%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922090858+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922090858+01'00') /Title (The New Civilisation? Understanding Stalin?s Soviet Union 1929-1941) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3963 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The New Civilisation? Understanding Stalin?s Soviet Union 1929-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very carefully researched and well-written account of reactions within Britain to the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the industrialisation and forced collectivisation programmes of the 1930s. It brings to light much new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, and should be a valuable contribution both to the origin of Soviet studies in Britain and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political nature of British intellectual assumptions in the face of what appeared to many as the final collapse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Flewers writes with a sense of urgency and direct interest which makes a refreshing contrast to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languid wit and detachment which often surrounds intellectual history. His commitment is openly Marxist, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courageous stance in the academic world during the last 20 years, but that commitment is generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unobtrusive in a study which avoids crude rhetoric and polemic, and avoids the simple ?Stalin-or-Trotsky? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives usually attributed to Marxist writers on the USSR. He draws on an impressive range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references, and demonstrates a thorough acquaintance with authorities such as Paul Hollander and Abbot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gleason. Most importantly, he refuses to be hypnotised by the deification \(or demonization\) of Stalin and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR; he recognises that, while moral outrage is understandable, it is no substitute for a cool analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important aspect of this book is its attempt to classify the broad and varied contemporary literature on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(803)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Flewers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781903427408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(298pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Boutle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Foote)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR in a comprehensible manner, something regarded as impossible by Walter Laqueur in )] TJ ET BT 480.620 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution )] TJ ET BT 89.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back in 1967.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.004 780.819 m 167.996 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dr Flewers distinguishes a critical if inchoate third group, a ?centre ground? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct from apologists and enemies, and in his organisation of their arguments he is able to demonstrate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplicity of approaches and motivations among observers and political activists. In doing so, he valuably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extends our knowledge of the variety of reactions to the USSR.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 724.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author draws on serious articles and commentaries in journals and magazines, but decides not to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalistic responses and internal government material. This is a pity, as it detracts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensiveness of the book, although readers are directed to relevant analysis of these latter sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 667.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Steffanie Nanson?s thesis on Fleet Street and the USSR in the 1930s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.988 667.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.988 666.483 m 417.980 666.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 417.980 667.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fortunately, he makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible exceptions in practice, quoting )] TJ ET BT 225.992 653.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economist)] TJ ET BT 297.656 653.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 320.984 653.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spectator )] TJ ET BT 369.980 653.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when required. In order to stress that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British opinion was never completely insular, he includes a large number of non-British writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators, especially in his ?centre ground? \(p. 19\). The lack of proficient British observers, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of a knowledge of Russian, meant that the passionate interest aroused within Britain by the fate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union was expressed in a variety of sources, non-British as much as British, and the pages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavonic and East European Review)] TJ ET BT 208.664 582.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( drew on all sources to present to interested British readers. This does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not lead him to underestimate the quality of British observers of all political hues ? he argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary of writers such as E. H. Carr and Margaret Miller, who had never visited Russia, was often as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good as that of the old ?Russia hands? such as Sir Bernard Pares, despite the latter?s direct experience. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of the disadvantages they faced, the author successfully demonstrates that the writers of this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to produce material which has stood the test of time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Flewers organises his work in a chronological framework of three time-periods, determined by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the USSR: the 1929?34 period when Stalin?s policy of industrialisation and collectivisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began, a time when the survival of the USSR was in question amidst the social tension and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty caused by the expropriation of peasant property, the Five Year Plan of breakneck industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation and an isolationist Soviet foreign policy; the 1934?9 period when British intellectuals had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with the mass purges of internal dissent and a Soviet foreign policy of alliance with Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracies in the face of Nazi and Fascist aggression; and the 1939?41 period as the USSR?s pact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler and \(to the author\) the crucial war with Finland alienated the sympathy of Labour and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia. The book is thus carefully contextualised, allowing us to understand the reactions of the wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of responses to be documented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this chronological approach a number of key themes emerge. There are the obvious ones ? the Terror, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pretensions to democracy and to a respect for human rights and a foreign policy which swung from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular Front to alliance with Hitler. There are also some interesting observations on the reaction to Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies on the family and education. However, the most fascinating theme concerns reactions to the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of state planning.