%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150523164737+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150523164737+01'00') /Title (Review Article:Radicalism and Protest) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3104 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article:Radicalism and Protest)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The clash between radicalism and loyalism in the early industrial revolution period created the basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive-conservative political divide that was to structure British politics until the fall of communism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the perspective of Gareth Stedman Jones in his recent book )] TJ ET BT 356.636 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An End to Poverty)] TJ ET BT 444.956 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which for a landmark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Randall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199259908)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katrina Navickas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199559671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(274pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Poole)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 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historian has received surprisingly little notice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.312 795.075 m 355.304 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.304 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Discussing it at a seminar in Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stedman Jones remarked that he couldn?t really fathom pre-Chartist popular radicalism ? a disarming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confession from the author of )] TJ ET BT 178.988 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Languages of Class)] TJ ET BT 273.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He was talking about the early 19th-century generation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Paineites and the Chartists, and he had put his finger on something: the popular politics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early industrial revolution just don?t fit progressive models. This is particularly true \(oddly enough\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire, the home of the factory system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two books under review here show in different ways why the history of popular protest has proved so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistant to progressive models. Adrian Randall?s )] TJ ET BT 274.988 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riotous Assemblies )] TJ ET BT 370.988 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents the capstone to the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wave of research on English crowds and popular politics that was stimulated by the work of E. P. Thompson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1960s and 1970s. Somewhere between a monograph, a textbook and a collection of essays, its form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testifies to the range and vitality of its subject. Katrina Navickas?s )] TJ ET BT 355.304 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radicalism and Loyalism in Lancashire)] TJ ET BT 546.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an integrated account of politics, war and industrialisation during the Napoleonic period which explores and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges both Linda Colley?s account of the forging of British identity and E. P. Thompson?s account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class, )] TJ ET BT 241.352 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quietly jettisoning a whole truckload of traditional assumptions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it does so for a place and a period generally regarded as being at the core of the industrial revolution it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of much wider interest than its title might suggest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riotous Assemblies)] TJ ET BT 127.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( consists of four elements. First, several chapters spread across the book cover a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of popular disturbances, including the Jacobite, Wilkite and Gordon riots, rural protest, election riots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militia riots, turnpike riots, and a great deal else. Second, there is an extended three-chapter account of 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century food riots and the ?moral economy?, synthesising a small mountain of work on a field in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randall himself has been a leading figure. Third, there is a two-chapter account of Randall?s own work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machine breaking and Luddism, which he sees as a kind of ?industrial moral economy?. Either food riots or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luddism could have made a textbook in itself, and to boil them down to chapters which still contain much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original work is quite a feat. Fourth there are the opening and closing chapters, ?Reading the riot? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Riotous assemblies?, which offer between them an historiographical survey and an interpretive overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole field. Together they amount to a rich, powerful and definitive survey of 18th-century popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Hanoverian state liked to see itself as founded on the Glorious Revolution of 1688, it was equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded on the Whig coup of 1714?5, symbolised by the 1715 Riot Act. Randall provides a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary of the workings of the Act, which clears up a great many old saws and misunderstandings. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs into an outline of the structures of central and local power which existed to maintain order and defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state from its internal enemies. The resources of the authorities were severely limited, so where unrest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no serious political implications \(which usually meant Jacobitism\) it was generally tolerated. It stood a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant chance of success where the issues divided the propertied classes and there was some magisterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for the popular cause. Rioters thus always had ?one eye on the justices? \(pp. 148?51, 313\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randall provides numerous case studies of ?riotous assemblies?: the 1737 riots of footmen at the Drury Lane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre \(who successfully defended their customary privilege of attending their masters in the boxes\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite and religious disturbances, tax riots, election riots, and the Wilkite riots. Randall also offers a novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of ?riots of petty producers?, reacting to the threats to their livelihoods posed by problems as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse as rabbit warrens, road charges and militia service. Again and again we find syntheses illuminated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fresh insights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randall?s book-within-a-book on food riots falls neatly into three chapters. The first, on ?Food, Market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Custom and Protest?, explains the early modern system of regulated food marketing and how it came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplanted by the free market system. It should be welcomed by undergraduates who \(to the bemusement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tutors weaned on it\) often find Thompson?s seminal ?Moral Economy? article long and forbidding. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second chapter, ?Setting the Price?, deals with the food riots themselves, focusing mainly on the 1766 wave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disturbances when, for perhaps the last time, the protestors enjoyed widespread support from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities, right up to government level. The centrepiece here is a remarkable insider?s account of food riots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Wiltshire by ?A Mobber?. Randall stresses the complexity of the disturbances and the mixed attitudes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of both protestors and authorities. Rioters were not just a ?civic moral enforcement unit? but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.3117 795.3895 355.3037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely feared starvation; on the other hand, ?paternalism could be a nasty business?. Finally, ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repudiation of Moral Economy? deals with the more serious and politically threatening food riots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1795?1801. Randall considers but rejects Bohstedt?s argument that the old moral economy broke down in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester as a result of the social fragmentation and alienation accompanying the industrial revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, the riots were severe because the two worst subsistence crises of the age arrived during wartime, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they met a severe response after free market economics had become an orthodoxy at virtually all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A parallel breakdown of economic paternalism in the industrial field brought Luddism. It was E. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson?s insight that ?political? and ?economic? protest were often two sides of the same coin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petitioning for regulation and \(when this failed\) for political reform interlocked with strikes and machine-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking. Randall?s contribution has been to connect the ?consumer? and ?producer? elements of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest, developing the concept of an ?industrial moral economy? \(although, as he ruefully notes, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received a ?less than ringing endorsement? from Thompson himself\). Food rioters and machine breakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often the same people, working in the same ways, on the same principles, and sometimes at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. While Thompson worked on the Pennine manufacturing districts, Randall?s base is in the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Country weaving districts, and his two chapters here on machine breaking provide a richly-documented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the upheavals accompanying the decline of the regulated economy and the rise of free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism. They usefully sum up his book )] TJ ET BT 240.680 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Luddites)] TJ ET BT 334.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and extend the analysis through to 1812 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luddism proper. The ?decisive sea change? in the attitude of the state towards economic protection was now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with a ?new ferocity? towards unrest of all kinds. 1812 in this perspective was a late and desperate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to re-open the ?dialogue of disorder?; no-one was listening.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening and closing surveys of )] TJ ET BT 207.992 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riotous Assemblies )] TJ ET BT 303.992 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise that it was the actions of the authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much as the concerns of the people that determined whether discontent turned to riot, and with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome. The role of the press was important, both in communicating information and in forming opinion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So too was that of the national political climate, which could both provoke rioters to action and give them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope of redress, and which determined the context in which riots were understood by the authorities. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate changed for the worse in the 1780s when government was first badly frightened by the Gordon riots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1780 \(at once comprehensive and incomprehensible\) and then defeated by rebellious subjects in America. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1789, government took an almost suicidally principled stand against any further concessions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular unrest. The ?dialogue of disorder? was over, but it took another generation for the penny to drop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If )] TJ ET BT 45.008 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riotous Assemblies )] TJ ET BT 141.008 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a work of social and economic history enlarged by political perspectives, Katrina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navickas?s )] TJ ET BT 91.664 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Loyalism and Radicalism )] TJ ET BT 216.668 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a political history enlarged by social and economic perspectives. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject is not popular unrest but politics in all its manifestations, popular protest and labour movements as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as patriotism and loyalism. It achieves a rounded and grounded view of its subject by focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire during the French and Napoleonic wars and the early industrial revolution. Both place and period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are historically regarded as being of particular significance for the birth of modern Britain, and indeed of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world. It is a county which has attracted more than its fair share of sociologists but Navickas shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just what a peculiar place Lancashire was in this period, and in doing so forces us to reassess traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches of all kinds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navickas open by outlining the case for the development of ?a Lancashire Britishness?, a portfolio of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalist and radical elements which the contending interests were able to use against each other, against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central government, and even occasionally against the French. There follows a multi-faceted account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north-west region in the period of industrial revolution and war, drawing on a deep knowledge of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape, which will surprise many who still think of it in terms of cotton factories and class conflict. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson she emphasises the importance of the handloom weaving communities, although landlords and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factories also feature in her portrait which usefully updates the existing reference point, John Walton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history of Lancashire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.988 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.988 77.043 m 183.980 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The account of politics opens with a thought-provoking chapter on ?Patriotism?, which Navickas sees as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.9877 77.3575 183.9797 89.2375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battleground fought over by both radicalism and loyalism. Recalling the political alignments of a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, she suggests that these two competing creeds found common ground in a kind of ?country? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition \(p. 77\). She looks in some depth at the volunteer movement, the militia riots, and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism, offering a sardonic revision of Colley?s famous argument about patriotism as the main generator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of solidarity; rather, ?fear of the militia ballot was probably the most common experience for all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants of the region and country during the wars? \(p. 61\). Lancashire had its own ?John Bull? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of ?Jone o? Grinfilt?, the subject of a phenomenally popular series of dialect broadsides, who sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape privation at home by enlisting to fight the French, an undefined enemy situated somewhere to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south of Oldham. Here Navickas nicely teases out a story about the strengthening of provincial identities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned by the regional nature of industrialisation \(p. 78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on loyalism is the longest in the book, and one soon sees why. Lancashire was a stronghold of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Church and King? loyalism, built on Manchester?s obstinate high church/Jacobite traditions and the parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of religious and political dissent. Lancashire?s ?other? was thus largely internal. In Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where there were few civic institutions to mediate between magistrates and their subjects, ritual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony developed as a means of controlling public discourse. Vulgar conservatism, unleashed in the Paine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burnings of 1792?3, became part of the problem. In the 1800s the Orange movement provided a new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safer focus for Lancashire?s loyalist elite. Many of the most active magistrates and commanders had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in putting down the Irish rebellion of 1798, and the military experience and political prejudices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they acquired in this role were brought to bear on the job of hunting down Lancashire?s United Englishmen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade unionists, dissenters and reformers \(a process whose climax came in 1819 at Peterloo\). Lancashire?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal ?other? was increasingly likely to be equated with its working classes and \(although Navickas does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not go so far as to say it\) if class consciousness began anywhere, it was with the propertied.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire did have its radical moment in the 1790s, and \(despite the more restricted dates of the title\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book does deal with this, as it does with the later United Englishmen of 1798?1801. Navickas?s point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is that political opposition was effectively silenced in public after the mid-1790s, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement which emerged a decade later was different in both ideology and personnel. In between, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform movement consisted of a few islands of resistance defined mainly by their relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant loyalism: the odd village of obstinate gauls \(radical Royton and millennial Ashton\), local bards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who refused to be silenced \(Robert Walker and the Wilsons\), a heroic opposition newspaper \(Cowdroy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchester Gazette)] TJ ET BT 130.328 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and passing waves of food rioters with an alarming propensity to turn on magistrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and employers. Liverpool meanwhile had the best-organised political dissent in the form of the ?friends of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace?. In stressing the separateness of this movement from popular radicalism \(and from Manchester\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navickas parts company from Peter Spence?s ?romantic radicalism? thesis which in other respects her work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of E. P. Thompson?s ?radical underground?, the submerged river of defiance where proscribed rebels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all kinds met and merged during these cold war years? Navickas has looked extensively at the sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both local and national, and in some respects her work does support Thompson?s suggestion. The political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of organised labour was strong, with extensive petitions to parliament against the Combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acts \(?the equivalent for workers of Pitt?s anti-seditious legislation of 1795 for radicals? \(p. 179\)\), for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection of weavers, and against the economic effects of war. There were regionally-co-ordinated strike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns by both spinners and weavers, led by experienced and politically aware leaders; for Gravenor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henson read James Holcroft, the handloom weavers? leader. Political radicalism, however, enjoyed much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less continuity and the reform movement remained on the whole distinct from trade unionism. Indeed, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1799?1802 ?striking weavers apparently regarded themselves