%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 67 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080613+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080613+01'00') /Title (Evangelicals in the Royal Navy, 1775-1815: Blue Lights and Psalm-Singers) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4831 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Evangelicals in the Royal Navy, 1775-1815: Blue Lights and Psalm-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Singers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notwithstanding the outpouring of heavyweight publications that attended the 2005 Trafalgar bicentenary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular perceptions of life in Nelson?s navy still revolve around the brutal, filthy, drink-sodden hellhole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in recent television adaptations of Hornblower and William Golding?s )] TJ ET BT 423.956 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To the Ends of the Earth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trilogy. Serious scholarship, however, paints rather a different picture. For one thing, it is now widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted that the Hanoverian navy was a formidable fighting machine, serviced by an immense, costly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and ? for its day ? remarkably effective shore establishment. Contemporary politicians were only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too eager to lavish money upon it, recognizing that naval might was essential, not only to defend British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties at home, but also for the projection of power and the protection of commerce abroad. The ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing demands of naval expenditure played a central part in the growth of the ?fiscal-military state?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.568 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.568 150.753 m 552.560 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionist historians have also been drawn to challenge erroneous assumptions regarding life afloat. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally enough, officers were well aware that physical well-being and fighting effectiveness went hand-in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand. As Nicholas Rodger argues, conditions in the ?wooden world? compared favourably ? for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part ? with those on land. ?There is no doubt?, he asserts, ?that its food was one of the attractions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 68.336 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 68.336 79.473 m 82.328 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 82.328 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And as both he and John D. Byrn have shown, although there were indeed martinets who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescribed inordinately harsh punishment, on the whole such behaviour was frowned upon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.608 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.608 65.217 m 485.600 65.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.600 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cleanliness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was pursued obsessively, and commanders fretted ceaselessly about the health of their men. So much for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(799)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 August, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Blake)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843833598)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Atkins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.5677 151.0675 552.5597 162.9475 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 68.3357 79.7875 82.3277 91.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.6077 65.5315 485.5997 77.4115 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rum, sodomy and the lash?! )] TJ ET BT 175.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals in the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 328.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throws new light on another misunderstood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of the late-Hanoverian navy, showing that it paid growing attention not only to physical welfare, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to the moral and spiritual health of its sailors. Thanks to the foundations laid by a cadre of highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential Evangelical officers ? the ?Blue Lights? of the title ? the 19th-century navy differed dramatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its 18th-century counterpart, being characterized by a deep concern for morality, humanity and regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious observance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some work already exists on naval religion, most of it ? like Gordon Taylor?s )] TJ ET BT 410.972 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sea Chaplains )] TJ ET BT 504.644 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1978\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the clergy. Yet, as Blake makes clear, the reforming currents at work in the navy during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after the American Revolutionary war drew most of their strength from heightened religiosity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the officer corps. This was emphatically a lay movement. )] TJ ET BT 347.960 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals in the Royal Navy)] TJ ET BT 498.608 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that between 1775 and 1815 religion in general ? and Evangelicalism in particular ? became integral to naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. In doing this, it draws upon an impressive range of archival sources, as well as making extensive use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary pamphlets and publications. For these reasons alone, it should be compulsory reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval and religious scholars alike. But there is also a broader sense in which this book is significant. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most exciting recent developments in naval and military scholarship have come about through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconnecting attitudes, practices and culture in the armed forces with those in wider society. Like )] TJ ET BT 503.588 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redcoat and Religion )] TJ ET BT 141.