%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 45 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930022232+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930022232+01'00') /Title (The Medieval Prison: A Social History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4545 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Medieval Prison: A Social History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this book is not very long \(109 pages, not counting appendices and index\), it might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized in multiple ways. First, it is important, making a valuable addition to the literature on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons. Interestingly, medieval prisons have not attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. It is not clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why this is so since a closely related subject, medieval criminal law, has attracted the interest of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and, to a lesser extent, legal historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.324 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.324 229.161 m 283.316 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.316 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, prisoners represent a type of outsider or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?other?, a favorite topic of more recent post-modern scholars. Ralph Pugh and Jean Dunbabin have produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal works on which the book draws; and more recently Richard Ireland and others have explored this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.012 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.012 186.393 m 85.004 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.004 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Geltner?s substantial archival research has produced a detailed study of the prisons of Siena, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice, Florence, and Bologna. As a result, he has contributed important work to an understudied subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that merits greater attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is also, in two very different ways, an eclectic work of scholarship. First, although the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary focus is medieval prisons it is not entirely historical and intersperses discussions of modern prisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and penal practices as well as other non-historical subjects. There are references to more modern prisons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penal theory, starting with the Enlightenment and Bentham and continuing through Marxism in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and Foucault and others in the 20th century. The second way in which this work is eclectic is in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-disciplinary nature, and use of modern social and political theories and ideas to analyze medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(805)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Geltner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691135335)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(197pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Rose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.3237 229.4755 283.3157 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.0117 186.7075 85.0037 198.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, it is a very ambitious book. Having studying these Italian prisons, Geltner articulates some broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions about the social history of European medieval prisons, their nature, purpose, and effect.. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand his objectives further requires a detailed description of his book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction \(pp. 1?10\), Geltner sets out in detail his objectives and conclusions, which appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly throughout the book. In general, his social history portrays medieval prisons quite generously and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positively. He begins this history by focusing on the emergence of urban prisons in the Italian city states and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout western Europe. His thesis is that constructing prisons ?at the city center reflected a broad shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary attitudes toward social marginals, namely from expulsion to containment ... Here local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments developed mechanisms for maintaining social order in a new key? \(p. 1\). Revealing a changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective from eradicating deviancy to containing and controlling it produces ?an increasing nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of social control in the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? \(p. 5\). One recurrent theme is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the prison?s urban location meant that prisons were ?semi-exclusive? and consequently ?semi-inclusive? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. As such, the prisoners were not totally excluded from urban life and thus, despite their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarceration, they retained some social identity and were not ?liminal? people \(p. 4\). He includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?municipally run prisons? with other ?marginalizing? institutions such as ?leper houses, brothels, hospitals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jewish quarters? as an ?equally ubiquitous expression[s] of such attitudes toward social control? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2?3\). This goal of incarceration was ?unprecedented prior to the mid-thirteenth century?\(p. 3\). The book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?major object? is the ?untold ? story of the many and varied local facilities ? a necessary step toward a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded regional portrait? \(p. 3\). Moreover, the construction of these prisons and the development of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of social control by city states reflected the rise and importance of municipal government in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from a polycentric oligarchy to a centralized communal regime, a process commonly dubbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?from tower to palazzo? \(p. 1\). The Prologue?s anecdote about the rescue of prisoners from Florence?s Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stinche?s prison during a 1333 flood reflected that urban prison was a ?central site for the negotiation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic identity, secular jurisdiction, and popular charity? \(p. xviii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He identifies three contributions of the book: 1\) it fills the ?Italian lacuna? in the history of medieval prisons; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\) it augments ?the traditional historiography of the prison with anthropological, urbanistic, and sociological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives?; and 3\) ?in grounding arguments about the history of the prison in documents of practice rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by recourse to prescriptive texts, the traditional norm, the book demonstrates ?that the birth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison was more than a legal development; it was a ?a sign of advancing civilization? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.940 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.940 345.651 m 489.932 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.932 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth his rather benign, even benevolent and altruistic, view of medieval prisons, he posits that the advent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these prisons and punitive incarceration need to be understood in the contemporary societal and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context \(pp. 3?4\). He asserts that prisons were a ?complex and contingent creation? where politics interacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with architecture and religious imagination. These ?new attitudes toward social marginals? evidenced an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancing civilization in which a ?reorganization of urban space? superceded the traditional legal view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?abhorred punitive incarceration?. These medieval prisons were ?constituents of the urban landscape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proud symbols of a hard-won independence?. They contributed to the achievement of municipal security, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal efficiency, and commercial expediency. Their existence and operation reflected changing attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward the ?other?, namely a shift from ejecting to containing deviants. These prisons revealed a new era in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of punishment and ?epitomized an increasingly complicated attitude ? toward indexing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social ?in? and ?out??.