%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831201240+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831201240+01'00') /Title (The Chan's Great Continent: China in Western Minds) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4563 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Chan's Great Continent: China in Western Minds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Spence is described on the dust-cover of this book as 'perhaps now the leading historian of China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the English-speaking world'. Without doubt he is the most imaginative and the most versatile scholar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in that field. )] TJ ET BT 138.344 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gate of Heavenly Peace)] TJ ET BT 275.636 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1981, was a history of modern China as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen through the lives of Chinese writers and intellectuals. )] TJ ET BT 317.312 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God's Chinese Son)] TJ ET BT 407.876 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which appeared three years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, told - in the dramatic present tense - a 'story as strange as any to be found in Chinese history,' the life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion. Now Spence has turned his talents to another field, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has written a survey of Western views of China from William of Rubruck, the first Westerner to cross Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provide a reliable source of information on China, to Jean Levi, whose )] TJ ET BT 396.284 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chinese Emperor)] TJ ET BT 501.608 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France in 1985, was an account of the life of Qin Shi Huangdi, the First Emperor, and at the same time an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegory of the excesses of the country's rulers throughout history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chan's Great Continent)] TJ ET BT 169.592 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an eminently readable book, which wears its scholarship lightly. It had its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins in a series of seminars and then a programme of lectures which the author gave to students and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public at Yale University in 1996, and this ensures that it is accessible to a wide audience. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in an engaging style and illustrated with vivid extracts from the texts, some of which are amusing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others touching. He quotes Goldsmith's mock encomium of himself, written in the style of a Chinese man of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters. He recounts the plot of Jack London's 'The Chinago' and includes the section of the story where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(79)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Spence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393027471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(279pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.wwnorton.com/books/detail.aspx?ID=6658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John A. G. Roberts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8045 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hero Ah Cho is condemned to twenty years' penal servitude, and later guillotined, through the operation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal system he did not understand, and for a crime he did not commit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A valuable feature of the book is that it provides an excellent summary of recent studies of the outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors to early views of China, such as Leibniz and Montesquieu, and of modern contributors to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic, such as Ezra Pound, Andre Malraux and Bertold Brecht. Some of these writers have been discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously by P.J. Marshall and Glyndwr Williams in )] TJ ET BT 294.008 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Map of Mankind: British Perceptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World in the Age of the Enlightenmen )] TJ ET BT 218.336 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and by Colin Mackerras in )] TJ ET BT 355.316 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Images of China)] TJ ET BT 476.972 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Spence includes a number of American and French writers whose work is less familiar in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of the book is a discussion of 48 writers whose reflections on China are distilled into twelve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes. Their texts are described as 'sightings' - a term which Spence acknowledges is ambiguous, for it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply a fleeting or intermittent encounter, a range-finding process, or even an obsolete gaming term for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheating at dice. Nowhere does he give a convincing justification for his choice of writers, which includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some idiosyncratic choices and some notable omissions. The chapter on the Enlightenment makes no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of Denis Diderot, whose lead article in the )] TJ ET BT 282.644 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedie)] TJ ET BT 347.288 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, PHILOSOPHIE DES CHINOIS, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced a powerful critique of Chinese religion and philosophy. The nineteenth century - surely a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in the formation of Western attitudes is poorly served. A strong candidate for inclusion in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context would be George Wingrove Cooke, )] TJ ET BT 246.308 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 295.976 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( first Special Correspondent to China, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reportage of the )] TJ ET BT 112.988 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arrow)] TJ ET BT 143.660 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( War and of the personality of Ye Mingchen, the Governor-General of Guangdong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Guangxi, whom he accompanied in exile to India, provided the most immediate and authoritative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of events in China yet to appear in the Western media. The chapter on Women Observers \(of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more later\) stopped at 1900, and made no mention of key figures such as Agnes Smedley and Anna Louise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strong, whose contributions to modifying American views of Chinese Communism were comparable with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Edgar Snow, whose )] TJ ET BT 166.664 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Red Star Over China)] TJ ET BT 267.656 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is discussed at length.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A notable feature of the book is Professor Spence's unwillingness to incorporate a theoretical dimension into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his discussion. The names Said and Foucault go unmentioned, nor is there any attempt to deconstruct the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. In the chapter entitled 'The Realist Voyages', Spence notes that 'George Anson personified the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertive side of an expansionist Great Britain', and related that to Anson's \(or perhaps his secretary's\) sour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments on the reception he was given at Canton, ut that is as far as he allows his theorising to go. Anson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticisms of China have been seen as the beginning of a major shift in Western views of China. The various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons which have been put forward to explain this change of attitude were reviewed in Marshall and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams, )] TJ ET BT 84.020 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Map of Mankind)] TJ ET BT 216.008 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Spence does not extend this analysis. The absence of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical underpinning may be justified by assumptions relating to the anticipated readership of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or it may derive from what Spence has defined as his purpose: 'to give a sense to the multiplicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and emotional attitudes that Westerners have brought to their attempts to deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of China.' This statement may imply that Western responses to China are so varied that no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general explanation, for example Foucault's power/knowledge theory, can be made to fit. That may be true, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the failure to consider the case suggests that this book is intended more to stimulate discussion than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further the study of a complex issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Professor Spence refers to the 'multiplicity of intellectual and emotional attitudes' to be considered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the range of attitudes surveyed in the book is quite narrow, for example little attention is paid to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of Western perceptions of China's cultural achievement in the arts. There is, in the section on Ezra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pound, mention of his admiration for the Tang poet Li Bo. This admiration was a modern phenomenon. J.F. