%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818065604+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818065604+01'00') /Title (Green Imperialism : Colonial Expansion , Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism , 1600-1860) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4165 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Green Imperialism : Colonial Expansion , Tropical Island Edens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the Origins of Environmentalism , 1600-1860)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the exception of pioneering work by Clarence Glacken , Keith Thomas and Alfred Crosby , very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has yet been written about early modern environmental thought . This has been partly determined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of definition . Thus in a path-breaking overview of English developments between 1500 and 1800 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Keith Thomas framed his subject-matter in terms of 'man and nature' rather than 'environment'. Lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly activity in the field may also be explained in terms of Whiggism and presentism . Every form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical writing is rooted in and shaped by heavily loaded contemporary concerns. But global warming and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putative environmental collapse are now so pervasively present in collective consciousness that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptation to depict the past as little more than a prelude to millennial catastrophe is an unusually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling one . Hence the ahistoricity of so much that is published under the standard of 'green history' , a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidly growing literature , the bulk of which comprises little more than a prepared script for the predicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-annihilation of homo sapiens and the nature on which the species has been immemorially dependent . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little in this corpus about precise historical relationships between economic , environmental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epidemiological variables as depicted in the writings of Fernand Braudel , Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other members of the Annales school . Nor is there a recognition that when early modern savants talked and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 October, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Grove)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521403856)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(560pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521403856)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Luckin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorized about what is now termed the 'environment', they were invariably preoccupied with concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions that had little to do with 'global' resource depletion .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A talented practitioner in the history of ideas, Richard Grove has avoided the style of environmental history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which implicitly prepares the way for the future , rather than unravelling the contradictions of the past . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing on the multiple meanings of the 'edenic' both in Europe and the newly discovered non-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world between 1600 and the mid- nineteenth century, he has made convincing connexions between the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which British, Dutch and French men of science were able to draw on everyday experience and specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of remote islands to build up an understanding of the potential fragility and exhaustability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature. Grove concentrates , more specifically , on deforestation and the partially ' rediscovered ' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of desiccation within an intellectual framework informed by new, dynamic and empirically-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted ideas in medicine, climatology, agriculture and botany . Within this flexible paradigm, islands could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be presented either as symbolic utopias or dystopias .Their inherent 'naturalness' could also be deployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to the 'unnaturalness' and 'corruption' of wasteful and 'luxurious' metropolitan life-styles. \( In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect , as Grove notes, real and hypothesized edenic environments sustained and intensified pre-existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions, long imbedded in western culture, between 'town' and 'country' \). As part of this new , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentally-driven agenda , furthermore , island- based botanical gardens were established so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments might be conducted that would educate and influence elite opinion in London, Paris and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam about existing or potential environmental deterioration . Living and working thousands of miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from home , Grove's protagonists were unusually receptive to indigenous and holistic belief systems that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwrote non-European conceptions of interactions between man and nature .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When relating a developing body of scientific thought at the colonial periphery to ancient Indian, Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hellenic conceptions of the environment, Grove excels and presents novel and convincing conclusions . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, taken as a whole, his bulky study too often undermines its best arguments as a result of an undue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immersion in empirical detail . Thus a pivotal chapter on the French physiocrat Pierre Poivre and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities on Mauritius runs to no fewer than ninety pages. Beginning with an account of the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale for France's original settlement of the island, it moves on to a description of Mahe de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labourdonnais and botanical experimentation before presenting a step-by-step analysis of conservationist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies in practice . As if all that were not enough, the chapter also incorporates textual readings of Poivre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bernadin de Saint-Pierre . \( The latter's Paul et Virginie is not, however, thought worthy of detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny.\) At the risk of punning himself out of credibility, the present reviewer quickly became convinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Grove had repeatedly missed the wood for the trees. Thus, following an impressive fifty page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductory overview, Green Imperialism includes a chapter of nearly sixty pages on the English and Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East India companies in relation to colonial environmental crisis : over seventy on the British and the forests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eastern Caribbean : and no fewer than eighty on state conservationism in India between the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century and the Mutiny. \(There are, though, only fifteen pages on the important sub- theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual origins of post-Newtonian climatic environmentalism.\) Unthinkable though such self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment may have seemed, Grove ought surely to have asked a friendly though critical editor to hack a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(path through the Amazonian density of his study, in the hope of compressing nearly five hundred pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text into around three hundred .)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7546 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But excessive length is only one among several problems. Over-playing the edenic theme, Grove devotes too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little attention to possible alternatives to scientific fascination with island milieux as major determinants of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging global environmentalism. Thus it would undoubtedly have been revealing to have juxtaposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural similarities and dissimilarities between progressive agricultural intervention in eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mauritius against analogous developments associated with enclosure and agrarian improvement in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1750 and 1815. Such a comparison might have convinced sceptical readers that Grove's tropical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific experimenters really were more influential than Eurocentric ideologues and cultural critics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing educated opinion in England and France in particular for the possibility that 'progress' might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generate severe and socially disruptive environmental and indeed global disequilibria. By failing fully to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront such possibilities, Green Imperialism inevitably appears to have loaded the dice too heavily in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of edenic solutions to the intellectual and epistemological problems that it so persuasively generates .