as loyalists? \(p. 202\). Randall too fails to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of any radical underground during this period despite a great deal of turbulence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What revived the reform movement was the 1807?8 petitioning campaign for peace, which coincided but did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not directly ally with a wave of industrial unrest. In 1812 the various strands of protest did come together as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidably organised waves of machine-breaking accompanied a hybrid movement for peace, reform and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic protection which was able to mobilise entire communities across the usual boundaries, prefiguring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mass reform movement of 1816?20. The new generation of radical leaders had little connection with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the 1790s and this time round steered well clear of Jacobinism. Navickas characterises their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology as ?an alternative loyalism? born of ?anti-corruption patriotism and constitutional radicalism? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209\). In the end neither the radical challenge of the 1790s nor the loyalist victory that followed it proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring: ?Lancashire radicalism and loyalism were redefined in the region?s own image? \(p. 248\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books inevitably have gaps in their coverage. Randall?s book is lighter on politics and religion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1715 Jacobite rising is covered only in ripples and the ?45 hardly at all, reflecting the tendency of the labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history tradition to regard Jacobitism as the politics of fools and popular monarchism as anomalous or sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.352 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.352 683.283 m 90.344 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.344 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The extensive ?Jew bill? riots of 1753 are also passed over briefly, and attacks on dissenters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics tend to be assimilated to the defence of the ?liberties of the free-born Englishman? \(pp. 53, 67\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which if so was a majority rather than a universal tradition. The press gang and smuggling were also fertile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generators of politically-charged unrest over the century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.944 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.944 640.515 m 320.936 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.936 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The sympathetic discussion of the mythical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendar rioters of 1752 indicate that at least one toiler in the field has laboured in vain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.608 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.608 626.259 m 467.600 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.600 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has few works published since 2000, Andy Wood?s important )] TJ ET BT 335.312 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics )] TJ ET BT 513.320 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable absentee.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.660 597.747 m 130.652 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 130.652 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Navickas is perhaps a little too ready to discuss the politics of war and hard cheese in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of ?identity? and ?self-identification?. There is little discussion of victory celebrations such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trafalgar, which might have counterbalanced the emphasis on local patriotism, and \(more surprisingly\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major Cartwright?s tours of 1812 and 1814 which seeded numerous Hampden clubs. Theatre bills and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular prints generally are less well used than they might be, despite the fruitful emphasis on dialect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, and \(OUP please note\) the well-chosen maps are too tiny to read.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.936 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.936 526.467 m 409.928 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Travelling by different routes over different territory, Randall and Navickas arrive at some strikingly similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end points. I will pick out three. The first is the need for popular protest to be seen in relation to politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, and vice versa. As both these writers \(but especially Navickas\) show, popular protest and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics were in their nature a dialogue with authority. We cannot study )] TJ ET BT 378.968 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(just)] TJ ET BT 396.308 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?popular protest?. Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever the immediate subject of study, the field of inquiry needs to be drawn eclectically around a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular period and place. Randall?s varied case studies gain depth from the massing of West Country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material over a long period, while Navickas?s whole book is set up this way. She shows that many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political phenomena once attributed to industrialisation had more to do with the politics of war, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those politics were about patriotism, loyalism and radicalism together. In 1983 John Bohstedt argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral economy worked in the rural communities of the Southwest but broke down in urban-industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester, the ?city of strangers?. Interestingly, both writers find this view wanting: the character of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular unrest was determined by much more than social and economic context, which was not in any case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as different as it might seem.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.664 329.139 m 186.656 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, both authors are in agreement on the significance of the events of 1812. For Randall, ?the Luddite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbances marked a decisive sea change in the relationship between the crowd and the authorities ? Ned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludd, like Robin Hood, epitomized a rejection of the law of the jungle where the rich and powerful might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ride roughshod over the rights of lesser mortals? \(pp. 300?1\). He could have been summarising Navickas?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important ?Ned Ludd? article, except that it came out too late.