%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150419153251+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150419153251+01'00') /Title ('The Contending Kingdoms': England and France 1420-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4295 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [('The Contending Kingdoms': England and France 1420-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glenn Richardson?s latest contribution to early modern Anglo-French relations comes in the form of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited volume covering nearly three centuries of contact between England and France from 1420 to 1700. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Contending Kingdoms)] TJ ET BT 162.692 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is essentially the proceedings of a )] TJ ET BT 330.332 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society for Court Studies )] TJ ET BT 453.668 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place in London in November 2004. The conference, and indeed this book, marked the centenary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(entente-cordiale)] TJ ET BT 112.664 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( signed by Britain and France in 1904. The contributors, based mainly in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, reflect on a century?s worth of Anglo-French historical research. Framed between two treaties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Troyes and the Spanish Partition Treaties\), the underlying hypothesis is that, despite bouts of conflict, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and France enjoyed significant periods of peace and cooperation which cultivated great cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and mercantile interaction. There was, however, an almost sibling-like relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and France: shaped by petty squabbles, violent episodes and competition mirrored in the rhetoric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis I and Henry VIII. There are three obvious themes within the book: comparison, cooperation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical involvement in government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treaty of Troyes, signed in the aftermath of Agincourt on 21 May 1420, effectively created a ?dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy?, bestowing the title ?King of England and France? on Henry V and his successors in perpetuity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Curry?s contribution, ?Two Kingdoms, One King: The Treaty of Troyes \(1420\) and the Creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Double Monarchy of England and France?, stresses the diplomatic brilliance of the treaty as it was ?skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(802)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glenn Richardson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754657897)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Lambe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7956 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worded to fudge the past? avoiding Henry?s ?existing claim to the throne? \(pp. 26?30\). Curry suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact Henry?s son, Henry VI, was the first and only ?dual? monarch. Significantly, the treaty, in creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?union of two crowns? rather than a union of two countries, called for an end to all ?dissensions, hatreds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rancours, and conflict between the two kingdoms and their people?: an )] TJ ET BT 376.616 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(entente-cordiale )] TJ ET BT 458.264 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its own \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We soon encounter the comparative themes within the book. Robert Knecht, in his ?The French and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nobilities in the Sixteenth Century: A Comparison?, provides an overview of noble membership on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides of the Narrow Sea. Knecht notes the shared Anglo-French heritage of the feudal, Christian nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Middle Ages, not to mention the overlapping spheres of authority in western France due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English continental expansion as discussed by Curry. While the two nations shared aspects of common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage, they branched out over time resulting in three primary areas of difference: ?size and structure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth and power? \(p. 65\). While he makes light work of the issue of the definition of nobility, Knecht?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the nobility on either side of the Channel does appear to place disproportionate emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French lite. Moreover, once we approach the issue of gentry definition, Knecht seems to sidestep the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, approaching the issue from a quantitative rather than qualitative approach. Perhaps Knecht could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have consulted Peter Coss?s excellent definition in his )] TJ ET BT 297.992 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of the English Gentry)] TJ ET BT 461.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.644 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.644 569.235 m 95.636 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the outset, in her treatment of Elizabeth I and Catherine de? Medici, Susan Doran defends her choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subject: a comparison between two contemporaneous powerful women. Principally, the criticism stems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Catherine de? Medici being neither French nor queen regent of France while Elizabeth was an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen. However, Doran justifies her decision suitably, stressing the significance of Catherine?s influence as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la reine mere)] TJ ET BT 98.000 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( although, as we discover, their relationship was by no means equal. Indeed, Doran presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine as a mother-in-law figure to Elizabeth. There were clear differences in personality, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, education and style. Despite the apparent personality clash, the achievement of this chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doran?s ability to piece together the women?s shared characteristics. Doran notes that politically both put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?short-term benefits before long-term considerations? and recognised the importance of religious toleration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doran also suggests that both held a similar stance on Mary Queen of Scots, for Elizabeth feared the threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she posed to her crown while Catherine was wary of her Guise connections. Thus, they were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperate with each other towards respective domestic security. As for marriage, Doran revises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional view that Elizabeth was pursued by the French suggesting that Elizabeth was equally proactive in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations \(p. 130\). Instead, Doran argues that Anglo-French marriage overtures failed simply due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreconcilable religious incompatibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editor?s own contribution, ?The French Connection: Francis I and England?s Break with Rome?