%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930050814+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930050814+01'00') /Title (The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics, and the Making of the American Penal State, 1776?1941) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4645 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crisis of Imprisonment: Protest, Politics, and the Making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the American Penal State, 1776?1941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an ambitious and weighty study of prisons, prison labour and penology from the early Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period through the Depression years which McLennan argues has been characterised by ?a long continuum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of episodic instability, conflict, and political crisis? \(p. 2\). The defining or fundamental feature of US prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems during the long 19th century was contractual penal servitude where the prisoners? labour power was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold by state governments to private business interests. As a consequence, McLennan offers a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation for the origins of ?the prison? to that of David J. Rothman, whose 1971 study )] TJ ET BT 475.976 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Discovery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.660 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.660 179.265 m 340.652 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.652 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has dominated the historiography. Her study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines also that the development of US prisons does not fit neatly with Foucault?s conception of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary apparatus of power/knowledge as detailed in )] TJ ET BT 310.964 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison)] TJ ET BT 531.968 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.968 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.968 150.753 m 548.960 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLennan observes that Rothman?s account of elite reformers guiding the establishment of asylums, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orphanages, penitentiaries and reformatories to counter the effects of waning church membership, family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disintegration and community disorder, increased incidence of insanity, crime and pauperism, and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of social and moral crises, has overlooked the centrality of forced labour to the establishment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of the Auburn ?congregate? system of punishment after 1820. Rothman?s interpretation has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to many valid criticisms over the years yet McLennan?s account does not necessarily offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(791)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca M. McLennan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521830966)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(520pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivien Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6597 179.5795 340.6517 191.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 534.9677 151.0675 548.9597 162.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacement \(as suggested in some commentaries\) but rather compliments and extends the earlier work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLennan offers a thorough and compelling critique of the relationship between the market, state politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prisons/prisoners, and an explanation as to how this relationship shaped power relations within the adult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male prisons of New York state in particular. Divided loosely but not formally into three parts, the ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters trace the origins of rise of the US system of penal servitude from c.1776 to the 1890s, evaluate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the abolition or scaling back of contract prison labour between 1895 and 1913, and appraise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive recasting of the prison labour problem after 1913 through the various crises of the 1920s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. The analysis rests on four main themes: the profitability of convict labour for private enterprise; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinvention of punishment as a ?distinctive species of involuntary servitude? \(p. 8\) after 1830; the workings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power within and around the prison; and the making of the modern penal state from the 1890s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study focuses primarily on New York, particularly Auburn and Sing Sing prisons, but the author seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to relate developments in New York to the national context because ?New York remained on the vanguard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of virtually every important development in the field of legal punishment in the industrial states between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820 and 1940? \(p. 12\). The early republican penitentiary in Pennsylvania and New York was plagued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crises of discipline, finance and legitimacy which produced widespread public disillusionment. In an effort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to counter these problems, from the 1820s, New York lawmakers, jurists, and keepers crafted a new penal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order with distinctive characteristics: separation and concentration; hard productive labour; corporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishments; and the abridgement of inmates? natural rights, freedoms, and common law liberties. Forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard labour and the contract prison labour system underscored its fiscal and disciplinary foundations at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auburn. As more and more states adopted the Auburn system, the practice of selling the labour of convicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to private enterprise gradually became widely and deeply entrenched in penal ideology. New York?s system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of contractual penal servitude became the dominant mode of punishment in most Northern states by 1830, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many Southern states by 1860. At the same time, ideas about race, ethnicity, patriarchy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability \(as well as class and economic status\) clearly structured public and political discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons and prisoners in this period, and not just in the South.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.352 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.352 428.931 m 342.344 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, the establishment of private enterprise in these northern prisons \(less so in the South\) drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable protest from artisans, master craftsmen and skilled industrial workers, who rejected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devaluation of their labour and denounced the economic competition that threatened their livelihoods. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York stonecutters and mechanics in particularly offered robust opposition in the 1830s and 1840s that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained national support. Some legislative restrictions followed but a crisis was averted by the manufacturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs of the Civil War effort and the willingness of manufacturers to utilise convict labourers to meet those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was generally accepted in the 1870s and 1880s that prisoners should be put to productive labour for large-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, highly-organized, profit-seeking enterprises. This meant that contractors exerted enormous influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the inmates? conditions of life, labour and discipline, and the drive for profit \(and the instability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market\) was accompanied by a deleterious decline in these. States were required to maintain a steady stream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of able-bodied prisoners but contractors had no incentive to offer paternalist treatment as each inmate was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaceable. McLennan observes that the push for profit was given freest reign in the redeemed states of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South where thousands of freedmen and women were convicted on non-existent or flimsy grounds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelled to labour in coal, turpentine, lumber and railroad industries. It is worth noting however that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the lessees of southern convicts in the Gilded Age were Yankee northerners or the infamous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?carpetbaggers? who came southward to profit from the bankruptcy \(moral and financial\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed and redeemed southern governments. Native-born Southerners were of course no less adept at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploiting African American and lower-class whites and in seeking functional replacements for slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prison labour was cheaper, steadier and more easily disciplined than free labour, and for many contractors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were all attractive in light of the unionisation of free workers and their increasingly vocal demands for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher wages and shorter hours. The key systems of contractual prison labour emerged after 1880: prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories, piece-price, convict leasing, and public account. McLennan underlines the scale of this system: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?All told, by the mid-1880s, approximately 45,000 prisoners ? or almost four in every five ? laboured away )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.3517 429.2455 342.3437 441.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a daily basis for )] TJ ET BT 128.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(private)] TJ ET BT 162.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( interests, or a mix of public and private interests, under one or another of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison labour systems. Two-thirds of these prisoners worked exclusively for private enterprise. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners laboured under the prison factory variant than either the piece-price or lease variants or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract system: On any one day in the mid-1880s, just over 15,000 convicts laboured in the prison factories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly under the management of a contractor? \(p. 105\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prison factories saw relationships between inmates and civilian contractors and employees develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes in opposition to or conflict with those with the guards and wardens. The realities of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour rendered many of the older forms of discipline, particularly the rule of silent labour, increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsolete, but also heralded particularly violent and brutal bodily punishments including ?stringing up? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ice-bathing? as well as the construction of purpose-built dark-cells and dungeons in the 1880s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Internal and external opposition to the entrenchment of private prison enterprise gathered pace from the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s, expressed through for example, individual and collective prisoner defiance and silent sabotage, calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for legislative investigations of prisons, public outrage over evidence of systematic brutality in prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories, mines and camps, and trade union and workingmen?s campaigns to end unfair competition with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convict labour. With its large numbers of prison labourers and history of labour activism, New York was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial battleground in a national conflict over penal servitude. \(Penal reform also became enmeshed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitter wider political struggles, over machine politics, patronage, social justice and so on of the early 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.\) In November 1883 New Yorkers voted two-to-one to abolish the state?s 60-year-old system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract penal labour and thus provoked a severe fiscal, disciplinary, and ideological crisis. For McLennan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this amounted to ?the single greatest watershed in the history of American legal punishment since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacksonian era and the states? wholesale adoption of prison labour contracting? that would ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy contract prison labour and give birth to the progressive reform movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent establishment of a network of state-owned and operated prison industries generated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant changes to the labour and disciplinary regimes at all New York?s adult male prisons: Auburn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sing Sing and Clinton. The production of goods for state agencies also required a unified, centralised, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratically administered prison system. While compulsory productive labour remained firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenched in penal law, discourse, and ideology, and was a central preoccupation of the early progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers, the period also saw various innovations, including introduction of new inmate classification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems, upgraded accommodation and cells, abolition of the silent rule, the use of privileges and incentives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a new disciplinary system, and the extension of literacy and vocational provision for inmates. Thus, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition crisis proved vital to the ?great project of progressive prison reform? and the emerging ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penology.