%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723085848+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723085848+01'00') /Title (Judaism without Jews: Philosemitism and Christian Polemic in Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4011 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Judaism without Jews: Philosemitism and Christian Polemic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 4 December 1655, following the arrival in London of Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel from Amsterdam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his petition to the Council of State on behalf of the ?Hebrew Nation?, a conference was begun at Whitehall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discuss the readmission of Jews to England after a supposed absence of 365 years. Oliver Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself opened proceedings, which were attended by politicians, soldiers, clergymen, lawyers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants. During several meetings, some more private, others more public, an important legal point was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established: although Jews had been banished from England by Edward I in 1290 there was no law ? either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the land or ordained by God ? forbidding their return. Consequently, Jewish immigration could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connived at so long as it was expedient. Indeed, it was said to be economically advantageous for the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Jewish trading networks would lower the price of imports and provide new markets for exports. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, a theologian insisted that kindness to strangers ? especially Jews ? was a religious duty. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of the clergy, fearful of proselytism, were against readmission. Nonetheless, it was observed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the duration of the conference, which met until 18 December, Cromwell showed himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourably inclined towards readmitting the Jews. Perhaps, like some delegates, the Protector desired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion of the Jews to Protestantism. A few Englishmen went further, believing that the next year would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the fall of Antichrist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(798)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eliane Glaser)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230507746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7772 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Whitehall Conference, however, ended without a definite conclusion. Moreover, according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports of two Italian envoys from Venice and Tuscany, the majority of English people opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readmission. Clergymen prayed and preached against it as boldly as they dared or else muttered softly. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Dury, a fervent believer in the conversion of the Jews, thought it was best to be wary of the Jews since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had ways ?beyond all other men, to undermine a state?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.960 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.960 726.051 m 337.952 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.952 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, a former royalist governor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbados declared that he was opposed to religious toleration if it meant living among those who rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ. There were also pernicious stories circulating which intermingled accusations revolving around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repulsive if familiar themes of deicide, blasphemy, blood, diabolism, magic and money. Thus it was alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jews celebrated Passover by feasting on matzoth mixed with the blood of murdered Christians; that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish seed would adulterate Christian blood; that the Jews intended to buy St. Paul?s Cathedral and convert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it into a synagogue; that Jewish gold was being used to buy the support of wavering ministers; and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish merchants were prepared to pay fantastical sums for the privilege of resettlement and endenization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell therefore reportedly proceeded warily, giving his implicit permission rather than openly declaring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his position. In fact, it needs to be emphasized that there was no Act of Parliament, no proclamation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell, no order from the Council of State either welcoming Jews to England or changing their legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status as a community from aliens \(foreigners whose allegiance was due to a foreign state\) to denizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(foreigners admitted to residence and granted certain rights, notably to prosecute or defend themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law and to purchase or sell land, but still subject to the same customs duties on their goods and merchandise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as aliens\). The only evidence we have suggests that publicly Cromwell remained undecided on the issue. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can only deduce ? as some historians of Anglo-Jewry have done ? that Cromwell gave Menasseh a verbal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurance that Jews would be permitted to worship privately in their homes. While this was not the same as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing them to build a public synagogue, it was in keeping with the spirit of certain clauses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instrument of Government of December 1653 which had extended religious toleration to those Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sects that did not disturb the peace. However if the actual purpose of Menasseh?s mission was to gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official state approval for the readmission of Jews to England ? rather than merely asking the authorities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn a blind eye to their presence ? then it must be judged a failure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the same England had not been entirely a land without Jews since 1290. As is now well known, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentary evidence indicates the intermittent presence of Jews or people of Jewish origin throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called Middle Period of Anglo-Jewish history \(1290?1655\). Various cases illustrate that between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Expulsion and the accession of the Tudor dynasty conversion from Judaism to Christianity ensured shelter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the House for Jewish Converts \(Domus Conversorum\), and occasionally brought financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reward. Jewish physicians, moreover, seem to have been highly valued. After the expulsion of Jews from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of German-speaking towns and territories, several parts of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily and all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iberian soil at the end of the 15th century, Jews became widely dispersed, scattered almost to the ends of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known earth. Among the few who made their way to England during the Tudor period were merchants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financiers, clerks, intelligencers, scholars and physicians, as well as a sailor and a mining engineer. