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Such is not the case, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but e-texts have been around far longer than most might think. Texts delivered in an electronic format, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly ones, have been with us from more than )] TJ ET BT 275.972 304.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(three )] TJ ET BT 303.632 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, and closing in on four.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.936 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.936 302.697 m 469.928 302.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.928 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It?s easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the confusion. We have been inundated recently with all things Kindle: Kindle 1, Kindle 2, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now the Kindle DX. The Sony eBook Reader PRS 700 is also very new to the scene, as are knockabouts like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the iRex Iliad, Ectaco, and Astak e-readers. 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This is not a criticism but an observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that obtains vis--vis the future of such endeavors. Gutenberg himself, the original one, failed a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times before he got printed texts right, and any new technology will take time, money and a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patience to succeed. E-texts, at least as a scholarly endeavor, are still struggling and will likely continue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so for many years to come. E-enterprises have become proverbial for their fugacity. The reasons are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many and the issues complex. But more about that in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg-e E-nterprise)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 630.771 m 93.992 630.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.992 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 110.984 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(not to be confused with the Gutenberg Project\) began as a program of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Society \(AHA\) and Columbia University about a decade ago.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.292 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.292 616.515 m 393.284 616.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.284 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It successes and failures are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thumbnail \(no pun intended\) sketch of the larger electronic publishing enterprise. Gutenberg-e is the brain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust of Princeton?s magisterial and irrepressible Robert Darnton, former president of the AHA, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed to address the problem of high production costs of publishing monographs by sponsoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of electronic books on the Internet. His ?A Program for Reviving the Monograph? is required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading. Darnton conceived of a program in which electronic texts would get the same scrutiny as traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly publishing, but fashioned in such a manner to match or exceed in scope and enterprise their printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousins, owing to the flexibility allowed by the Web.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.668 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.668 516.723 m 302.660 516.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.660 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( After fits and starts, Gutenberg-e is the)] TJ ET BT 492.620 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( partial)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(more about that later\) fulfillment of that proposal, one that drew upon the resources of Columbia University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press and the Mellon Foundation to succeed. Some might argue that Gutenberg-e traded the high print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph production costs for an even higher electronic production cost on the Web. 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The authors then collaborated with a staff of Gutenberg-e employees who guided them on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything from layout, to design, to access, to hotlinks and so on. The Mellon grant allowed winning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors to use their $20,000 award to bring the texts from ponderous pontifications to tantalizing treatises. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the American Historical Association, ?[b]etween 1999 and 2004, the AHA awarded Gutenberg-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e prizes to high quality dissertations from many different fields and topics in history. A distinguished panel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars judged the dissertations, selecting the award recipients primarily on the scholarly merits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertations.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 305.139 m 116.336 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.336 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( AHA, not to put too fine a point on it, had the highest of hopes for the venture, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(award was ?designed to use the prestige of the AHA ? by conferring the bluest of ribbons awarded by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandest of juries with the full authority of the AHA behind it ? to set a high standard for electronic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing.? To date there are 36 e-texts on the Gutenberg-e site. The awards, according to the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Association?s website have ceased, but publications will continue through 2008.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.308 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.308 248.115 m 473.300 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some wizened professors may balk at the term ?junior? scholar. Recently reported in )] TJ ET BT 445.268 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chronicle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 120.344 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a new journal for adjuncts only: tenured or tenure-track scholars need not apply.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.260 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.260 207.603 m 533.252 207.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 533.252 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenured professor, nose ostensibly upturned, essentially said, ?Perish the thought.? But we were all junior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars once upon a time, and many readers of this journal were ? or are ? adjuncts. \(Given the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic meltdown, we )] TJ ET BT 154.664 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 167.336 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may well be adjuncts soon.\) Furthermore, Gutenberg-e claims to present the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from up-and-coming junior scholars, and a review of the 36 titles proves this to be inarguably true. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specified topics have included, for 1999, Africa, Colonial Latin America, and South Asia; for 2000, Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1800; for 2001, military history and history of foreign relations; for 2002, history of North America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1900; 2003, Women's History or History of Gender; 2004, Open to all Fields of History; 2005. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e site does not list winners beyond 2003 and the AHA site beyond 2004. The AHA site has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been updated in over a year.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 631.0855 93.9917 642.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.gutenberg-e.org/) >> endobj 24 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.2917 616.8295 393.2837 628.7095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.6677 517.0375 302.6597 528.9175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.9997 460.0135 195.9917 471.8935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 305.4535 116.3357 317.3335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.3077 248.4295 473.2997 260.3095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.2597 207.9175 533.2517 219.7975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8002 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e?s E-texts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selected titles include Bin Yang?s )] TJ ET BT 201.668 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Winds and Clouds: the Making of Yunnan \(Second Century BCE-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century CE\))] TJ ET BT 145.352 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(;Laura J. Mitchell?s )] TJ ET BT 244.004 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belongings: Property, Family, and Identity in Colonial South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(;J. L. McIntosh?s )] TJ ET BT 150.344 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From the Heads of Households to Heads of State: The Preaccession Households of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary and Elizabeth Tudor, 1516-1558)] TJ ET BT 219.680 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Jennifer E. Langdon?s )] TJ ET BT 336.656 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caught in the Crossfire: Adrian Scott and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Americanism in the 1940s Hollywood)] TJ ET BT 266.684 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(;Sarah A. Gordon?s )] TJ ET BT 364.664 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Make it Yourself?: Home Sewing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender, and Culture, 1890-1930)] TJ ET BT 191.672 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Helena Pohlandt-McCormick?s )] TJ ET BT 352.652 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?I Saw a Nightmare?? Doing Violence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory: The Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976)] TJ ET BT 255.992 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Gregory S. Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 363.644 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Field of Honor: Writers, Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture, and Public Theatre in French Literary Life)] TJ ET BT 283.352 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and, Michael Katten?s )] TJ ET BT 400.328 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonial Lists/Indian Power: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity Politics in Nineteenth Century Telugu-Speaking India)] TJ ET BT 332.000 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to name but a few.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am not a professionally trained historian and so cannot speak to the merits or defects of the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles. It?s safe to say, however, that few would spend $60,000 on deadbeat or limpid offerings from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bluest of ribbons awarded by the grandest of the juries? selection committee. Patrick Manning?s review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(cited in the notes\) offers a good overview of the early titles, and other reviews are available online.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.900 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.900 573.747 m 526.892 573.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.892 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the titles chosen appear to fill the very niche for which they were chosen, and all have been refashioned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Web with a meticulous care one would expect from an enterprise that has, )] TJ ET BT 410.264 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ab initio)] TJ ET BT 450.608 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, been carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg-e Experiment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winners from each year were gathered together at Columbia?s Butler Library for a brainstorming workshop. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembled, ironically enough, in a )] TJ ET BT 204.332 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(book-lined room)] TJ ET BT 283.988 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were editors, tech-wonks, designers, web-gurus and e-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 449.955 m 106.340 449.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.340 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The workshops allowed the winners of the dissertation award to report on their progress and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afforded them the chance to talk with those in the electronic publishing field about what is required to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a text-based manuscript to e-press light of day. Even though these junior scholars are all young and probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent their formative years on the Web, transforming a text to a readable, usable e-text isn?t a matter to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken lightly. More than one e-publisher has made that mistake. It is to the credit of the team assembled at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e who recognized and, for the most part, successfully avoided that mistake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The experiment ? for that is what Gutenberg-e really is ? gives scholars and publishers a chance to see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much Web razzle-dazzle can be transformed into Web readability and scholarly design, while not reducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text to a blog-like facsimile. Dynamic links, photographs, graphs, multimedia presentations and the like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be determined for each book. Recall that it was Darnton?s view that such an entity would rise to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of the printed monograph and be as tenure-worthy as those texts. The jury is still out on the tenure-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthiness of the enterprise, for those adjudging such matters are often the same individuals who have made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their fame and small fortunes on the tedious tome, the ponderous pontificatory. Not too many years ago, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 254.