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As progressive prison reform was aimed primarily at able-bodied adult men serving longer sentences, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by a rhetoric that emphasised the building of manly citizens, it generated massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative challenges in the classification and redistribution of inmates according to gender, age, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severity of offence, and health. Similarly, adult male prisoners were divided into three hierarchical grades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourer. It would have been useful at this point to better illustrate how ideas about race/ethnicity and class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected these classifications. For example, in the southern states the divisions into able-bodied and less-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productive inmates often followed certain \(mis\)assumptions about the durability and temperaments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white/black, Northern/native-born Southerner, common African American labourer/ disgraced white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional inmates. McLennan certainly hints that similar assumptions were at play in New York \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed shows they were very evident during Osborne?s wardenship at Sing Sing later on\). Further, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of ?manhood? and the goal of producing productive abiding citizens were constructed in distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered ways. This is not to say that McLennan lacks awareness of this, rather that she must have more to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say on these issues. Certainly, L. Mara Dodge?s study of female offenders and inmates in Illinois in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 20th centuries underlines the importance of extralegal variables in social and penal constructions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.924 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.924 105.555 m 535.916 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLennan looks in detail at the implementation of penal reform, the various power struggles between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers and machine politicians, between keepers and inmates, between guards and wardens, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners? responses in Auburn and Sing Sing prisons. By the 1900s it was clear that state prison industries )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.9237 105.8695 535.9157 117.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not deliver either self-sustaining prisons or a full work day for the majority of adult male inmates, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison system administrators and penologists had still to find lasting solutions to the financial, disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideological problems that had emerged from the abolition of contract labour. The major unrest at Sing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sing in summer 1913 underlined the continued need for fundamental reforms in the physical conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old stone Bastille-prison and to the disciplinary and labour regimes. By this time, inmates were deemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?wards of the state?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Mott Osborne?s much publicized week of voluntary incarceration at Auburn in the fall of 1913 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlined the emergence of a new and more assertive prison reform movement between 1913 and 1917. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last three chapters explore its origins, development and impact. Osborne?s week at Auburn was the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step in the plan to foster support among the prisoners for the Mutual Welfare League \(MWL\), a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government league and recreation program at Auburn. Osborne envisioned a new mode of penal discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby the prisoners would take responsibility for policing the prison yard as well as the daily order in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workshops, mess hall, and marching lines. He viewed prisoner police powers as essential to prisoner self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline. This was prisoner self-government imposed from the top down but inmates were willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace and utilise aspects of the new penology and disciplinary apparatus on their own terms. Clearly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League was a crucial provider of organised sporting, musical, and other recreational activities \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movie screenings\) from early 1914, all of which radically altered everyday life at the prison. The League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was established also at Sing Sing even before Osborne became warden. Like their Auburn counterparts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inmates enjoyed for the first time organised athletic events, baseball games, screening of motion pictures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music and other entertainments. However, Sing Sing remained an overcrowded, dingy and depressing prison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her analyses of the League?s impact at Sing Sing and Osborne?s tenure as warden, McLennan directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses the relationship between the production of manly citizens and race/ethnicity. Sing Sing inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose English was deficient or non-existent were excluded from MWL membership and franchise. Further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the restructuring of labour and training and the establishment of job placement programmes for paroled or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discharged inmates were underpinned by racial ideas about manly worker-citizens in an industrialised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. Programmes designed to socialise prisoners as citizens were implicitly aimed at white native-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and European immigrants. Black inmates did not enjoy the same access to prison education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision or to post-release employment. Racial segregation within the prisons was also formalised and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more rigorously enforced. However, the reasons for this are not clear. Certainly, the new penologists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession with prison sex and, following the introduction of psychiatric and psychological testing, demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the separation of sexual degenerates, psychopaths and other problem populations perhaps offers one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason. But, were there increasing numbers of non-white prisoners as a result of black migration out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South? Was this a reaction to the Wilson administration?s demands for racial segregation within the offices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the federal government? Obviously, disfranchisement and segregation were already firmly entrenched in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the South.