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the cooperative role of Francis I in Henry?s diplomatic efforts to secure his divorce. Richardson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a sense of the mutual frustration experienced by both England and France during the late 1520s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1530s. Richardson argues that following the rise of the Boleyn faction at court and Francis?s apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for Henry?s case, by March 1531 challenging the )] TJ ET BT 312.620 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(legal)] TJ ET BT 336.620 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than )] TJ ET BT 394.268 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spiritual )] TJ ET BT 437.948 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papal jurisdiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the focus of French diplomatic activities with England. Richardson suggests that Henry interpreted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis?s verbal assurance as an outright endorsement of his divorce campaign. Here we reach the crux of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richardson?s argument: that by 1532, Henry and his chief minister Thomas Cromwell did not act in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolation in their manoeuvres against the papacy. Rather, while making their own legislation, Francis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the support and encouragement which ?steeled Henry?s nerves? in return for Henry?s assurances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military assistance \(p. 102\). Yet, Richardson also convincingly portrays a real sense of panic in Henry?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. In this chapter, Richardson not only turns the traditional view of the English Reformation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?quintessentially English phenomenon? on its head, he in fact convincingly pushes back the limits of Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French cooperation over Henry?s ?Great Matter? by some three years, suggesting the lines of diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication remained open until late 1534, rather than late 1531 \(p. 113\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Giry-Deloison?s, ?France and England at Peace, 1475?1513?, stresses that despite the seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant warfare between England and France, with the exception of October-November 1492, the nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced peace lasting 38 years, from the Treaty of Picquigny \(29 August 1475\) to Henry VIII?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military campaign of 1513 which stimulated Anglo-French mercantile and cultural interaction. This chapter )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.6437 569.5495 95.6357 581.4295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7633 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is split in three distinct sections of Anglo-French interaction: trade, war and culture. The latter focuses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular on the use of political tracts in the ?formation of public opinion?, introducing the plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of battles being fought ?in print? \(p. 50?4\). Giry-Deloison cites Picquigny as a turning poing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-French relations as it allowed both sides to deal with domestic stability and for trade and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange to flourish, although this was essentially a one way flow from France to England. To sum up, trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefitted France while cultural exchange benefitted England. Giry-Deloison makes the point that France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted as a ?facilitator? of Italian art from the continent to England. However, England?s retreat from French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory from c.1400?50 resulted in a decline in Anglo-French cultural exchange. However, Giry-Deloison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list of printers active in France and England may have worked better as an appendix rather than being part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body of the text as it acts as a distraction from the discussion about the impact of cultural interaction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additionally, throughout the volume, with the exception of the introduction, the authors have segmented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their work through the use of bold subtitles. However, this chapter employs the use of mid-page asterisks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which creates a break in continuity. Perhaps a revised edition of the work might take this into account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also a visible contradiction. Richardson is keen to make the point early on that ?rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unremittingly hostile ? early modern Anglo-French relations are perhaps better described as ambivalent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the true sense of the word? \(p. 1\). Yet, the cover displays a detail of the Battle of the Spurs \(16 August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1513\), in which a combined English and Imperial army routed the French forces forcing a humiliating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating defeat. While the Battle of the Spurs is mentioned in Giry-Deloison?s chapter as marking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of a culturally and economically lucrative period in Anglo-French relations, perhaps Holbein?s ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ambassadors? might have been a more suitable alternative for two main reasons. First, the painting is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured in Richardson?s own chapter and, second, it neatly encapsulates most of the book?s themes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and cultural communication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Onnekink?s chapter, ?Anglo-French Negotiations on the Spanish Partition Treaties \(1698?1700\): A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Re-evaluation?, aims is to put Anglo-French relations into a wider European perspective. Onnekink offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?third perspective?: rather than the failure of negotiations around the partition treaties stemming from either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animosity or even misunderstanding between William III and Louis XIV, Onnekink suggests that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties genuinely intended to create a settlement. However, neither party was able to uphold the treaty due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting circumstances and allegiances. This assessment comes from an assessment of William III's later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years: a much understudied area. The focus of the chapter is the earl of Portland's embassy to France which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Onnekink notes was one of the 'grandest' of the 17th century, costing some 48,000. Onnekink?s central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis is that William and Louis's relationship was not one of animosity but of 