560.739 m 305.672 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Animal Studies Group, )] TJ ET BT 199.676 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Killing Animals)] TJ ET BT 275.360 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Champaign, IL, 2006\); <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.116 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.116 546.483 m 456.104 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 532.227 m 124.772 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Animals)] TJ ET BT 208.700 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Linda Kalof and Brigitte Resl \(6 vols, Oxford, 2007\); <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.440 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.440 517.971 m 552.428 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Kenyon-Jones, )] TJ ET BT 185.672 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindred Brutes. Animals in Romantic Period Writing)] TJ ET BT 441.344 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Farnham, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Gregory, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Of Victorians and Vegetarians: The Vegetarian Movement in Nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 98.024 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.348 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.348 475.203 m 233.336 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolyn Steedman, )] TJ ET BT 159.008 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dust)] TJ ET BT 181.676 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Manchester, 2001\), pp.66?88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.976 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.976 460.947 m 388.964 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Daniels, )] TJ ET BT 148.340 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fields of Visions. Landscape Imagery and National Identity in England and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United States)] TJ ET BT 128.348 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1993\), p.53; Diana Donald, )] TJ ET BT 340.988 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picturing Animals in Britain c.1750?1850)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2007\), pp. 3?26; Hilda Kean, )] TJ ET BT 294.968 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Animal Rights. Political and Social Change in Britain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Since 1800)] TJ ET BT 117.008 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London,1998\), pp.15?17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.660 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.660 403.923 m 299.648 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Letters from Frances Maria Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 255.980 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of Humanity)] TJ ET BT 366.968 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as quoted in Kean, )] TJ ET BT 465.284 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Animal Rights)] TJ ET BT 533.624 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.016 375.411 m 148.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RSPCA, )] TJ ET BT 108.032 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(RSPCA Annual Report )] TJ ET BT 220.364 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as quoted in Hilda Kean, ?The Moment of Greyfriars Bobby: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Changing Cultural Position of Animals, 1800?1920, in )] TJ ET BT 329.696 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cultural History of Animals: In the Age of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 99.344 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Kathleen Kete \(Oxford, 2007\), p. 29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.296 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.296 332.643 m 360.284 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Burt, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Animals in Film)] TJ ET BT 214.352 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. 35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.676 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.676 318.387 m 385.664 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bowyer Nichols, )] TJ ET BT 174.008 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anecdotes of William Hogarth)] TJ ET BT 320.336 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as quoted in Diana Donald, ?Beastly sights? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treatment of animals as a moral theme in representations of London, c.1820?1850?, )] TJ ET BT 489.272 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art History)] TJ ET BT 543.608 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22, 4 \(November 1999\), p. 526.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.660 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.660 275.619 m 275.648 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kean, )] TJ ET BT 95.336 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Animal Rights)] TJ ET BT 163.676 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.32; Kenyon-Jones, )] TJ ET BT 271.664 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindred Brutes)] TJ ET BT 345.332 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.79?108; M. B. McMullan,?The day the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogs died in London?, )] TJ ET BT 174.344 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The London Journal)] TJ ET BT 272.348 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23, 1 \(1998\), pp. 32?40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.668 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.668 247.107 m 453.656 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Gompertz, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Objects and Address of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1829\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 218.595 m 202.328 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kean)] TJ ET BT 89.336 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Animal Rights)] TJ ET BT 163.676 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.676 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.676 204.339 m 259.664 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 160.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 142.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 142.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/789)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 141.321 m 322.316 141.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 116.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3768)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 67 0 obj [65 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.6637 781.1335 363.6557 793.0135 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.6357 632.3335 555.6317 644.2135 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 618.0775 78.0077 629.9575 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.3437 589.5655 246.3317 601.4455 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.6837 561.0535 305.6717 572.9335 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 402.1157 546.7975 456.1037 558.6775 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.7837 532.5415 124.7717 544.4215 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.4397 518.2855 552.4277 530.1655 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3477 475.5175 233.3357 487.3975 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.9757 461.2615 388.9637 473.1415 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.6597 404.2375 299.6477 416.1175 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.0157 375.7255 148.0037 387.6055 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.2957 332.9575 360.2837 344.8375 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 50 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6757 318.7015 385.6637 330.5815 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 53 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6597 275.9335 275.6477 287.8135 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 56 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6677 247.4215 453.6557 259.3015 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 59 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 218.9095 202.3277 230.7895 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 62 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.6757 204.6535 259.6637 216.5335 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 67 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 141.6355 322.3157 153.5155 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/789) >> endobj xref 0 106 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000000751 00000 n 0000005239 00000 n 0000005348 00000 n 0000005458 00000 n 0000005567 00000 n 0000009128 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000009340 00000 n 0000009369 00000 n 0000009497 00000 n 0000009533 00000 n 0000009562 00000 n 0000009690 00000 n 0000009726 00000 n 0000009845 00000 n 0000019089 00000 n 0000019119 00000 n 0000019247 00000 n 0000019283 00000 n 0000019313 00000 n 0000019441 00000 n 0000019477 00000 n 0000019507 00000 n 0000019635 00000 n 0000019671 00000 n 0000019701 00000 n 0000019829 00000 n 0000019865 00000 n 0000019895 00000 n 0000020023 00000 n 0000020059 00000 n 0000020089 00000 n 0000020217 00000 n 0000020253 00000 n 0000020337 00000 n 0000028357 00000 n 0000028387 00000 n 0000028515 00000 n 0000028551 00000 n 0000028670 00000 n 0000037643 00000 n 0000037673 00000 n 0000037801 00000 n 0000037837 00000 n 0000037867 00000 n 0000037995 00000 n 0000038031 00000 n 0000038061 00000 n 0000038189 00000 n 0000038225 00000 n 0000038255 00000 n 0000038383 00000 n 0000038419 00000 n 0000038449 00000 n 0000038577 00000 n 0000038613 00000 n 0000038643 00000 n 0000038771 00000 n 0000038807 00000 n 0000039020 00000 n 0000049827 00000 n 0000049857 00000 n 0000049985 00000 n 0000050021 00000 n 0000050149 00000 n 0000050204 00000 n 0000050330 00000 n 0000050385 00000 n 0000050513 00000 n 0000050568 00000 n 0000050696 00000 n 0000050751 00000 n 0000050879 00000 n 0000050934 00000 n 0000051061 00000 n 0000051116 00000 n 0000051244 00000 n 0000051299 00000 n 0000051427 00000 n 0000051482 00000 n 0000051610 00000 n 0000051665 00000 n 0000051793 00000 n 0000051848 00000 n 0000051975 00000 n 0000052030 00000 n 0000052158 00000 n 0000052213 00000 n 0000052341 00000 n 0000052396 00000 n 0000052524 00000 n 0000052579 00000 n 0000052707 00000 n 0000052762 00000 n 0000052892 00000 n 0000052948 00000 n 0000053078 00000 n 0000053134 00000 n 0000053264 00000 n trailer << /Size 106 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 53360 %%EOF