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(teaching)] TJ ET BT 93.008 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( university where I work, faculty met to determine if faculty roles and rewards could edge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the holy trinity of teaching, service and scholarship. The end result of the now six-year discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has so far been ?not so much,? but we continue to work on it. As younger and younger faculty replace older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenured ones, a change to what is now the inevitable conclusion to such discussions will eventuate. But even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting some tenured professors to accept a junior professor?s article that was )] TJ ET BT 409.268 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(posted)] TJ ET BT 440.600 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( online after it appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a peer-reviewed journal, is proving to be no small beer at some institutions. Some faculty remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvinced of the Web?s worthiness as a publisher of the ersatz electronic monograph. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemeral nature of the Web?s offerings \(see below\), that may be less Luddite of them and more prophet-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg-e Web-Based Adventure)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 36 texts vary in the degree and complexity with which they have incorporated into the online presence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the nimbleness of the Web. Some have .pdf formats along with their .html formats. All the reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes are linked to the text and back. While I have not looked at every one of the 36 texts, I did examine )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.8997 574.0615 526.8917 585.9415 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3477 450.2695 106.3397 462.1495 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 5112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a dozen of them. Surprisingly few of the ones I examined used the electronic medium?s full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility. While more historical texts do not, unsurprisingly, have many online citations, some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertations on more recent topics did not have many, either. Some texts used dynamic or ?hotlinks? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(online citations. Of the ones I viewed, Laura J. Miller?s text incorporated not only more of the Web?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamism but also more of its features to take readers to similar materials. None of the texts viewed failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use illustrations of some kind \(photographs, maps, or other archive-like materials\), but only a few used them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a degree that one would expect in such an enterprise. Kenneth Steuer?s text on the YMCA used numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs to the text advantage though some of them appeared slightly off-centered. Gregory Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertation on French court culture listed Web links as a separate icon-clickable entry. He also used icons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for archive sources, images and a glossary in a frame context that moves with each page. Timothy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgdon?s dissertation on manhood also used numerous online citations, many of them to online archives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of the texts I viewed used the so-called Web 2.0?s flexibility \(e.g. wikis, blogs, etc.\) though some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have added this dimension as an afterthought to web-publication. Some of the viewed texts appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have mastered the Web, others merely to have used it as an added dimension to basically a print-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. What surprised me most of all was the absence of a Gutenberg-e link on every page of every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertation. Newer titles had this link, but many of the older ones I viewed did not, making navigating back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Gutenberg-e home site more cumbersome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Readers and E-Readers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader?s experience with the text on the Web, Darnton not withstanding, is a matter of multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of a given e-text.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.652 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.652 500.211 m 207.644 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 207.644 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With so many links and accompanying matter that could not possibly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided in a printed text, there is the possibility of very widely divergent views by readers for the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. Of course, the problem can be present in a printed text when one reader brings to it a deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding than another, or one reader carefully reads and ponders each note, compared to the reader who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passes them over them all as ancillary. But in a Web-based text, the chances of this are far higher, and far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more inevitable. One reader may follow each link carefully, and follow each of those farther still. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers may skip them altogether, while another may get an entirely wrong impression from them. Then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is the issue ? albeit a somewhat minor one ? of reader fatigue. After reading a given page filled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple links of varying complexity, the reader may not only completely forget what?s being read, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become so exhausted by the experience of going from link to link, simply to stop completely. This is hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a concern for scholars, but it does contract the attraction of a general readership. Even for scholars, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tedium of tracking links that may be broken through no fault of the author poses something of a concern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially if link rot, the tendency of links to fail over time, is present to any degree \(and we know it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present on the Web to a very high degree now\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Online Reading versus Text-Based Reading)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.6517 500.5255 207.6437 512.4055 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 7959 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of more immediate concern is the idea behind online reading. For all the challenges in eBook technology ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there have been many and for the most part progressively better ones ? one continues to remain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern. The best of computer screens have resolutions at 50 per cent or so of the printed page. Regardless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sophistication of the reader, this creates both eyestrain and general fatigue that must be taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account. Further, the saccade, or the jumpy eye movements across a printed page, is not replicated on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computer screen, at least not in the same manner. The almost