%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728111632+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728111632+01'00') /Title (The Persecution of the Jews and Muslims of Portugal. King Manuel I and the End of Religious Tolerance \(1496?7\) [The Medieval Mediterranean. Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400?1500. Volume 69]) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3996 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Persecution of the Jews and Muslims of Portugal. King Manuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(I and the End of Religious Tolerance \(1496?7\) [The Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mediterranean. Peoples, Economies and Cultures, 400?1500. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.169 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Volume 69])] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If quincentenaries are anything to go by, then 1492 is now commemorated principally for Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbus?s transatlantic voyage of exploration rather than either the conclusion of Ferdinand?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabella?s eleven year conquest of Islamic Granada ? which completed the Reconquista ? or the expulsion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews from Castile and Aragon. Although the beginning of a so-called Spanish Golden Age during which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting, music and literature flourished is sometimes dated to 1492, while the reign of Manuel I of Portugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1495?1521\) is remembered both for Vasco da Gama?s expedition to India that laid the foundations for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese seaborne Empire as well as its innovative, ornamental architectural style \(Manueline\), the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th-century Iberian Jewish experience offers a doleful counterpoint. Even heeding Salo Wittmayer Baron?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warning against a self-pitying ?lachrymose conception of Jewish history?, that is of constructing a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly based upon exile, persecution and martyrdom, the extent of Jewish suffering in Christian lands at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dawn of the modern era must be fully acknowledged. For expulsion was not a rarity but a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurrence. Thus during the Middle Ages Jews had been periodically expelled from France \(1182, 1306, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1311, 1327, 1394\), as well as from Gascony \(1287\), Anjou \(1289\), Maine \(1289\), and England \(1290\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(797)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franois Soyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789004162624)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, during the 15th century Jews were expelled from German-speaking towns, cities and territories ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Linz \(1421\), Vienna \(1421\), Cologne \(1424\), Dresden \(1430\), Speyer \(1435\), Augsburg \(1440\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bavaria \(1442, 1450\), Erfurt \(1458\), Mainz \(1470\), Bamberg \(1478\), Wrzburg, \(1488\), Heilbronn \(1490\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mecklenburg \(1492\), Pomerania \(1492\), Halle \(1493\), Magdeburg \(1493\), Lower Austria \(1496\), Carinthia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1496\), Styria \(1496\), Nuremberg \(1499\), and Ulm \(1499\); from Switzerland ? Geneva \(1490\); from parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Italian Peninsula ? Perugia \(1485\), Vicenza \(1486\), Parma \(1488\), Lucca \(1489\), Milan \(1489\), Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1494\), and Naples \(1496\); from Mediterranean Islands ? Sardinia \(1492\), and Sicily \(1492\); from Provence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1498\); and from Iberian soil ? Castile and Aragon \(1492\), Portugal \(1497\), and Navarre \(1498\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The majority of these Jews fled and over roughly the next century and a half dispersed to North Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cairo, Ceuta, Fez, Larache, Orn \(expelled 1669\), Tangiers, Tlemcen, Tunis\); the Balearic Islands \(Ibiza, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majorca\); the Aegean Islands \(Crete, Rhodes\); France \(Bayonne, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Nantes, Rouen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toulouse\); the Netherlands \(Amsterdam, Antwerp\); England \(London\); the Italian States \(Ancona, Ferrara, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livorno, Mantua, Ragusa, Rome, Turin, Venice\); Bohemia \(Prague\); Poland; the Ottoman Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Adrianople, Constantinople, Gaza, Hebron, Jerusalem, Safed, Salonika, Tiberius\); India \(Bombay, Cochin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goa, Ormuz\); the East Atlantic Islands \(Canary Islands\); West Africa \(Senegal\); the Caribbean \(Barbados, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curaao, Jamaica\); North America \(New Amsterdam\); Mexico \(Acapulco, Campeche, Mexico City, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veracruz\); Brazil \(Bahia, Pernambuco [expelled 1654]\); Surinam; and Peru. This diaspora, which Soyer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes in his conclusion \(p. 290\), reminds us of the far reaching consequences of events at the heart of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. For the Jewish population of late fifteenth-century Castile has been estimated at between 60,000 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70,000, that for Portugal during the same period at a maximum of 30,000 \(pp. 44, 104\) ? making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined communities the largest in the world at that time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Soyer observes, the fate of Spanish Jewry has attracted greater scholarly interest than that of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese brethren. Indeed, his book is the first to deal specifically with the 1496?7 persecution of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews and Muslims in Portugal. Since