'shrewd and cynical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation' \(p. 170\). The Second Partition Treaty was the product of a breakdown in William III's foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy through weakening British military strength. Consequently, the treaty, signed in March 1700, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very much favourable towards the Archduke Charles and the dauphin. Onnekink suggests that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?weakness? was ultimately the cause of the European conflict. Onnekink concludes by suggesting that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the historiography, Louis XIV accepted the will of Carlos II because he felt that neither Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor the United Provinces in 1700 was able to uphold the treaty or an alliance of this kind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Elton may have approved of Cedric Michon?s contribution, with its treatment of personalities as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political forces. In his ?Pomp and Circumstances: State Prelates under Francis I and Henry VIII?, Michon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a useful assessment of the function of ecclesiastics within government, introducing the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state prelates were the ?third pillar? of government. As for similarities, Michon suggests that Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prelates were comparable in size, number and wealth. However, when calculating the comparative numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prelates and their wealth, Michon does not always show his working out. The purpose of the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be to highlight the dissimilarity between the ?third pillar? in England and France. The point, claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michon, is that while the French prelates were of noble birth, their English counterparts were forced to climb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the greasy pole. Indeed, Michon suggests the French prelates were able to exploit their familial contacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the English ecclesiastics used their university contacts ? the ?Cambridge Connection? ? as a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended family: perhaps taking )] TJ ET BT 191.324 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alma mater)] TJ ET BT 246.320 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( too literally. Michon suggests these class boundaries prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English prelates from integrating into court society and, in a way, created a lucid distinction between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various ?pillars? of state. However, the chapter seems unevenly balanced, providing an initial comparison )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then propounding his ?Cambridge Connection? theory at length. Moreover, the ?Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connection? is not entirely convincing as it only seems to apply to a brief period before the ?laicisation? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. It is indeed unsurprising that Old Boys would recommend their fellow graduates to lofty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions. It seems to some extent inevitable that the pool of ecclesiastics graduating from their theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civil education would encounter each other in court circles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While England experienced some continental influence during the early 15th century, by the mid 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England had become only peripherally significant politically and militarily. As Loc Bienassis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes, the common historical perspective is that by the time of the Thirty Years War, Britain held a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?secondary place? in international politics. The purpose of Bienassis?s contribution, ?Richelieu and Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1634?1642\)?, is to revise this view by stressing the importance of British neutrality during the conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After establishing Richelieu?s ?firm policy towards Spain?, Bienassis provides an outline of relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between England, France and Spain in the early to mid 17th century. Bienassis neatly covers James I?s failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Spanish enterprise, attempts at Anglo-French cordiality through Charles I?s marriage to Henrietta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria, the disaster at La Rochelle and the subsequent peace agreements with France in 1629 and Spain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630. The fallout of this was Britain?s poor standing as a potential ally on the international stage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with Richelieu. After the treaty of The Hague \(1635\), however, France began to look for support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Britain in the form of a defensive alliance. Richelieu?s approach towards Britain became focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying potential Anglo-Spanish relations and bringing England under French influence. Chiefly, as noted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Bienassis, Britain was an attractive potential ally as she could muster a vast naval fleet and call on ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of manpower? \(p. 141\). This interest in Britain resulted in a proposed alliance treaty in June 1637 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would have procured British military support for France, effectively drawing Britain into the Franco-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Province bloc. However, the treaty was never signed due to ?deep-rooted distrust? and, once again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain turned to Spain as an ally. At this critical time, Charles was distracted by the Bishops? Wars in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland. In direct contrast to Samuel R. Gardiner?s view, Bienassis remains convinced that Richelieu was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed involved in fanning the flames of the Bishops? Wars by secretly mustering Scottish troops.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.640 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.640 440.931 m 519.632 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as Bienassis puts it, ?what better means of neutralizing Britain ? than to have her engulfed in a civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?? \(p. 145\). While this idea may not be completely new, Bienassis makes a compelling argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps some consideration of Charles I's wider domestic agenda may have provided a more complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of Anglo-French relations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.652 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.652 383.907 m 210.644 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 210.644 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This chapter provides an important re-evaluation of the British role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Thirty Years War and, importantly, the author?s revisionist sentiments climax in a call for other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?peripheral? powers to be studied to understand the conflict in a wider European context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?A Stranger Born?: Female Usage of International Networks in Times of War?, rather than examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relations as such, Sonja Kmec focuses on Anglo-French relations in a more literal sense. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kmec examines the marriage between the French Protestant Charlotte de La Trmolle and her English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband James Stanley, Lord Derby. Kmec discusses the creation of alternative networks based on religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and kinship in order to ease her transition to life as an English wife with the use of some very rich sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering some 40 years. The de La Trmolle family were not so much concerned with the Stanley family?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manxian assets but rather the possibility of creating links with Henrietta Maria. Indeed, Charlotte?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism itself was an asset at court: her religion could offset Henrietta Maria?s growing public image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an overbearing queen actively involved in dictating English religious policy. As Kmec points out, it is of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance that she never turned to France for fear of appearing a papal sympathiser. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter?s title is slightly misleading. The point is that Charlotte de La Trmolle was able to use both her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own and her husband?s familial connections to integrate into English political society throughout the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in question which was )] TJ ET BT 144.008 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(most)] TJ ET BT 166.676 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( beneficial during times of war. It was not used exclusively for that end as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title suggests. Indeed, the chapter?s success is that it covers a number of issues associated with repatriation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if that?s not too anachronistic a word.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gestures and tensions have continued to characterise Anglo-French relations even since the centenary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(entente cordiale)] TJ ET BT 111.668 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Indeed, in the time that has passed since 2004, we have witnessed a much publicised state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visit to Britain by President Sarkozy in which talk of a renewed )] TJ ET BT 341.984 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(entente)] TJ ET BT 376.640 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( came to the fore. More recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, we have seen the underlying tensions between the nations in the wake of the alleged royal ?snub? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6397 441.2455 519.6317 453.1255 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.6517 384.2215 210.6437 396.1015 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 3690 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Sarkozy in his apparent failure to invite Queen Elizabeth II to Normandy to commemorate the 65th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary of the allied landings in 1944. Taken together, this collection of essays provides an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassessment of Anglo-French relations very much in keeping with Richardson?s recent tendency towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate revisionism. What remains to be seen is whether )] TJ ET BT 317.300 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Contending Kingdoms )] TJ ET BT 448.976 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue to cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual ?irritation and fascination? \(p. 1\) in the century to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Coss, )] TJ ET BT 106.028 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of the English Gentry)] TJ ET BT 269.696 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2003\), pp. 1?11.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.344 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.344 672.531 m 468.332 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. R. Gardiner, )] TJ ET BT 139.340 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 175.340 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( of England from the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil War, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1603?1642)] TJ ET BT 118.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 vols., London, 1883\), x, pp. 383?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.672 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.672 644.019 m 362.660 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Cust, )] TJ ET BT 106.028 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles I. A Political Life)] TJ ET BT 230.372 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2005\), pp. 124?130.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.024 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.024 629.763 m 431.012 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-france-net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-france.net/vol9reviews/vol9no71worcester.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 574.995 m 325.628 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.628 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/514/693.extract)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 546.483 m 324.992 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.992 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/802)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 322.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-france.net/vol9reviews/vol9no71worcester.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/514/693.extract)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.3437 672.8455 468.3317 684.7255 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.6717 644.3335 362.6597 656.2135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.0237 630.0775 431.0117 641.9575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 575.3095 325.6277 587.1895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-france.net/vol9reviews/vol9no71worcester.pdf) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 546.7975 324.9917 558.6775 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/514/693.extract) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 524.2915 322.3157 536.1715 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/802) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004994 00000 n 0000005103 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n 0000005322 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000009011 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000017188 00000 n 0000017218 00000 n 0000017344 00000 n 0000017380 00000 n 0000017445 00000 n 0000025131 00000 n 0000025222 00000 n 0000033310 00000 n 0000033340 00000 n 0000033468 00000 n 0000033504 00000 n 0000033534 00000 n 0000033662 00000 n 0000033698 00000 n 0000033817 00000 n 0000037560 00000 n 0000037688 00000 n 0000037743 00000 n 0000037871 00000 n 0000037926 00000 n 0000038054 00000 n 0000038109 00000 n 0000038236 00000 n 0000038345 00000 n 0000038472 00000 n 0000038582 00000 n 0000038710 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38805 %%EOF