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), Michael Snape?s seminal study of the religious experience of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldier, )] TJ ET BT 72.680 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals in the Royal Navy)] TJ ET BT 223.328 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comes as a salutary reminder that historians need to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and religious activity not merely in terms of personal observance, or even of philanthropic do-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goodery, but as influencing society, culture and politics in much more subtle and far-reaching ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the book does not pursue this theme overtly, it serves to highlight a prevailing tendency to assume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronistically, that religion had little or no place in the public sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the growing purchase of Evangelical religion among late 18th-century politicians and public men, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought to come as no surprise that piety also began to infuse naval culture in this period. ?Historians?, Blake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us at the outset, ?have always known that Evangelicalism got into the navy? \(p.1\). True, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious scholars have tended to disregard potential lines of enquiry concerning naval and military affairs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in their turn naval scholars have ? with a few exceptions ? almost entirely ignored religion. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect can be ascribed in part to the latter group?s preoccupation with tactics, technology and floating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy, but it also owes something to the supposition that the navy was a profoundly irreligious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. There is some truth in this view: contemporary opinion held that sailors ? being beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach of conventional, parochial Anglicanism ? were irretrievably immoral, profane and superstitious.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.244 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.244 343.395 m 537.236 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, although the 1731 )] TJ ET BT 176.996 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regulations and Instructions )] TJ ET BT 318.668 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made provision for the presence of a chaplain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many captains displayed a pronounced disinclination to take clergymen on board. Those few impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics who were prepared to brave the privations \(and meagre pay\) of shipboard life were frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disregarded. ?I was fed, coaxed and stared at ? if in my den, forgotten; if at large in every body?s way; of no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner of use ? and at best, endured,? wrote one \(p. 76\). \(Perhaps this explains why naval chaplains in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional accounts tend to be so eccentric, impecunious and disagreeable.\) Yet at the same time, as Blake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, the navy was integral to Britain?s religious self-identity. Ever since the 16th century, Protestants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had seen their fleet as a crucial bulwark against the Catholic powers of Europe \(pp. 10?16\). If the early 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century witnessed a steep decline in land-based efforts to proselytise within the service, recent writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national character emphasizes that the equation of Protestantism and naval power retained immense popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.992 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.992 186.579 m 98.984 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.984 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Considered in this light, it was symbolically significant that daily prayer using the Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England liturgy was prescribed in the )] TJ ET BT 216.656 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regulations)] TJ ET BT 273.992 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, even if it was observed at sea only sporadically. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, at least, the senior service was firmly rooted in confessional Anglicanism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this provides important background, for it becomes clear as the opening chapter unfolds that it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing sense of the disparity between the confessional, pastoral ideal and the realities of life afloat that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted renewed attention to religious provision. That this feeling crystallized when it did owed much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dynamism of a few pious officers, as Blake argues, but it must also be seen in the light of trends ashore. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With British society reeling in the 1780s from the loss of the American colonies, there existed a deep-seated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of national crisis, which manifested itself in a mounting barrage of calls for moral renovation. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2437 343.7095 537.2357 355.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.9917 186.8935 98.9837 198.7735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7645 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuing decades witnessed the proliferation of moral, improving and proselytising societies, the abolition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British slave trade and ? crucially ? the spread of Evangelicalism among the great and good. The desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to evangelise servicemen reflected the concerns of an increasingly influential movement, one that sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use every practical means at its disposal ? including patronage, preferment and political clout ? to convert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation to heartfelt religion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.332 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.332 738.051 m 194.324 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blake divides Evangelical activity in the navy into four main phases. The first, spanning the 1780s and 90s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew out of concerns regarding indiscipline and immorality. These problems were to be countered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruiting conscientious chaplains and reversing the prevailing neglect of public worship. A similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme was promulgated during the second phase, which extended from the French Revolutionary War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the coming of peace in 1815, but with much greater resources being put into active evangelism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the period in which the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge \(SPCK\), the Naval & Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible Society and the Religious Tract Society came to prominence as providers of Bibles, prayerbooks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts. The third phase, from the late 1790s onwards, was marked by the growth of informal, Methodist-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prayer- and Bible gatherings in