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both in relation to the interchange of information between French and British scientists in island locations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through perceptive comment on trans-national variants of physiocracy, Grove intermittently promises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less linear and predetermined conclusions . A major weakness, however, is that the metropolitan centre is too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently presented as an intellectual entrepot, by and through which novel environmental agendas were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported from one island paradise, only to be immediately re-exported to another. This undoubtedly eased - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to borrow Grove's knowingly anachronistic phrase - 'scientific networking', and stimulated incremental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth in what would now would be termed 'interdisciplinary ' activity . Simultaneously - and this is another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing insight - such interactions frequently either by-passed or ran counter to the policies of interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-states . Thus the politics of environmental exchange are made to throw revealing light on larger social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political issues - not least the highly complex and ambiguous status, in relation to formal state structures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Dutch and English East India Companies . At the same time, and particularly in his later chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grove posits a precocious internationalization of the environmental sciences, with practitioners in open or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tacit conflict with the state-backed or -supported agencies by which they were patronized or employed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These sections of Green Imperialism not only undermine a picture of uninterrupted competition and conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between England and France during the long eighteenth century but also induce a degree of optimism vis--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vis the independence and autonomy of what would later develop into a genuinely international scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community . If Grove has succeeded in identifying a hybrid body of knowledge which can only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately and meaningfully defined in terms of its 'environmental' and 'global' qualities, then it is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both fitting and credible that its leading practitioners should have transcended the boundaries of the nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state at so early a historical juncture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet to view the metropolitan centre too intensively in terms of entrepot and interchange - reversing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telescope so that Mauritius looms massively large and the Kingdom of France correspondingly minute - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to distortions. Although Grove makes revealing points about the manner in which theories of global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalism were institutionally changed during the interval between 'import' and 're-export', he could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well have said a great deal more. Expertly contextualizing the indigenous knowledge that his major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical actors absorbed and carried away with them when they set sail for paradisal isolation, Grove fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully to evaluate the part that those self-same repertoires may have played autonomously and domestically in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the making of modern environmental thought . Despite providing a very good account of physiocracy as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context for and shaper of fears about potential resource depletion, Grove refuses rigorously to relate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ubiquitous body of thought to Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment discourses on the 'perfectibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man', and the extent to which the achievement of that state depended, directly and indirectly, on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly ruthless exploitation of nature. Nor - and here the narrow focus on deforestation and desiccation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the context of so large and ambitious a study is undoubtedly debilitating - does Grove engage with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salient and related traditions in political arithmetic, political economy and population theory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To exclude, for example, the Malthus-Godwin debates is to omit a crucial moment in the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses that were unequivocally 'global' in their implications. In similar vein to Grove 's edenic men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, Malthus fully understood the extent to which geography and climate delimited and determined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner in which homo sapiens might coexist, or fail to coexist, with nature and socially constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural systems. This is deliberately to define Malthus as 'proto-environmentalist', rather than founding-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6375 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father of demography or reactionary proponent of a reductive and vulgarized political economy which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in time - as numerous studies have established - provoke a wide range of radical, Marxist and neo-Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-arguments and agendas . In addition, as Robert Young has explained in a now classic article, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the Malthusian ideological and linguistic resource which finally enabled Darwin to articulate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mature conception of the role of the 'survival of the fittest' in relation to natural selection . Despite the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its terminal date might seem to have evolutionary implications, Green Imperialism says little about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin, except insofar as the 'voyaging' phase clearly paralleled and harked back to the paradisal and edenic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessions of Grove's early modern dramatis personae. This is undoubtedly a significant silence, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Darwin 's own role in shaping what would later gradually come to be known as the environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ecological sciences remains highly problematic. Nevertheless, Grove's reluctance to trace ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intellectual connexions between physiocratic, economic, demographic and evolutionary modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought weakens the thrust of his study as he moves from the long eighteenth into the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Pepper's recent and useful Modern Environmentalism : An Introduction \(London, Routledge, 1996 \) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defines fundamental environmentalist categories before developing a narrative which slots specific thinkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and strands of thought into a somewhat over-determined lineage . Such a criticism cannot be made of Green )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism. Grove's study voluminously documents and convincingly reveals the unpredictability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclecticism and contrariness of a little-known body of scientific thought between the late sixteenth and mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth centuries. Simultaneously, however, it raises issues that relate not only to deforestation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desiccation at the colonial periphery but to the history of environmentalism as a whole. In addition, Grove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become over-attached to a single, seductive idea - the sparsely populated island as an environmental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural laboratory in which experiments could be conducted, and lessons learnt, about how to live more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationally and holistically with nature. By concentrating so intensively on paradisal isolation, Grove has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplayed the impact of hurly- burly European urbanism on the social and cultural production of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific world-view that was indisputably defining itself as 'environmental'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of method and approach, however, and more particularly in his successful marrying of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental to intellectual history , Grove has made a significant contribution . More than thirty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, Keith Thomas published his path-breaking Religion and the Decline of Magic, a work whose first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter - prophetically, within the present context - was entitled, simply and provocatively, 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Environment'. Two decades later Thomas completed his pioneering study on Man and the Natural World. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concentrating more on mentalite than science, Thomas traced continuities and discontinuities in the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Englishmen between 1500 and 1800 \(women, alas, loomed small\) had coexisted with and exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the environment in which they lived . Several of the themes broached in that volume - particularly those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in the first and last sections on 'Human Ascendancy' and 'The Human Dilemma' respectively - have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been creatively carried forward in Grove's study . Despite its longueurs, therefore, Green Imperialism bears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness to a growing maturity within an empirically rooted and hence methodologically credible history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalism and environmental thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 203.091 m 271.328 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.328 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 199.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 181.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 181.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/8)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 180.585 m 310.316 180.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 155.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php?id=297)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 203.4055 271.3277 215.2855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php?id=297) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 180.8995 310.3157 192.7795 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/8) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000000695 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000005021 00000 n 0000005131 00000 n 0000005240 00000 n 0000008801 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000009013 00000 n 0000009078 00000 n 0000014902 00000 n 0000014967 00000 n 0000022566 00000 n 0000022657 00000 n 0000029085 00000 n 0000029212 00000 n 0000029316 00000 n 0000029444 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29537 %%EOF