the 19th century the prevailing view has been that Manuel?s dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break with his predecessors? policy of religious toleration was motivated by his desire to rule over the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iberian Peninsula by marrying Isabella of Castile?s and Ferdinand of Aragon?s eldest daughter. But that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage alliance was conditional on the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Portugal; a proviso with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which recklessly Manuel complied, thereby creating a religiously homogeneous Catholic polity \(pp. 5?6, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(180, 268?70, 282\). Soyer, however, argues that there is little evidence to suggest that the sudden arrival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of Jews expelled from Castile in 1492 created the conditions which lead to the tragedy in Portugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five years later. In fact he believes it ?difficult to detect any real long-term social and economic impact upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal? \(pp. 7, 137\). Furthermore, though conceding that Manuel was pressurised by Isabella and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferdinand, Soyer suggests that Manuel acquiesced to the expulsions in order to secure ?a long-lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement with his powerful Castilian neighbours which would assure the King of peace at home and give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the freedom to devote his attention and resources towards overseas expansion and war against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infidel? in North Africa \(pp. 181, 280\). Finally, Soyer maintains that Portugal?s relatively small Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority was expelled so that Manuel could ?boost his image? as a potential crusading Christian king rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than as a consequence of inflexible Spanish demands \(pp. 270?2, 277?9\). This argument is developed in five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters that deal successively with the Jewish and Muslim minorities in Portugal during the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period up to the 1480s; the social impact of the arrival in Portugal firstly of forced Jewish converts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity \(variously termed )] TJ ET BT 181.676 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conversos)] TJ ET BT 229.664 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Spanish for turncoats or converts, )] TJ ET BT 405.632 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marranos)] TJ ET BT 452.300 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?meaning pigs or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swine in Spanish, or )] TJ ET BT 134.348 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cristos novos)] TJ ET BT 206.024 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? that is New Christians\), then of tens of thousands of Jewish refugees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expelled from Castile; political developments between 1492 and 1496 encompassing the death of Joo II and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accession of Manuel I in October 1495; the promulgation of the expulsion edict in December 1496 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced conversion of Portuguese Jews in 1497; and the concomitant expulsion of the Muslim population \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soyer?s first chapter paints a generally positive if variegated picture. The Jewish presence in Iberia, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizes, ?predated both the Islamic conquest and the creation of Portugal by many centuries? \(p. 27\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having described Jewish and Muslim communal organization, including the various judicial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative roles filled by their leaders, he examines the range of heavy taxes \(both direct and indirect\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7860 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tributes and services imposed upon the communities, in return for which they were placed under royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection. More interesting still, Soyer also traces the social impact of increasingly restrictive legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requiring Jews and Muslims to live in separate quarters of towns \()] TJ ET BT 350.972 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(judiarias)] TJ ET BT 394.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 417.644 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mourarias)] TJ ET BT 467.648 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); the imposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the death penalty for Jews or Muslims having sexual relations with Christians, as well as for Christians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converting to Judaism or Islam; and the requirement that Jews and Muslims wear distinctive symbols on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their clothing as badges of identification \(this even applied to Muslim slaves\). Yet despite outbreaks of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish violence, this ?never reached levels even remotely comparable to the rest of the Peninsula, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iberia? \(p. 70\). Nor did the Portuguese crown or clergy generally engage in campaigns of either forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversions or aggressive anti-Jewish or anti-Muslim preaching. Indeed, laws protected Jews and Muslims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from murder or injury, the desecration of their sacred places and the observation of their religious festivals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 59\). They even had their own places of worship, schools and cemeteries, as well as butchers who could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practise ritual slaughter \(p. 80\). Nevertheless, Muslims and Jews were, as elsewhere ?entirely dependent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the protection and goodwill of the Crown?, and though Portuguese monarchs