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.0037 781.1335 167.9957 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.9877 666.7975 417.9797 678.6775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7777 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of the Terror and the lax reactions to the mass killings and flagrant denial of human rights by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British observers has been much visited, but remains important nonetheless. The embarrassing adulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin and the Soviet regime from the growing number of fellow-travellers like Stephen Spender is matched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the shocking remark of Richard Terrell that he had no objection to seeing thousands of summary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executions of oppositionists \(p. 116\), while George Bernard Shaw applauded ?the extermination of whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(races and classes? and the ?the political necessity of killing people? \(pp. 116, 95\). However, while Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flewers counterbalances this unabashed support for murder with the more hostile reactions of the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party and Leonard Woolf \(pp. 151?2\), he also shows a ?centre ground? through less-noticed reactions: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Laski and Kingsley Martin equivocated between believing the accusations made in the show trials on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the one hand and, on the other, worrying about the lack of free expression and the low level of rights in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR; Wickham Steed felt there might be a ?substratum of truth? in the accusations; Seton Watson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Cole thought the defendants could easily have been trying to kill Stalin and that Trotsky might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been plotting with Germany and Japan to return to power at the expense of ceding territory to them \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(148?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Terror is intertwined with a second theme, the attitude of the British intelligentsia to rights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, as proclaimed in the 1936 Soviet constitution \(just as the Terror was moving towards mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purges and show trials\). There is the spine-chilling comment from the British Stalinist Pat Sloan justifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shootings as an expression of a democratic desire not to hear the defence of those accused and the sad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of Lion Feuchtwanger, an exiled German radical playwright with direct experience of Hitler?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression, who argued that the trials were necessary because ?the establishment of socialism would never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been possible with an unrestricted right of abuse? \(pp. 130?1\). This dangerously lax attitude to rights is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted to the rejection, by Attlee, historian G. P. Gooch and others \(p. 129\), of Soviet pretensions to civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties as covering ruthless repression. There are surprising supporters of the 1936 constitution ? John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middleton Murry?s belief that autocratic socialism was a definite advance on simple autocracy being echoed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the US sociologist Bertram Maxwell, with his reassuring view that the Russians weren?t used to liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and liked autocracy \(pp. 129?30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third theme is that of the USSR?s foreign policy. The ?third? period of Soviet hostility to social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy, caused by the failure of the United Front in Britain and China, isn?t really examined, though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal of the Comintern from an aggressive interventionism in Western affairs is documented from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of sources \(pp. 101?2\). The main interest is inevitably in the Popular Front period, when British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion was divided on whether the USSR was a threat or a stabilising power. The tensions and conflicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over Soviet involvement in Spanish Civil War are rightly given a central place, but it seems unfair to say that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spectator)] TJ ET BT 101.012 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 124.340 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economist)] TJ ET BT 196.004 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( endorsed Stalinism when they supported the crushing of POUM \(p. 257, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n. 324\); they had made their opposition to anarchism and social revolution quite plain, and approval of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushing of those genuinely revolutionary forces by the communists was hardly an endorsement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union. Unfortunately, the politics of those who opposed the USSR \(Roman Catholics and pro-Franco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons\) is not given adequate attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author argues that it was the Finnish war, more even than the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive in destroying the support for the USSR given by the British Left and intelligentsia \(pp. 179?182\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His analysis of the reactions to the war is interesting and extensive, but to isolate the war as an event which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated British Labour underestimates the opposition of the Labour party to Soviet totalitarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the 1930s. Labour?s condemnation of the war was strong, but no stronger than their consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile attitude to Communism. In )] TJ ET BT 201.368 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy versus Dictatorship )] TJ ET BT 357.008 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1933 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.344 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.344 148.323 m 410.336 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.336 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the National Council of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour had equated Nazi and Communist totalitarianism in a document which was endorsed by Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual conference that year, and the Labour leadership demonstrated a thorough opposition to United Front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Popular Front strategies throughout the decade, disaffiliating the Socialist League in 1937 and expelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cripps and Bevan in 1939. Ernest Bevin of the powerful Transport and General Workers? Union fought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitter battle against Communists in the London bus unions, while the TUC conflict with Communists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trades Councils was merciless. While the Labour leadership admired state planning in the USSR, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unremittingly hostile to the lack of democracy there. Moreover, admiration for state planning in Mussolini?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.3437 148.6375 410.3357 160.5175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7942 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy was also expressed by Hugh Dalton )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.648 795.075 m 247.640 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 247.