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis, in a pioneer work on Chinese poetry published in 1834, commented that Chinese literature had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given 'an indifferent reception in the West.' A similar revolution in perception can be traced in the response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to other literary forms and in particular to the Chinese novel, to Chinese ornament, and perhaps most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Chinese painting. In 1858 a note referring to a forthcoming exhibition of Chinese art to be held in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked that 'everything about China seems to be quaint and strange and madly comical.' Half a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, when Herbert A. Giles published)] TJ ET BT 219.644 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art)] TJ ET BT 485.984 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this was the first attempt, in any European language, to deal with the subject. Nowadays the esteem in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Chinese art is held is confirmed by the prices important works achieve at auction and the prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place Chinese art and artifacts occupy in leading museums and art galleries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This narrowness of approach is also evident in the omission of reference to the wide range of less intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimuli which have derived from China and impinged on European minds. William of Rubruck is quoted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese use of the pulse in diagnosis, but that is the only reference to Chinese medicine, which in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century was denigrated, but which now holds a place of honour in the list of alternate therapies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most conspicuously in the form of acupuncture. It has been suggested persuasively that the most-frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprinted translation of any Chinese work is the )] TJ ET BT 265.316 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yijing)] TJ ET BT 293.996 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 309.992 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Changes. )] TJ ET BT 397.988 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leibniz's consideration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is noted, but its modern use for divination, in the belief that it is a distillation of oriental wisdom, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored. Likewise the current Western preoccupation with )] TJ ET BT 316.616 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fengshui)] TJ ET BT 357.284 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the spirits of wind and water, the art of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geomancy, goes unmentioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early in the book Professor Spence comments that it is 'an assumption of mine that the impact of China need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have little to do with the literalness or precision of an actual experience'. This assumption allows him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include in his range of writers a majority who had never visited China. It is certainly true that perceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another culture expressed from a distance may be influential. Jean-Baptiste Du Halde compiled his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Description de l'Empire de la Chine )] TJ ET BT 210.572 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Jesuit reports sent to Europe. His work was to be a prime source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference for Voltaire and Dr Johnson, and was to be found in Lord Macartney's library. Professor Spence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses in detail Andre Malraux's novel)] TJ ET BT 233.816 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Man's Fate )] TJ ET BT 294.044 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was set in Shanghai and Hankou, and dealt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail with the revolutionary struggle which took place there in 1927. Malraux most probably never went to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China, although he had spent time in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, according to Spence, he was the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer to bring these revolutionary stirrings to the attention of a large, popular readership. However, it must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be allowed that in modern times the most consistent and influential presentations of China have come from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who have had direct experience of the country. In the nineteenth century 'Old China Hands', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westerners who had spent years on the China coast and in particular who had learned some Chinese - people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by George Wingrove Cooke as the 'twenty-years-in-the-country-and -speak-the-language-men' - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who claimed superior knowledge of the character of the Chinese. This century has seen the rise of the China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert, either a Sinologist, or a China-watcher. It is their views which, at least at a certain level, are attended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to and are formative of Western perceptions of China. Works of imagination do indeed tell us something of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what China means to Western minds, but in the modern world, with improved communication and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of sources of information, imagination may collide with fact, or what is taken for fact. The issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evaluation of the source, a practice central to the historian's craft, is only partially considered in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. This is a complex issue, which includes not only the personality, experience and intentions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer - matters which are discussed in the book - but also the deliberate or accidental manipulation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion of the writer, a theme discussed by Paul Hollander, )] TJ ET BT 321.980 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Pilgrims: Travels of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intellectuals to the Soviet Union, China and Cuba)] TJ ET BT 274.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1981.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A welcome inclusion in the list of themes explored by Spence is that of 'Women Observers'. As suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, the choice of writers discussed might be questioned, but the value of examining Western women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views cannot be gainsaid. This task was tackled in greater detail by Elisabeth Croll in )] TJ ET BT 447.296 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wise Daughters from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Lands: European Women Writers in China)] TJ ET BT 282.008 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1989. Both Croll and Spence discuss the observations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sarah Pike Conger, the wife of the American Minister in Beijing at the time of the Boxer Uprising. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summaries illustrate how widely interpretations of this type of material may differ. They agree that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular interest of women's writings on China is their concern with the domestic scene. However Spence's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main point, derived from a letter written by Conger in 1899, is her bewailing the 'system' which prevents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese from going to the assistance of another. Spence compares her reflection with Montesquieu's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pessimistic view of Chinese society. Croll, however, concentrates on Conger's life after the siege of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beijing legations, noting how she gained access to Chinese households and learned some thing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic life of Chinese women and of the respect paid to the elderly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chan's Great Continent)] TJ ET BT 169.592 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains some thought-provoking assemblages of texts, perhaps none more so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than those included under the title 'The French Exotic.' Spence defines this as deriving from four main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements: an appreciation of Chinese delicacy which became the basis of a new aesthetic; an awareness of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7182 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese sensuality; a sense of Chinese violence and barbarism; and the idea of China as the realm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melancholy. He then explores the theme through the references to China in the writings of Prosper Giquel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gustave Flaubert, Pierre Loti, Paul Claudel and Victor Segalen. The place of Giquel in this list may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queried. Giquel was a French officer who fought on the imperial side in the closing stages of the Taiping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion and kept a journal recording his experiences. In his observations Spence has discerned 'all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the emerging Chinese exotic' although they are 'still presented in a raw, undigested form'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However a reading of Giquel's journal elicits little to support that statement. His descriptions of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and barbarism are better described as laconic. On one occasion, having remarked that the road he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was using was excellent and paved, he then added that it was lined with more than two thousand partially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismembered and half-consumed corpses 'exuding an unbearable odor'. His presentation of China offers little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the way of melancholy, his main preoccupations being the advancement of French interests and of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own career. He subsequently became the director of the Fuzhou arsenal, where he initiated training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes for Chinese engineers which were notable for their practicality and effectiveness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chapter on 'An American Exotic', there is a brief but interesting section on D.W. Griffith's film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Broken Blossoms)] TJ ET BT 117.008 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The only other reference to the visual representation of China is the illustration used for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dust-cover, a detail from an eighteenth-century tapestry showing the emperor on his travels. Visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of China and the Chinese, either fabricated by Westerners or chosen by them from Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stock to represent China, played a major role in fixing the image of China in Western eyes. In the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century these often promoted an idealised vision of China Through the nineteenth century a stream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissive pictures and cartoons, for example in the pages of )] TJ ET BT 329.636 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 360.296 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, expressed more vividly than words the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disregard in which the Chinese were now held. This disregard lasted well into the twentieth century, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted in populist forms, for example in the illustration to be found in the Everyman edition of )] TJ ET BT 502.652 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusoe)] TJ ET BT 68.684 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where the demeaning description of a Chinese man's eating habits are accompanied by an equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demeaning illustration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul A. Cohen, in )] TJ ET BT 122.684 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discovering History in China)] TJ ET BT 265.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, explored some aspects of American historical writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recent Chinese past. He noted that each of the three paradigms he had been examining shared a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme: a high degree of Western-centredness. Professor Spence's book, because of its subject matter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally exhibits the same characteristic. Cohen then asserted that this was 'a Western-centeredness that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(robs China of its autonomy, and makes of it an intellectual possession of the West. His assertion is amply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by the texts and themes explored in )] TJ ET BT 257.324 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chan's Great Continent )] TJ ET BT 395.900 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Many of these were written to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mount an oblique attack on Western society, or to assert the superiority of Western culture and mores at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of those of China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an earlier essay, 'Western Perceptions of China from the Late Sixteenth Century to the Present,' which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in Paul S. Ropp ed., )] TJ ET BT 179.000 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heritage of China)] TJ ET BT 266.336 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1990, Professor Spence concluded that it was not adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to view the majority of Western views of China as 'solely reflecting the biases within Western culture or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronizing and exploitative attitude toward Eastern civilizations,' an opinion he attributed to Edward Said. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He argued that there havebeen so many twists and turns in the depiction of China over the last four hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years that no such broad generalizations could hold. He suggested instead that 'the more blurred and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multifaceted our perceptions of China become, the closer we may be to that most elusive thing: the truth'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chan's Great Continent)] TJ ET BT 169.592 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an elaboration of this statement. Whether it brings us closer to 'the truth' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains a matter of opinion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 144.991 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 127.211 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 127.211 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/79)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 125.817 m 316.316 125.817 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 100.840 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/957)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 126.1315 316.3157 138.0115 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/79) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000005469 00000 n 0000005578 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009267 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000017514 00000 n 0000017579 00000 n 0000025709 00000 n 0000025793 00000 n 0000033028 00000 n 0000033156 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33250 %%EOF