had been ?remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent in their attitudes towards their non-Christian subjects? for most of the 15th century that was about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to change \(p. 83\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two deals with the immediate and short-term consequences of Pope Sixtus IV?s 1478 bull granting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an inquisition in Castile. With new tribunals set up during the 1480s and 90s throughout Castile and, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable opposition, Aragon too, this terrifying institution aimed at preventing New Christians from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverting to Judaism. For though Jewish sources, particularly rabbinic documents ? which were mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with questions of marriage and inheritance of property ? tended to regard New Christians as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing apostates rather than forced converts, the earliest phase of the Spanish Inquisition was clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed against them. Consequently, it is unsurprising to learn that those Castilian conversos who fled from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seville and other regions were regarded unfavourably by Portuguese rabbis. Their arrival also ?provoked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile response from the municipal authorities of Portuguese towns? \(p. 96\). Thus they were expelled from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon in August 1484 and barred from entering Porto. Furthermore, following the murder of an inquisitor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Saragossa Joo II ordered an Episcopal inquisition into the religious beliefs of the ?marranos?. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a contemporary chronicler, severe repression followed: ?some were burnt, others were imprisoned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life? ? though Soyer has found no corroborating evidence in the registers of the Portuguese chancery \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 31 March 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand signed the edict ordering all Jews living within the borders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castile and Aragon to convert or leave before the end of July. While contemporary and early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates put the number of Castilian and Aragonese Jewish exiles who found temporary refuge in Portugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at anywhere between about 93,000 and 300,000 people, Soyer suggests ? drawing on the work of Tavares ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?even including clandestine entries the total number of Jews who entered Portugal in 1492 is unlikely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have surpassed 30,000? \(p. 111\). All the same, that is still a considerable figure; especially considering that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal?s total population then was barely one million. Nor, as Soyer recognizes, can the terrible suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Castilian Jews who entered Portugal be ?underestimated or ignored? \(p. 136\). Accordingly, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castilian Jews had little choice but to sell their property at discounted prices before paying a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax to enter Portugal. Even so, Joo II declared that only 600 families would be permitted to settle. Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without special royal licences were largely confined to refugee camps located close to the border with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castile. Appalling sanitary conditions, however, lead to deadly epidemics. Prevented from going into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring border towns for fear of spreading plague the survivors, who had been given eight months to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depart, eventually made their way to Porto, Lisbon and Setbal, where they hoped to board ships bound for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Africa. But once on the high seas the Jews were robbed and their women raped by unscrupulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mariners; some ships? captains even reportedly strayed off course in order to sell their desperate passengers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and drink at extortionate prices. Finally, on disembarking the Jews were assaulted and robbed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garrisons of the Portuguese North African strongholds of Arzilla and Tangier, as well as suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harassment by the local Muslim population. As for the remaining Castilian Jews, who may or may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been hampered from leaving Portugal ? Soyer disagrees with the opinion of many modern historians here ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the majority of the 600 families settled in and around vora. Their fate, however, is ?impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruct due to the absence of any surviving royal registers for the crucial years? \(p. 120\). Then there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were those caught attempting to enter Portugal without paying the entrance tax. They were enslaved. So too )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6808 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were perhaps as many as 2,000 Jewish children, who were seized from their parents and sent to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equatorial island of So Tom. Perhaps understandably a significant number of exiles converted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity and then returned to Castile. All of which suggests that while Soyer may be correct in asserting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the long-term effect of flooding Portugal with conversos and almost half the Jewish population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castile may have been minimal, that is only because Joo?s brutal policies had rapidly cleansed his lands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish immigrants without moveable