imperceptible refreshing or blinking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computer screens is noted by the eye and the brain, creating yet another, and for the most part, new signal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that must somehow be ignored. Most of us are able to do this without difficulty, but some cannot and so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading process is further compromised. We now know that we do not generally read either as fast or with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same high levels of comprehension online as we do on the printed page. For reasons that are not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, the brain does not ?anticipate? words as well on the screen as it does on the printed page. All of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are important factors for reading online. This is one of the many reasons that most of us, when faced with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than three online pages, hit the print button. While electronic books may well cut production costs, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one has accounted for the hundreds, or thousands or even tens of thousands of ?print? commands that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual users execute when reading online. The world may be going green, but clearly the online )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment is not as green as we thought or hoped.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We also now know through various bits of research that young readers who learn to read online do not carry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that skill over to the electronic page as quickly or as well at that skill transfers from the printed page to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screen. This may seem a pointless comment to make in connection to scholarly tomes; but if younger readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are struggling with reading, and the electronic environment contributes more to that declining state, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future of electronic readers in specific ? and reading in general ? does not bode well.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.232 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.232 485.955 m 459.224 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.224 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some readers may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scoff at this as so much )] TJ ET BT 149.336 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laudatory temporis acti)] TJ ET BT 262.004 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a praising of old things ? reading ? for being old, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticizing rising generations who are more technologically astute. But are they? Our rising technologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astute generations may not be as astute as we once thought, making their claims to higher savviness baseless.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 428.931 m 54.008 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(E-Text Financial Sustainability)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real claim to eBook technology, however, is its sustainability over time, and under this rubric there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two issues: financial and online longevity. E-texts, as I said at the outset, have been with us for nearly four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades. While they have been around a long time, it?s surprising that they have gained little of the market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share of readers. Some readers might wish to argue the contrary by citing the booming business of Kindle I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kindle II, the new Sony and now the Kindle DX. But even granting Kindle?s success and generously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing for sales of just over a million Kindle e-book readers, what percent of the total number of readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does that account for? Not much more than 5 per cent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.956 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.956 290.883 m 314.948 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.948 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With so small a market share, the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustainability becomes far more than a moot point. In general, then, financial e-book sustainability is far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from sure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what of Gutenberg-e and its financial salubrity? When first rolled out, Gutenberg-e offered individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books to individual readers if desired \(basically in a print-on-demand arrangement\), but the real salability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these texts lay in subscriptions. Subscriptions to Gutenberg-e cost $195 each. Individual subscriptions could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly be bought, but the target markets were originally academic libraries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.604 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.604 193.347 m 426.596 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.596 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the grand scheme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electronic access where online databases cost more than a mid-size car or a two-carat diamond \(literally\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [($195 annual subscriptions surely seemed an easy sell. Granted, the subject matter of these subscriptions is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed esoteric, but academic libraries, almost by definition, seek out the esoteric. If they did not, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic publishing might well cease. The Gutenberg-e business model seemed a sound one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But an alarm sounds. Since 1950, academic libraries have not been awash in cash, and that is especially so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now. All sorts of political pressure abounds on them, from local turf-protecting skirmishes between one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline or another, all the way to the statehouses where a given governor may think that academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libraries are unnecessary, mischievous, obsolete, or a luxury.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.288 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.288 67.299 m 346.280 67.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.280 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, the current track record of e-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book ventures is less than compelling. netLibrary began with more than $80 million in venture capital. It )] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.2317 486.2695 459.2237 498.1495 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 429.2455 54.0077 441.1255 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9557 291.1975 314.9477 303.0775 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.6037 193.6615 426.5957 205.5415 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.2877 67.6135 346.2797 79.4935 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 6844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rescued out of Chapter 11 when OCLC, the worldwide bibliographic database, bought it out. Questia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began with more than $100 million in venture capital. Its owners now claim that cutting staff by 75 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and retooling entirely has nothing to do with Chapter 11. Even the seasoned and excellent Gutenberg Project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles financially, leaving us with a question of where, if grand ventures awash in venture capital did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeed, does that leave smaller worthy projects like Gutenberg-e?