the fleet, a phenomenon that became relatively common in the later years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Napoleonic War. A fourth and final phase in the years after 1815 ? outlined briefly in the final chapter ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on transforming the wider maritime milieu ashore through seamen?s missions and other welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes. Although rather more space in the book is devoted to the first two phases than the latter two, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourfold division is nonetheless a useful summary which is worth bearing in mind for what follows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader?s first proper encounter with the Blue Lights takes place in chapter two, where several of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group?s pioneers are introduced. Its leading member was Charles Middleton, an irascible sea-captain-turned-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrator who used his position as Comptroller of the Navy \(1778?90\) to agitate for bureaucratic reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like his contemporaries, historians have not been unappreciative of Middleton?s administrative aptitude, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, now as then, some find his hectoring correspondence, ostentatious piety and unashamed careerism hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stomach. While fairly sympathetic towards the Comptroller?s foibles, the author is not uncritical. But it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that this is not his main concern; of much more importance for this book is Middleton?s place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider Evangelical world, and in particular his connections with two other individuals who shared his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious concerns: his fellow reformer Rear-Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, a convinced Methodist, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Ramsay, Middleton?s one-time surgeon and later chaplain. It is as an abolitionist writer that Ramsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is usually remembered; indeed, alongside Hannah More, William Wilberforce and the black emancipist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olaudah Equiano, he and Middleton were leading members of the circle which assembled at Teston in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1780s to plan the parliamentary campaign. This story is a familiar one, and the book rightly devotes only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few pages to it. More groundbreaking is the exploration of the interactions between Middleton, Kempenfelt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ramsay. The manifesto developed by these men during the 1780s ? emphasizing the responsibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the captain for religion and good conduct on board ship, in conjunction with a sober, serious chaplain ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped Blue Light attitudes for years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three commences with a brief examination of ships? logs, which ? coupled with anecdotal evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? suggest that services were held more often during the 1790s and 1800s. Yet, as Blake is quick to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize, this had little to do with evangelistic fervour. Pamphlets, periodicals and prints bear eloquent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness to the quasi-religious overtones of Britain?s crusade against French atheism and anarchy. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy, as elsewhere, there was a growing appreciation that divine sanction could be called upon to inculcate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to King and country, to encourage submission to rank and ? above all ? to buttress discipline. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was why the authoritarian Earl St Vincent ? no Evangelical himself ? made divine worship compulsory in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his fleets, and it also helps to explain why SPCK minutes from the 1790s record such a dramatic rise in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requests from captains for Bibles and prayerbooks. William Bedford of the )] TJ ET BT 396.620 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Royal Sovereign )] TJ ET BT 478.604 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several convinced that ?a packet of books received from the Society caused a happy change in the mind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct? of his ship?s company, as he informed the SPCK in 1798 \(p. 83\). Whether or not this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely the case, between 1793 and 1812 \(when the demand became too great to be handled centrally\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SPCK supplied consignments of books to at least 375 ships \(p. 95\). A vogue for moralizing ?sea sermons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that chaplains too were keen to make their presence felt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the third chapter makes the point that Evangelicals were not alone in their concern for shipboard worship, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3317 738.3655 194.3237 750.2455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7874 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it soon becomes evident that the religion of obedience and good conduct propounded in many tracts was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds away from spiritual conversion and the personal faith in Christ they believed to be the true remedy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four examines seven serving officers in the period 1793?1802, contending that their behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned ?a new consensus about evangelical aims?, one which stressed ?persuasion and humanity? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as formal religious observance and moral exhortation \(p. 105\). This change of tack, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blake, is perceptible in the preaching of chaplains such as Edward Ward and the evangelistic tracts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marine officer Andrew Burn, as well as informing the careers of high-profile captains like James Gambier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. V. Penrose and Edward Pellew, and admirals Sir James Saumarez and Adam Duncan. That most of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted a humane approach to discipline cannot be doubted, but this chapter may overplay the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals were always compassionate. After all, they were not noted for their optimism about human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature, and in other walks of life tended to see temporal punishment not as an unmitigated evil but as a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to awaken sin-sick souls. ?Preaching Jemmy? Gambier, for instance, was certainly humane, but was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious in the service for his