wealth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little wonder that as early as 1494 the Jews of Lisbon reportedly feared meeting the same fate as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castilian brethren. On 4 December 1496 Joo?s successor Manuel ordered a sermon announcing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expulsion, prompting many Jews to draw parallels with the exodus from Egypt \(pp. 186?93\). Like Pharaoh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuel supposedly changed his mind and on learning that the majority of Jews preferred exile to conversion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided to force the issue. Fearing that ?the kingdom would remain like an empty fishing net, for [they] ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed most of the kingdom?s wealth?, he issued writs preventing Jews from leaving Portugal by ship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without a special royal licence \(p. 194\). Like Isabella and Ferdinand, Manuel ?ordered the confiscation of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synagogues, religious schools and any other buildings or property that had been communally owned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish )] TJ ET BT 69.680 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(communas)] TJ ET BT 121.004 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Portugal? \(p. 198\). The Great Synagogue of Lisbon, for example, was acquired by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown and granted to the Order of Christ in exchange for a chapel \(p. 202\). Hebrew books were also seized. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite their value, many were sold cheaply while others were publicly burned at Lisbon \(pp. 206?9\). Then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a week before Easter 1497 Jewish children were seized from their parents with the intention of dispersing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them throughout the kingdom where they would be raised as Christians. Eyewitness accounts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitorial trial dossiers indicate that they were forcibly baptised, yet most of the adults held steadfast. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After refusing enticements to convert, Manuel lured them to Lisbon from where they hoped to embark for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new life. Instead thousands were crammed into a park behind the Estaus palace. There they suffered terribly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reportedly deprived of food and drink, the Jews were dragged to nearby churches for baptism. Those that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still resisted were ?condemned to be burnt? \(p. 226\). Others committed suicide. It was, in the words of Rabbi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abraham Zacuto, ?a forced conversion on a scale never before witnessed? \(p. 239\). As for the survivors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had preferred nominal Christianity to death, they were granted 20 years immunity from official scrutiny. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular hostility remained undiminished. Following an inflammatory sermon preached at Lisbon by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominican on Easter Sunday 1506 more than 3,000 New Christians were massacred over several days and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their bodies, according to the chronicle of Damio de Gis \(1502?c.1574\), burned on a bonfire. New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians were later accused of causing an earthquake and their situation became even more dangerous in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1536 when Pope Paul III relented to political pressure and issued a bull establishing the Inquisition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal. Only in 1821 was this Portuguese Inquisition officially abolished \(p. 295\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast Portugal?s smaller Muslim minority was largely expelled in 1497. Contrary to some recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, Soyer suggests that it is difficult to detect increasing Christian anti-Muslim sentiment in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Portugal. Indeed, despite the outbreak of anti-Muslim riots at Valencia in 1463 the Christian rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Iberia?s kingdoms feared reprisals against their co-religionists living in the Islamic Near East if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistreated their Muslims. As a result the Portuguese Muslims, unlike the Jews, were allowed to leave with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their children. Some may have migrated to Castile, where the Islamic population was converted in 1502. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others certainly went to North Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all then, this is a thoroughly researched work that makes use of a variety of sources in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages, including Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Spanish and Portuguese. I found it generally persuasive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly an important contribution to the fields of Portuguese, Jewish and Islamic history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author declined to respond to this review)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 106.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 88.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 88.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/797)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 87.561 m 322.316 87.561 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 62.584 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 87.8755 322.3157 99.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/797) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3776)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000705 00000 n 0000000787 00000 n 0000004835 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000008724 00000 n 0000008852 00000 n 0000008936 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000016823 00000 n 0000016888 00000 n 0000024801 00000 n 0000024885 00000 n 0000031746 00000 n 0000031872 00000 n 0000031967 00000 n 0000032032 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32237 %%EOF