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.964 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.964 245.859 m 345.956 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.956 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Lancashire, writes Navickas,1812 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the year of nemesis for loyalist ruling elites? \(p. 237\) \(although it has to be said that they survived it\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the supposed immaturity of the rebels, with widespread rebellion coinciding with war on two fronts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic collapse and the assassination of the prime minister \(a ?multiple disfunction? if ever there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one\) it may be that Britain was closer to breakdown in 1812 than at any other time in its pitiless ?age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, it appears that E. P. Thompson?s 18th-century ?moral economy? framework has proved more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful than his 19th-century class perspective in explaining popular protest in both periods. The late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian period saw a vogue for systematic solutions of all kinds, whether to crime, the economy or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor. These tended to involve forced deregulation, so that the power of the market was backed by the power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the state. As with Thatcherism, clashes with vested interests were not so much a side effect as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance indicator. The most obstinate of all these vested interests were those of the working population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, which remained wedded to ?customs in common?, and indeed continued to generate new ones. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randall and Navickas highlight the importance of ritual and the language of morality and custom in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.3517 683.5975 90.3437 695.4775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.9437 640.8295 320.9357 652.7095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.6077 626.5735 467.5997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.6597 598.0615 130.6517 609.9415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.9357 526.7815 409.9277 538.6615 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.6637 329.4535 186.6557 341.3335 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.9637 246.1735 345.9557 258.0535 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 6551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilising popular discontent. The Paine burnings of 1792?3 took the form of rough music as the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispensed symbolic justice to a convicted malefactor. Ned Ludd and his followers attacked other enemies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the community. The radicals of 1808, 1812 and 1819 all sought to confront a corrupt and profiteering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government with the unavoidable force of public anger. Perhaps, even in our own day, a little more moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy would not be a bad thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have not responded to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Stedman Jones, )] TJ ET BT 177.332 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An End to Poverty? A Historical Debate)] TJ ET BT 371.312 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.636 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.636 646.275 m 506.624 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire: a Social History )] TJ ET BT 287.672 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.644 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.644 632.019 m 438.632 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For recent exceptions see Paul A. Pickering, ??The hearts of the millions?: Chartism and popular )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchism in the 1840s?, )] TJ ET BT 196.340 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 232.340 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,88 \(2003\), 227?48; R. Poole, ?French Revolution or peasants? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolt? Rebels and petitioners from the Blanketeers to the Chartists?, )] TJ ET BT 397.640 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour History)] TJ ET BT 474.980 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 509.636 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 74, 1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(April 2009\), 6?26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.668 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.668 574.995 m 210.656 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Rogers, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Press Gang: Naval Impressment and its Opponents in Georgian Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2009\); Paul Monod, 'Dangerous merchandise : smuggling, Jacobitism, and commercial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in southeast England, 1690?1760'. )] TJ ET BT 267.824 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 390.836 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 \(1991\), 150?82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.156 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.156 532.227 m 542.144 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Poole, )] TJ ET BT 111.356 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time?s Alteration: Calendar Reform in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 415.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.340 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.340 517.971 m 550.328 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andy Wood, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics)] TJ ET BT 304.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.676 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.676 503.715 m 460.664 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books are printed in small and sometimes faint type on bright white paper which is hard to read )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in artificial light, and my print-on-demand copy of Randall was bound in printed cardboard: a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paperback would be welcome.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.972 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.972 460.947 m 263.960 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bohstedt, )] TJ ET BT 138.356 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Riots and Community Politics in England and Wales, 1790?1810)] TJ ET BT 451.364 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 432.435 m 149.000 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katrina Navickas, ?The search for ?General Ludd?: the mythology of Luddism?, )] TJ ET BT 454.256 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History )] TJ ET BT 526.256 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30, 3 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(August 2005\), 281-95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.672 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.672 403.923 m 230.660 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/800)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 322.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3779)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3780)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] 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