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Open Access the Answer?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer, since November 2008, is open access. To be fair, it was ?insisted? that Gutenberg-e, according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Jim Jordan, investigate a working relation with the American Council of Learning Societies \(ACLS\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humanities E-Book venture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.668 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.668 657.027 m 191.660 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.660 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It has, and while that site requires subscription \(either as an institution or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual to access all its holdings, not just Gutenberg-e\), the Gutenberg-e site offers its 36 tiles freely. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of Gutenberg-e even at a paltry $195 to find a secure solvency beyond the Mellon Foundation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University makes all such ventures suspect. The open access nature of Gutenberg-e is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every reader?s gain, especially scholars. But that says nothing about the sustainability of such projects in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long run, or perhaps only too much. Open access gets a great deal of attention from dreamy-eyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerleaders, and I for one welcome it. But I do not see it as financially viable over the long run. Open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access cannot exist on its own unless, of course, one means by that that the site is left unattended. That is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the definition of open access by any standard of which I am familiar, and it clearly isn?t the way the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originators of Gutenberg-e wish to leave it. But where does the site go from here? And who is to pay for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future titles? Given the severe economic downturn and the current quadrupling of the federal deficit in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to save that downturn from falling even farther, any such open access enterprise cannot be long for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world without some means of making it work. What those means are in the case of Gutenberg-e remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unspoken or undefined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg-e site has not been updated since the 2003 winners. For additional winners and more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, one must go to the AHA?s website and its link on the Gutenberg-e project. Even so, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e part of the AHA site has not been updated since February 2008. Now that the site is open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access, one would not of course expect updates every month, but some notice should be provided on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites as well as an updated page of award winners, especially now since no more awards will be made. It?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just this sort of desuetude on the Web \(to use an ironic adjective in this case\) that makes scholars, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older ones, wary of the Web?s viability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Online Longevity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The financial failure of Gutenberg-e leads to questions about its online longevity. The duration of most texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the web is about 36 months. One expects lengthier texts to last much longer, but how can they when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial means have dissolved? Then there is the issue of link rot, mentioned earlier, a disease of web texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not unlike black spot for roses. Link rot occurs when no permanent URLs are created and maintained. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e?s lineage, it?s perhaps not likely, but on the Web, )] TJ ET BT 338.960 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anything)] TJ ET BT 380.960 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can happen, and usually does, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often it is the unanticipated and undesirable that occurs most frequently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did Darnton?s vision succeed? I said earlier that it was in partial fulfillment to his vision and, having studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the site and its texts, I must conclude that it remains only a partial fulfillment. Gutenberg-e has for all intents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and purposes completed its mission in less than a decade, a mere period in the publishing history of printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter but perhaps a semicolon for the ever-changing and often all too ephemeral Web. Its move to open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access will make its contents more available to scholars, and certainly these 36 dissertations will be far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available \(so long as the site remains\) than their University Microfilm counterparts. But are they more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted than, say, an enterprising PhD who publishes her dissertation on the open web, complete with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing wiki and multimedia presentations? Probably not, especially if our enterprising young PhD also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blogs about her work and watches to make sure she keeps it current with RSS feeds and the like.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(E-Texts Tenure-worthy?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 171.6677 657.3415 191.6597 669.2215 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R ] /Contents 78 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 7578 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Are Gutenberg-e texts all tenure-worthy contributions to scholarship? Of course, that will be a determination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by the institutions where these young scholars begin their careers, but all of them appear to me to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal, if not surpassing, texts that already have been considered tenure-worthy. Some of the topics, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodgson?s, will raise some eyebrows. Having grown up in Tennessee, and having lived there when Stephen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaskins created his farm, I was most surprised to see Mr. Gaskins treated with any sort of solemnity. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug-fogged shenanigans remained a risible comedy sideshow for Tennesseans, but perhaps we lack the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual )] TJ ET BT 90.344 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feux d?artifice )] TJ ET BT 163.004 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand his significance in the history of organic farming. Still, it?s a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainty that )] TJ ET BT 100.004 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 124.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of these texts will be held to a degree of suspicion merely because they are on the Web. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That will be a tragedy but will likely change as more and more young scholars replace older ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conclusions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, has Gutenberg-e saved historical monographs in specific and humanities publishing overall? Hardly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This now ended experiment proved that it can be done but also proved that it is not financially sustainable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the current economic conditions, finding foundations to undertake new enterprises like Gutenberg-e is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly unlikely. Gutenberg-e now takes its place along side Xanadau, netLibrary, the Gutenberg Project and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questia. That is to say, not necessarily entirely failed ventures, but failed in the sense that they did not live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up either to their own expectations or to the expectations of others. But financially Gutenberg-e must be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have failed, an all-too-familiar tendency that bedevils many enterprises of mass digitization. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amazon?s Kindle continues to subsidize its most newsworthy feature ? wireless access ? to make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing to the masses to order online materials at will. How long Amazon can continue to subsidize this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature remains to be seen. The terms of open access for Gutenberg-e appear tenuous at best:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press shall have the right at any time to change or modify the terms and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions applicable to your use of Gutenberg-e or to impose new conditions with respect to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such use. CUP shall have the right at any time to change or discontinue any aspect or feature of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e, including but not limited to content, functionality, hours of availability, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment needed for access or use. Such changes, modifications, or additions shall be effective )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately upon notice thereof, which may be given by means including but not limited to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posting on Gutenberg-e, electronic or conventional mail, or any means by which you obtain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual knowledge. Any use of Gutenberg-e by you after such notice shall be deemed to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute acceptance by you of such changes, modifications, or additions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.960 349.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.960 347.763 m 439.952 347.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 310.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, today you see it, tomorrow you may not. Of course, )] TJ ET BT 360.968 310.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(habent sua fata libelli)] TJ ET BT 465.980 310.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but no printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text I am aware of can mimic this rather remarkable degree of caducity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gutenberg-e provides scholars and other readers with easy access to 36 of the finest dissertations written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last half decade or so. One can and should mourn the inability to keep it afloat. But financial stability has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always dogged e-texts and will continue to do so. If historical monographs are in real trouble, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities monographs in general slipping the way of all flesh, I don?t think anything online will save them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What will save them will be what always has: excellent writing and flawless research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.467 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 147.850 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 147.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If you count Ted Nelson?s visionary venture with Xanadu, the longevity of e-texts is longer still.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.296 147.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.296 146.451 m 555.956 146.451 l S BT 64.016 133.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 132.195 m 90.344 132.195 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 119.338 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 119.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?U-M redefining scholarly publications in the digital age?, 23 March 2009 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.396 119.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.396 117.939 m 485.384 117.939 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.082 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg Project began in 1971 and has digitized thousands of electronic texts, mainly those in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 90.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public domain and so unfettered by current and draconian US copyright law. See )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.276 90.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.gutenberg.net)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.276 89.427 m 549.920 89.427 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 76.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 78.008 76.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 76.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 75.171 m 134.996 75.171 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 62.314 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 62.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Margerison, ?Gutenberg-e: a field report?, )] TJ ET BT 313.940 62.309 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 374.588 62.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, October 2003 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.008 62.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.008 60.915 m 509.996 60.915 l S endstream endobj 79 0 obj [77 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.9597 348.0775 439.9517 359.9575 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.2957 146.7655 555.9557 158.6455 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 132.5095 90.3437 144.3895 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.3957 118.2535 485.3837 130.1335 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2757 89.7415 549.9197 101.6215 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.gutenberg.net) >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 75.4855 134.9957 87.3655 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.0077 61.2295 509.9957 73.1095 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R ] /Contents 95 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Length 9167 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Manning, ?Gutenberg-e: electronic entry to the historical professoriate?, )] TJ ET BT 450.932 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 150.