austere severity. Or to take another example: if the disciplinarian Pellew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?appears out of step? with the other exemplars mentioned \(p. 139\), might this not suggest that there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other genuinely religious men who were prepared to take a similarly harsh line towards defaulters? Here and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in the book, Blake can afford to be confident in rehabilitating the reputation of the Evangelicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without feeling the need to defend their every action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1800s witnessed an unprecedented rise in the status of religion in the navy. Partly this was due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson?s overt religiosity, which ? although ?not the piety of the Blue Lights?, as the fifth chapter goes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pains to point out ? shaped the views of many up-and-coming officers \(pp. 142?51\). Of more lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance was the elevation of Middleton to the peerage and his appointment as First Lord of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admiralty in 1805. The fact that his nephew, Gambier, was already at the Admiralty meant that ? for a time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least ? Evangelical influence predominated there. Here was a prime chance to implement the 1780s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme in full. The resulting revision of the )] TJ ET BT 266.324 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regulations and Instructions )] TJ ET BT 407.996 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bore many marks of this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spelling out officers? responsibilities for the spiritual and general welfare of their men, as well as codifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the educational and pastoral roles of the chaplain for the first time. \(Further improvements to chaplains? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of service were implemented in 1812.\) That compassionate Christianity was indeed gaining wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase in the profession is reflected in )] TJ ET BT 230.972 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Naval Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 331.640 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where a set of articles authored by Penrose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sparked heated debate over the dehumanising effects of naval discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The longest chapter by some way is the sixth, which seeks to set the record straight concerning the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pious officers were ?more fitted for the organ-loft than the quarter deck? \(p. 174\). In one sense, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that anyone should ever have paid any attention to this canard: Saumarez, Duncan and Pellew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were among the navy?s most celebrated fighting officers, and there were several others ? Jahleel Brenton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Hillyar and Francis Austen ? who combined professional skill with proven piety. The unfavourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype, Blake explains, is based almost entirely on the action at Aix Roads in 1809, where Gambier?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to capitalize fully on the situation provoked charges of inaction and incompetence from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate, Lord Cochrane. Although scholars are well aware that Cochrane was a radical MP with an anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government axe to grind, this chapter demonstrates that they have been too apt to swallow both his version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events and his anti-Evangelical prejudices.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.972 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.972 229.347 m 265.964 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.964 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Granted, Gambier was no Nelson, but it is absurd to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppose that his religion made him a shrinking violet: at the Glorious First of June in 1794, for example, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was brave to the point of recklessness, and his role in the controversial bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests a decidedly ruthless streak. Most importantly, the 1809 court-martial fully exonerated his conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Aix Roads, and while the incident certainly brought to the fore longstanding fears in the profession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding Evangelical influence in high places ? a theme which deserves lengthier treatment than this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows ? it seems that historians have done Gambier a disservice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven turns away from the Blue Lights in order to examine the prayer groups that formed the focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ?Naval Awakening? of the 1800s. A paucity of first-hand accounts means that this phenomenon has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often appeared elusive, but, like Roald Kverndal?s )] TJ ET BT 279.632 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seamen?s Missions: Their Origin and Early Growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1986\), this chapter shows that it is possible to catch informative glimpses of it. Using later reminiscences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and published anecdotes, Blake describes how groups of ?psalm-singers? \(as they were derisively known\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.9717 229.6615 265.9637 241.5415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 9723 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were active on board some 80 ships by the time the war ended, supported financially and practically by pious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts ashore; he also notes that there were revivalist stirrings among the naval prisoners of war held by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French at Givet, Verdun and elsewhere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.624 766.563 m 256.616 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 256.616 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The question of how such groups were related to the Blue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lights is an intriguing one, in that lower-deck religion was more akin to Methodism than to the sober )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican Evangelicalism of many officers. Gatherings usually sprang up without officers? intervention, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? as Lieutenant Richard Marks stressed in his autobiographical )] TJ ET BT 338.300 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Retrospect )] TJ ET BT 392.624 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? they could not thrive without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval \(tacit or otherwise\) of those in authority. So whereas some commanders feared that Methodist-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups might well subvert distinctions of rank, others actively sought to encourage personal faith through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting up reading classes and establishing subscription libraries. Though differing in provenance, Blake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends, the two movements were closely interlinked, and it was symbolically apt that both the ex-sailor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Baptist Minister ?Bo?sun? George Charles Smith and the officer-turned-clergyman Marks became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading lights in the post-war maritime missionary movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, )] TJ ET BT 73.