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while the US New Deal evoked a much more wholehearted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response from Labour because it combined public works and state intervention with a political democracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anger over Finland was quickly forgotten after the German invasion of Russia, and Soviet resistance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that war created a genuine fount of goodwill among many British workers and intellectuals; the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948 had a more lasting impact on the Labour Left.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An unusual theme is looked at, all too briefly. The feminist measures taken by Alexandra Kollontai and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns with pedagogy in the early years of the Revolution had disappeared by the 1930s, and the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes that the new Soviet stress on traditional morality in education and the family pleased conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Arnold Lunn while worrying radical philosopher C. E. M. Joad \(p. 127\). There is a fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion about the divisions within British feminism caused by the Soviet ban on abortion in 1936. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beatrice King, a fellow-traveller, accepted the ban, while the Abortion Law Reform Association was angry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to accuse the Soviet government of failing to treat women as responsible judges of their own fate \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most fascinating theme, however, is that of the nature and impact of state planning on British thinking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not just on the Left. Dr Flewers fails to be easily stereotyped into the normal \(tiresome\) alternatives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism or the varieties of Trotskyism; instead he takes into account the argument made by Hillel Ticktin )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 542.979 m 48.008 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the command economy was actually unplanned and chaotic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1929?34 period, the reactions to the destruction of the legal market in the USSR by the Five-Year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plans and forced collectivisation are examined with great care. This means that the conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of the anti-socialist Arthur Shadwell \(who believed that the new policy was doomed to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early failure\) and the uncritical admiration of R. Palme Dutt and Emile Burns of the British Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party are enriched by the less partisan comments of Maurice Hindus, who saw the ability to train and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organise engineers as critical for success and was worried by the violent and inhumane treatment handed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the peasantry. The author looks not just at the partisans and enemies of industrial planning, but also at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first-hand comments of US engineers actually involved in the industrialisation, such as Walter Rukheyser, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of US journalists such as H. R. Knickerbocker and Ellery Walter, whose reports of the poor management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and weed-ridden machinery of the new collective farmers belied the uncritical reports of happy farm workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoying modern conditions made by Joan Beauchamp for the )] TJ ET BT 334.976 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour Monthly)] TJ ET BT 413.312 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The question of product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality was raised by a critical German observer, Heinrich Poppelmann, while the British engineer Allan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monkhouse was worried about the harm to industrial efficiency caused by the overtly politicised atmosphere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 89\). The British famer, John Morgan, who was dismayed at the condition of Soviet agriculture, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low grain yield, weed-infested cereal fields and lack of tractors, is contrasted with John Hoyland?s choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remark that Soviet citizens starved physically, but did not starve morally because they had willed their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privations \(pp. 90, 91?2\). A variety of commentators ? British economist Margaret Miller, Menshevik exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aaron Yurgov, US commentator Isaac Don Levine ? are used to point to the unplanned nature of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?plans?, originating as they did in emergency )] TJ ET BT 254.648 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc)] TJ ET BT 286.976 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( response to commands from above caused by shortages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of grain and manufactured goods. Dr Flewers shows that there was enough information amidst the partisan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasy to make a considered appraisal of the regime and its policies, if people wanted to use it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the existence of the USSR could be taken as more assured after 1934, the author points to a change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to planning. He notes the sense of much of the British left such as Herbert Morrison and Hugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dalton \(pp. 86?7\) that the triumph of Soviet planning demonstrated the superiority of socialism, but he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points to the critical accounts of British engineers such as John Littlepage, Fred Beale and Peter Francis \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(140, 152?3\) in assessing the ?Stakhanovite? movement. Their concerns with industrial efficiency led them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note the shortage of adequate skills displayed by technicians and the clumsy attitude which harmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated machinery. On agriculture, the author brings out the technical problems of the new collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farms through his use of Russian exiles and US commentators such as Ivan Solonovich, Nicholas de Basily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and W. H. Chamberlin \(p. 142\). The evidence, clearly available to anyone who wished to look, led many to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out in those early days that there was no genuine plan at all, merely target-setting. Michael Polanyi as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as US commentators like Eugene Lyons and Leonard Hubbard \(p. 143\) stood out against the faith in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist planning to point to the heresy that the Emperor lacked clothes ? that the command economy was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.6477 795.3895 247.6397 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 543.2935 48.0077 555.1735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by the )] TJ ET BT 132.980 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(absence)] TJ ET BT 171.