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crypto-Jews and, in some instances, genuine converts were predominantly of Castilian or Portuguese origin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though a handful also came from the Italian States. While the length of their stay varied from a few months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the remainder of their lives, altogether more than 125 men, women and children have been identified. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among them were Dr Hector Nuez, a Portuguese-born New Christian who was made a fellow of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College of Physicians and Royal College of Surgeons; Dunstan Aes, a freeman of the Grocers? Company, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spice trader, and financial agent of the Portuguese pretender Don Antonio; and Dr Rodrigo Lopez, Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s chief physician who was executed in June 1594 for his part in an alleged plot to poison her. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two most famous Jews of Elizabethan England appeared only on stage as villains ? and neither was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. These were Barabas and Shylock: the Machiavellian central character in Christopher Marlowe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jew of Malta)] TJ ET BT 117.680 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and a malicious, vengeful Christian-hating usurer in William Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 491.624 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Merchant of Venice)] TJ ET BT 128.660 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Jacobean era a potentially lucrative proposal to settle Jews in Ireland came to nothing. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly, according to reports by the Venetian envoy, several Portuguese crypto-Jewish merchants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused of Judaism and swiftly expelled from England. Although a few crypto-Jews of Iberian origin seem )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.9597 726.3655 337.9517 738.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have escaped detection or resettled in London during the remainder of James?s reign, it is noteworthy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English merchants, sailors and travellers continued having commercial dealings or encounters with Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas, particularly in Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Moreover, during the English Civil War it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rumoured that certain Amsterdam Jewish merchants had been persuaded to purchase and export the goods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londoners who had remained loyal to the Crown and defaulted on their payments of the Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment. Though this was denied, it is clear that Antonio Carvajal, a crypto-Jew born overseas who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived in England about 1635, was involved in shipping barrels of gunpowder from Amsterdam to Dover. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An importer of plate and bullion, as well as wine from the Canary Islands, Carvajal was a leading figure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s clandestine Jewish community. Granted an endenization along with his two sons Alonso and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph on 31 July 1655, he afterwards signed a 21-year lease for a brick tenement on Creechurch Lane in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish of Katherine Creechurch. By March 1657 this structure was being converted into a synagogue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another prominent crypto-Jewish figure was Antnio Rodrigues Robles, a wealthy merchant of Duke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Place in London?s East end. On 13 March 1656 legal proceedings were begun against Robles, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused of being a Spanish national \(England was at war with Spain at that time so his goods and property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were liable for confiscation\). This affair was very significant because it forced other prominent members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London?s secret Jewish community out into the open. Accordingly on 24 March seven men, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menasseh and Carvajal, petitioned Cromwell for permission to practise Judaism privately in their homes, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go about unmolested and to have a burial place outside the City for their dead. Cromwell referred it to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the Council of State, who returned the Jews? petition to him on 26 June 1656 ? apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without recording the details of their discussion. This is important because a few famous historians of Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewry such as Albert Hyamson and Cecil Roth have argued that the Council responded positively to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petition but that the crucial document was later destroyed. Although sceptics like H. S. Q. Henriques, Moses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaster, and more recently David Katz, were correct to dismiss this as baseless speculation 1656 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless now widely trumpeted as an irreversible moment that marked the gradual informal readmission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jews to England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first and best chapter of Glaser?s brief book ? there are only 132 pages of text ? examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances in which this anniversary was manufactured and the elaborate ways it has since been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorated. As she observes in her introduction, throughout 2006 there was ?a calendar of events to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrate the 350th anniversary? including a festival in Trafalgar Square, a commemorative service at Bevis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marks synagogue attended