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Sing Sing became a laboratory for new penal ideas and a demonstration of the new penology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in action. McLennan notes that while the Sing Sing MWL is often referred to in prison historiography, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the first scholarly account of this particular experiment and its political context. In many ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter nine provides the most compelling critique and persuasive arguments. McLennan underlines that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovations were all without formal funding from the state but with financial support from the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor \(NCPPL\), philanthropic reform groups, and American corporations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This enabled Osborne to bypass Albany politicians and bureaucrats, and the leaders of organised labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While war mobilization \(1917?8\) revived temporarily the dream of full-time, waged, productive prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour, it also generated the first federal efforts to shape state penal systems. Federal laws in the 1920s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s effectively abolished the market for convict-made goods and pushed all states toward state-use even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it was clear that state-use could not deliver full employment. Recreation, education, athletics, music, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the privilege system, and even the welfare leagues remained important features of prison life and discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the first third of the 20th century, in New York and beyond. Key to these developments were Sing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sing and the administration of Lewis E. Lawes: ?Within a few years of arriving at Sing Sing, Lawes had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed the transformation of the original new penological project into a new, managerialist penal order. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5896 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although elements of this penal managerialism could be found in other New York prisons \(and in a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of other states, including Texas, Minnesota, Illinois, and California\), nowhere was it as fully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematically developed as at Sing Sing? \(p. 448\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLennan offers a compelling reworking of the history of US prisons during the long 19th and into the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century and a detailed examination of New York. There is much to commend and to reflect upon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, at 500 plus pages, it requires significant commitment from the reader. One would like to think that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students \(and colleagues\) in History, Law, and Criminology would recognise the quality of the work here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and be willing to make that commitment. Nevertheless, an abridged version for undergraduates might be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project worth considering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLennan?s study plugs crucial gaps in our knowledge of New York prisons and in the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of prison labour and leisure, and discipline and punishment. Yet, it also exposes worrying gaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in our historical knowledge and understanding of US prisons and prisoners, particularly in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western state prison systems and penal ideology \(There are of course several excellent studies of California, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico\). Similarly, the growing body of southern prison history in recent years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has reshaped our understanding of the connections between race, labour subordination and disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment but clearly we know more about some southern states \(e.g. Texas\) than others. Prison historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should therefore view McLennan?s study not as the last word on US prison history but as the throwing down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an ideological and epistemological gauntlet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David J. Rothman, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.324 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.324 448.947 m 209.312 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison)] TJ ET BT 370.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1977\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.324 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.324 434.691 m 518.312 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Mark E. Kann, )] TJ ET BT 158.660 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punishment, Prisons and Patriarchy: Liberty and Power in the Early American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic)] TJ ET BT 106.676 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.984 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.984 406.179 m 254.972 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See L. Mara Dodge, )] TJ ET BT 163.988 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Whores and Thieves of the Worst Kind?: A Study of Women, Crime, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prisons, 1835?2000)] TJ ET BT 160.688 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(DeKalb, IL, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.328 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.328 377.667 m 313.316 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals 1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/4/1146.1.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 322.899 m 289.352 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.352 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals 2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/415.extract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 296.996 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.996 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 291.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 273.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 273.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/791)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 271.881 m 322.316 271.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 246.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3770)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/4/1146.1.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/415.extract)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3237 449.2615 209.3117 461.1415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.3237 435.0055 518.3117 446.8855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.9837 406.4935 254.9717 418.3735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.3277 377.9815 313.3157 389.8615 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 323.2135 289.3517 335.0935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/4/1146.1.full) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 294.7015 296.9957 306.5815 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/2/415.extract) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 272.1955 322.3157 284.0755 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/791) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000610 00000 n 0000000706 00000 n 0000005403 00000 n 0000005512 00000 n 0000005622 00000 n 0000005731 00000 n 0000009292 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000009504 00000 n 0000009533 00000 n 0000009661 00000 n 0000009697 00000 n 0000009726 00000 n 0000009854 00000 n 0000009890 00000 n 0000009974 00000 n 0000017482 00000 n 0000017512 00000 n 0000017640 00000 n 0000017676 00000 n 0000017760 00000 n 0000025295 00000 n 0000025325 00000 n 0000025453 00000 n 0000025489 00000 n 0000025554 00000 n 0000033003 00000 n 0000033129 00000 n 0000039078 00000 n 0000039206 00000 n 0000039261 00000 n 0000039389 00000 n 0000039444 00000 n 0000039572 00000 n 0000039627 00000 n 0000039755 00000 n 0000039810 00000 n 0000039937 00000 n 0000040043 00000 n 0000040170 00000 n 0000040277 00000 n 0000040405 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40500 %%EOF