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of any coordinated plan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the definition of a ?centre ground? \(p. 19\), distinct from the apologists and enemies, suffers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being too inchoate. Apart from a shared critical attitude to the USSR, this centre ground is in danger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a bag into which too much is stuffed by bringing together Sir Bernard Pares, Harold Macmillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Robert Boothby, Leon Trotsky and Boris Souvarine. A variety of writers ranging from the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher John MacMurray through the Russian mystic Nikolai Berdyaev and German Marxist Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenberg to the US journalist H. R. Knickerbocker are mobilised to present an intellectual debate about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of Communism, but the sheer variety of opinions tends to obscure clarity at times. Dr Flewers needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to delineate this ?centre ground? much more carefully, sifting the observers to differentiate corporatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planners like Macmillan and Boothby from Labour corporatists like Dalton, and then from more friendly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics such as Cole, and then again from left-wing critics of Soviet planning like Trotsky and Serge. He goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some way towards his important goal of classifying a multiplicity of opinions \(p. 19\), but he needs to go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, his use of non-British writers is problematic. He rightly argues that British opinion cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated from non-British writers \(p. 16\), but his failure to make a clearly defined criterion of selection leads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to present a wide array of observers such as Kautsky and Rosenberg, Kerensky and Trotsky, Souvarine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Barbusse, along with a host of lesser-known migr writers and US diplomats and observers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, influential writers such as Max Schachtman, Simone Weil and Andrs Nn are ignored on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, despite the importance of critical socialist thought in the USA, France and Spain during the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No reason is given for choosing some and not others. His second argument for rejecting a purely British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus because it would lead to ?a thin brew? \(p. 15\) is a weak one, especially when the reactions of Maxton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Brockway, Cripps and Aldred to the USSR are not fully taken into account. This criticism is partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mitigated by the author?s argument that such a large array of observers demonstrates that the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on the Soviet economy was available at the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, an eclectic approach is taken to previous interpretations of the fellow-travellers? adulation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR in which the author combines arguments about the heirs of the Enlightenment with those concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last gasp of romanticism and an attraction to authority \(pp. 49?52\) which glosses over a serious analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an example, the criticism that the Webbs? concern about the lack of intellectual freedom in the USSR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?had little to do with intellectual freedom and much more to do with freedom for the intellectual? \(p. 120\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems an odd one to me; perhaps he should have said ?middle-class intellectual?, which would have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearer point yet still demanded more explanation. However, in a valuable prelude to the main history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author notes a growing convergence of progressive and conservative writers, as Leftists moved in the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the traditional conservative belief that the Russian mass was unruly and needed strong leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 39?40\), as a symptom of elitism. Gollancz?s rejection of Orwell?s )] TJ ET BT 376.628 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homage to Catalonia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.632 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.632 288.627 m 497.624 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.624 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book Club was a deliberate refusal to offer the Left and liberals in Britain a libertarian critique of Stalinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in power and practice. Fear of Nazism was undoubtedly important in reinforcing the attitude which led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this decision, but the elitism of the British liberal intelligentsia, which had long seen itself as a ?benevolent? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardian of the public interest, played an important role in selecting the terms of debate. In failing to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this elitism, Dr Flewers has missed the chance to demonstrate that this censorship was not peculiar to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s but an aspect of that informal and flexible but restrictive control of debate exercised to this day by one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the elites which shape the parameters of public opinion in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 101.996 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Civilisation?)] TJ ET BT 209.348 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is highly recommended as a valuable addition to the literature on Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies and the reactions of British intellectuals and commentators.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Laqueur, )] TJ ET BT 145.652 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fate of the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 273.644 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.968 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.968 82.803 m 408.956 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steffanie J. Nanson, )] TJ ET BT 163.664 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Press and the U.S.S.R., 1930?41)] TJ ET BT 376.664 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(University of St Andrews, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished PhD thesis, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.352 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.352 54.291 m 268.340 54.291 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.6317 288.9415 497.6237 300.8215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.9677 83.1175 408.9557 94.9975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.3517 54.6055 268.3397 66.4855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 2184 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Council of Labour, )] TJ ET BT 203.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy versus Dictatorship)] TJ ET BT 355.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1933\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.964 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.964 795.075 m 490.952 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Dalton, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unbalanced Budgets)] TJ ET BT 232.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1934\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.988 780.819 m 367.976 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hillel Ticktin, )] TJ ET BT 135.020 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the Crisis of the USSR)] TJ ET BT 294.368 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Armon, NY, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.684 766.563 m 449.672 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Orwell, )] TJ ET BT 141.656 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homage to Catalonia)] TJ ET BT 245.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1938\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.984 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.984 752.307 m 380.972 752.307 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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