by Tony Blair, concerts, lectures, and banquets \(p. 1\). Beginning with mid 17th-, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th- and early 19th-century interpretations of 1656 ? ranging from the scheming goldsmith Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Violet?s )] TJ ET BT 77.012 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Petition Against the Jewes)] TJ ET BT 214.340 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1661\), to D?Blossiers Tovey?s )] TJ ET BT 372.320 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglia Judaica)] TJ ET BT 445.316 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1738\), to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Godwin?s )] TJ ET BT 128.012 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Commonwealth of England)] TJ ET BT 328.352 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1824?8\) ? Glaser identifies the Victorian age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the crucial period during which the Anglo-Jewish community?s view of its origins changed. She attributes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this partly to ?Victorian philosemitism? \(p. 17\), derived from a genteel missionary impulse in Protestantism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly to ?Parliamentary Emancipation?, which enabled Baron de Rothschild to take up a seat in the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Commons in 1858. Thereafter the ?history of the Jews in England was consolidated and institutionalised? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 19\). Thus an exhibition of Anglo-Jewish history was held at the Royal Albert Hall in 1887, while in 1893 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jewish Historical Society of England was founded. The first ?Resettlement Day? was held in 1894 with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large-scale 250th anniversary celebrations in 1906. At a commemorative speech at the latter event Lucien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolf, a pioneering historian of Anglo-Jewry, presented Cromwell and Menasseh, Christian and Jew, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??standing together in the dawn of English liberty, twin champion of a wronged people??. Yet in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ??spirit of toleration?? that shone like a beacon, ??dark places?? still lingered ??on the face of God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earth?? \(p. 7\). For a wave of antisemitism had swept across continental Europe resulting in the mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration of Eastern European Jews to England. This in turn bred xenophobic resentment culminating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Aliens Act of 1905.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the so-called Resettlement was certainly de facto if not de jure a watershed, Glaser is still right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight ?a foundational historical tradition? as well as the vindicatory tendency running through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of its first practitioners \(pp. 1?2, 7, 19, 27\). Indeed, her argument chimes with some recent work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging the traditional optimistic, perhaps even self-serving, picture of hitherto rootless persecuted aliens )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed through a strong current of Protestant philo-Semitism into grateful beneficiaries of a uniquely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English form of religious toleration based upon the peculiarities of common law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her second chapter on the relationship between puritans and Judaism discusses printed controversies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical strategies; the mockery of puritan characters on the 17th-century stage by playwrights such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Davenport and Ben Jonson; the growing interest in Hebrew among zealous Protestant scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the work of Hugh Broughton; the identification of Protestant England with God?s elect nation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated borrowings from English translations of the Old Testament to present an image of the self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding godly as latter-day children of Israel whose exodus from the state church left them wandering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards a promised land of religious reform; continental influences on puritan Hebraism; Broughton?s use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hebrew sources to explain the nature of Christ?s descent into Hell; John Selden?s Hebrew scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the controversy generated by his )] TJ ET BT 213.308 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historie of Tithes)] TJ ET BT 297.320 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1618\); Judaizing ? that is the practise of following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish customs or religious rites, notably the case of Somerset-born separatist minister John Traske, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early teaching emphasized Old Testament legalism and who kept Jewish dietary laws as well as observing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Sabbath on Saturday; and finally the Easter controversy, which was exacerbated by proposed reform of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Julian calendar and competing interpretations of British ecclesiastical history. Not all of this fits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortably under the rubric ?Puritans and Judaism: From Scholarship to Sedition?. Nor unfortunately is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there much new here. Most of this has been done before, done at greater length and done better.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glaser?s third chapter is entitled ?Anglicans and Judaism: From Ceremony to Legalism?. Her point here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?Christian interest in Judaism in the early modern period was not restricted to Puritans? \(p. 65\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly she looks at debates about the validity of church ceremonies and the worship of God ?in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty of holiness? \(Psalm 29:2\), which became ever more acrimonious during the Laudian ascendancy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glaser convincingly demonstrates that ?ceremonialists increasingly justified their promotion of physical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural and aesthetic forms of worship by appealing to Jewish precedents? \(p. 68\). Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring motifs of these controversies are divergent or ambivalent attitudes towards the Jewish Tabernacle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Temple. Thus ceremonialists invoked them as precedents, while their opponents compared Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious rituals with Popish superstitions. Glaser also considers revived interest in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court, particularly its appropriateness as a model of church government. This is then connected with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian understanding of Mosaic Law which, from Thomas Aquinas onwards, had been conventionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into three categories ? the moral, judicial and ceremonial. As other scholars have shown and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, this had critical implications both for the payment of tithes and Sabbath observance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four examines religious toleration, a familiar subject with an extensive literature. Glaser?s approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to emphasize the extent to which its development was ?built on Jewish ideas? \(p. 94\). Predictably she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on Roger Williams and his 1644 tract )] TJ ET BT 255.992 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution)] TJ ET BT 419.312 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, debates held by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Assembly of Divines, and Richard Overton?s )] TJ ET BT 318.644 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Araignement of Mr. Persecvtion)] TJ ET BT 494.288 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1645\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, I am sorry to say there is nothing new here. Though Glaser insists on the novelty of linking these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts with debates about the relationship between church and state, it is well known that Cromwellian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliaments debated the limits of liberty of conscience ? principally in the cases of John Biddle and James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nayler, and that the authority of civil magistrates to enforce a judicial definition of blasphemy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter concerns the Whitehall Conference together with motives for and against readmission. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too has been dealt with exhaustively and extremely well, notably by David Katz. Even so, Glaser does have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to add by reading William Prynne?s )] TJ ET BT 263.000 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Short Demurrer To the Jewes Long discontinued barred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remitter into England)] TJ ET BT 140.684 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1656\) as in part a response to Hugh Peter?s )] TJ ET BT 358.640 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Good work for a good magistrate)] TJ ET BT 519.644 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1651\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which advocated burning obsolete common law precedents and replacing them with the moral law and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish exemplars. Her suggestion that it was felt a Jewish presence would ?threaten an evolving sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English nationhood? \(p. 128\), however, needs to be supported by more evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all then, )] TJ ET BT 106.352 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judaism without Jews)] TJ ET BT 211.688 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes several valid points and contributes to the sizeable literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject. Furthermore, while one of Glaser?s conclusions is a statement of the obvious ? namely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?centrality of Jewish ideas and scholarship to early modern Christians? \(p. 130\) ? another should give us )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 2607 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pause for thought:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not hard to understand why Jewish historians of Victorian England, writing in the context )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mass immigration and rising anti-semitism, would have wanted to cultivate a positive )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of Anglo-Jewish history. Their priority was the recovery of a body of evidence which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed to the progressively tolerant attitude of early modern English Christians towards Jews. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those nineteenth-century pressures may have disappeared, but they have left a lasting legacy; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the modern emphasis on the celebration of multiculturalism and religious identity fosters a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the past which is similarly essentialist and teleological \(p. 132\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 595.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 595.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Dury, )] TJ ET BT 120.344 595.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Case of Conscience, Whether it be Lawful to Admit Jews into a Christian Common-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 580.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wealth?)] TJ ET BT 102.020 580.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1656\), p. 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.344 580.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.344 579.507 m 261.332 579.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 554.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 540.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 526.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/shofar/summary/v028/28.4.chazan.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 524.739 m 363.008 524.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.008 526.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 521.407 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 503.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 503.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/798)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 502.233 m 322.316 502.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 477.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3777)] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/shofar/summary/v028/28.4.chazan.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.3437 579.8215 261.3317 591.7015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 525.0535 363.0077 536.9335 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/shofar/summary/v028/28.4.chazan.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 502.5475 322.3157 514.4275 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/798) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004736 00000 n 0000004845 00000 n 0000004955 00000 n 0000005064 00000 n 0000008625 00000 n 0000008753 00000 n 0000008837 00000 n 0000008921 00000 n 0000016746 00000 n 0000016776 00000 n 0000016904 00000 n 0000016940 00000 n 0000017005 00000 n 0000024725 00000 n 0000024790 00000 n 0000032629 00000 n 0000032727 00000 n 0000035387 00000 n 0000035515 00000 n 0000035570 00000 n 0000035697 00000 n 0000035814 00000 n 0000035942 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36037 %%EOF