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 109, 5 \(December 2004\), note 31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.308 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.308 780.819 m 372.296 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 766.563 m 124.772 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 752.307 m 124.772 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Beja, ?For adjuncts only: a new literary magazine denies tenure?, )] TJ ET BT 408.932 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, June 4 2009 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.780 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.780 723.795 m 191.768 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For reviews about the texts and the project see Douglas E. Haynes, ?Gutenberg-e reviews: community )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public culture: the Marwaris in Calcutta 1987?1997?, )] TJ ET BT 343.640 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 479.624 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(December )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.780 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.780 681.027 m 155.768 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pillariseti Sudhir, ?Second Gutenberg-e workshop marks progress?, )] TJ ET BT 392.300 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 452.948 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.716 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.716 666.771 m 522.704 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid. Darnton argued at the workshop that authors should worry only about their work and not about )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader. I think there is room for debate here. If he means not to worry about it in order to get the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text online, he?s right. If he means it doesn?t matter at all, I think that is debatable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.300 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.300 624.003 m 521.288 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of texts come to mind that have treated this topic: Sven Birkerts, )] TJ ET BT 427.652 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gutenberg Elegies: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age)] TJ ET BT 264.332 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\) may well have been the first and certainly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the most lyrical. See also my own, )] TJ ET BT 265.664 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fool?s Gold: Why the Internet Is No Substitute for a Library)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Jefferson, NC, 2007\), and Mark Bauerlein, )] TJ ET BT 276.632 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dumbest Generation: How the Digital Age Stupefies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young American and Jeopardizes our Future \(Or, Don?t Trust Anyone Under 30\) )] TJ ET BT 460.316 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\).Sadly, Bauerlein, one the finest writers on this topic, has been dismissed all too quickly owing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his title alone. Bauerlein?s comment, however, is one that any professor who teaches these days has )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticed: the precipitous decline both in literacy skills and the desire to read among today?s so-called )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tech-savvy generation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.652 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.652 495.699 m 232.640 495.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 482.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, Sid Vaidhyanathan, ?Generational Myth?, )] TJ ET BT 353.288 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Higher Education,)] TJ ET BT 505.952 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 19 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 2008 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.108 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.108 467.187 m 212.096 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 454.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is devilishly difficult to ascertain precisely, but there are about 86 million regular )] TJ ET BT 480.968 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adult )] TJ ET BT 508.640 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US, according to the )] TJ ET BT 183.332 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statistical Abstracts of the United States, 2009)] TJ ET BT 407.012 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even if Amazon sold more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 2 million Kindles \( a million more than has so far been reported\), that is still not even 5 per cent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 410.163 m 124.004 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course public libraries could buy them, too, but apart from the 5 or 10 largest public libraries in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, it?s unlikely there would be many more takers among them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.640 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.640 381.651 m 454.628 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 368.794 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I know of a case in which an important state official contended some years ago that with electronic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access, libraries would be a thing of the past and so unneeded. Even some professors are calling for us )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?blow the library up!? See my )] TJ ET BT 224.324 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fool?s Gold)] TJ ET BT 284.660 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for more pronouncements on the end, or needless )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplication of academic libraries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.648 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.648 324.627 m 284.636 324.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 311.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Jordan, ?Letter from Jim Jordan about Gutenberg-e?, )] TJ ET BT 341.960 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press Blog)] TJ ET BT 497.624 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.392 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.392 310.371 m 547.388 310.371 l S BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 296.115 m 84.008 296.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 283.258 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.344 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.344 281.859 m 144.332 281.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 238.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 220.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 220.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/792)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 218.841 m 322.316 218.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 193.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3771)] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.gutenberg-e.org/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.gutenberg.net)] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.264 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream 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