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals in the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 226.664 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts waters that until now have remained largely unmapped. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many pioneering studies, it is not exhaustive; those familiar with Margarette Lincoln?s work on cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the navy, for instance, might well be interested to read more about how Evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicists exploited the achievements of prominent Blue Lights in order to push the idea that British heroes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought also to be pious.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.352 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.352 554.979 m 156.344 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Let this for ever silence those who assert that religion incapacitates for the uses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this life? was an oft-repeated remark in pious periodicals. More, too, needs to be written on how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals manipulated patronage, for although this receives some attention, the author?s desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exculpate the Blue Lights from undue criticisms prevents closer examination. Yet this should not detract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Blake?s very considerable achievement. That the 19th-century public viewed the navy as an instrument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of moral policy had much to do with the role of the West Africa squadron in enforcing the slavery ban, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spread of morality and religion among British tars lent the idea added verisimilitude. This book explains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the foundations were laid, and if ? as the introduction hints ? there are plans for a sequel covering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war navy, it is to be eagerly awaited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Morriss, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naval Power and British culture 1760?1850: Public Trust and Government Ideology)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 2004\); N. A. M. Rodger, )] TJ ET BT 242.996 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Command of the Ocean: a Naval History of Britain, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1649?1815 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2004\); Clive Wilkinson, )] TJ ET BT 287.684 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Navy and the State in the Eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century )] TJ ET BT 105.680 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.660 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.660 332.643 m 260.648 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. A. M. Rodger, )] TJ ET BT 151.340 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wooden World: an Anatomy of the Georgian Navy)] TJ ET BT 415.976 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\), p. 87.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.300 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.300 318.387 m 554.960 318.387 l S BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 304.131 m 90.344 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid; John D. Byrn, )] TJ ET BT 159.356 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime and Punishment in the Royal Navy: Discipline in the Leeward Islands )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Station, 1784?1812 )] TJ ET BT 161.024 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.344 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.344 275.619 m 303.332 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcus Rediker, )] TJ ET BT 146.996 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Maritime World, 1700?1750 )] TJ ET BT 254.336 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1987\), pp. 169?85.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.984 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.984 247.107 m 461.972 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707?1837 )] TJ ET BT 331.028 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 1992\); Kathleen Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Empire, trade and popular politics in mid-Hanoverian Britain: the case of Admiral Vernon?, )] TJ ET BT 514.268 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Present)] TJ ET BT 100.676 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 121 \(1988\), 74?109.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.996 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.996 204.339 m 257.984 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have written about this subject elsewhere: see Gareth Atkins, )] TJ ET BT 366.956 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilberforce and his Milieux: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worlds of Anglican Evangelicalism, c.1780?1830)] TJ ET BT 302.672 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Cambridge: unpublished Ph.D. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.348 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.348 161.571 m 182.336 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a recent reassessment of Cochrane?s political and controversial career, see Timothy Jenks, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naval Engagements: Patriotism, Cultural Politics and the Royal Navy 1793-1815)] TJ ET BT 456.680 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\), ch. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. Discussion of the incident in question is to be found on pp. 267?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.004 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.004 118.803 m 447.992 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A minor error regarding one of the group?s main financial backers is to be found on p. 235: W. H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoare was indeed a banker, but he belonged to Messrs Hoares of Fleet Street, which was unrelated to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Quaker family firm that bore the same name. 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