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.9397 345.9655 489.9317 357.8455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7805 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He concludes this portion of the introduction by articulating the book?s guiding goals \(pp. 4?5\). The first is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to identify and describe the processes by which ?medieval society developed the practices of punitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment, mostly against the grain of contemporary jurisprudence?. This goal entails understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential contemporary ?social and physical environment? and the constituent elements of its ?political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking? such as justice, sovereignty, and citizenship. The second goal is to present ?a living image of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval imprisonment by focusing on the various persons comprising the human fabric of these institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the relations among them?. Thus, this study of medieval prisons ?illuminates the so-called persecuting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality of late-medieval society from a fresh perspective.? The remainder of the introduction \(pp. 6?10\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews the prior scholarship on European prisons and penology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three chapters examine various aspects of prisons to support and explain the ideas, contributions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and goals set out in the Introduction. Chapter one, ?Italian prisons: three profiles? \(pp. 11?27\), consists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies of the prisons of Venice, Florence, and Bologna and lays the groundwork on which the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based. These studies use archival records to detail factual information about these three prisons, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals considerable diversity, offering ?a kaleidoscope rather than a unified picture? \(p. 27\). Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process in each city exhibited a ?common chronology,? which produced prisons in urban centers with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations governing various aspects of prison operations and a growing inmate population. Notably, ?there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a budding activity ? individual, institutional, civic, and ecclesiastical designed to improve the prisoner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare? \(p. 27\). This unprecedented ?intense activity?, representing a significant departure from past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, ?shaped the penal and administrative practice of prisons well into the modern era? \(p. 27\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, ?Aspects of imprisonment?, \(pp. 28?56\) examines the foundation and maintenance of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons from four perspectives: urban development, administration, finance, and law. It draws on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous discussion of the Florence, Venice, and Bologna prisons, but adds information from the Sienna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison as well as other prisons in Italy, France, and England. The urban development perspective links the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of prisons to ?the explosion of civic architecture and urban planning during the communal era?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These prisons were a ?)] TJ ET BT 143.312 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine qua non)] TJ ET BT 204.644 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of urban space ? and civic pride? \(p. 28\). They reflected a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?transformation of public space ? contemporary political attitudes, affirming ?local hegemony?, ?reified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissonance?, and ?the importance of civic charity? \(p. 32\). More generally, this prison architecture marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the genesis of the physical and administrative aspects of modern prisons ? staff organization and regulations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record-keeping, oversight, and various types of personnel. The finance and economy discussion focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison income and expenses. Income derived from fines and debt collection as well as fees, a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject in the medieval prison literature. One important fee, )] TJ ET BT 323.636 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(agevolatura)] TJ ET BT 381.632 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was to ameliorate daily prison life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was the most substantial source of income. Although municipalities did not view prisons as source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profit, the income was lower than expected due to the growing number of poor prisoners. Like much legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, the book?s legal perspective focuses on actual practice rather than formal texts such as statutes. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the ?law in action? as opposed to the ?law in the books? shows, as other medieval scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has, that incarceration was often punitive and coercive rather than custodial, despite the longstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudential and religious objections to such punishment. A primary explanation for this development was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that debt was the most common ground for incarceration. The increase of poor prisoners meant they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained in prison unable to pay their debts and fines, a form of practical and indirect punishment. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, imprisonment for certain offenses evidenced formal and )] TJ ET BT 351.620 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de jure)] TJ ET BT 385.280 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( punishment. As a result, punitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarceration became increasingly common in Italy and elsewhere. Geltner concludes by asserting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed legal procedures made prisons more conspicuous and, therefore, ?living symbols of a revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political era and of a new public theater of law?. All this again reflected the ?tower to palazzo? process and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the conversion of public spaces to suit the ideological and practical needs of centralized communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes? and the development of prison administration as one of several processes ?devised to address the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of mercantile culture? \(p. 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?Prison life? \(pp. 56?81\), details the road to prison, starting with arrest, and continuing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first night, prison wards, order and dissonance of daily prison life, the influence of the outside world, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end point: death, escape or release. Geltner again reiterates a rather benevolent view of medieval prisons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting them to modern ones. The former were, ?if not pleasant ? a tolerable place, by medieval and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly by modern standards?. Drawing on modern penal theory, he asserts that ?the visibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility of medieval inmates helped mitigate a tension between social rehabilitation and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction, again asserting that medieval prisons and prisoners were neither ?liminal spaces? nor ?liminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?\(p. 57?8\). He notes that division of prisons into wards according to the wealth, status, gender, health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, to a lesser extent, the gravity of the offense was a new practice that responded to a diverse prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and the need for security and recognition of social norms. Wards provided order and hierarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assimilated legal and socioeconomic classification systems. He finds that violence was reduced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although impossible to eliminate totally. Geltner argues further that the centrality of the prison?s urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location and its visibility and accessibility also caused medieval life outside the walls to permeate prison life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again he emphasizes the prison?s ?semi-inclusive nature? and that the absence of ?social seclusion? had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive effect by virtue of the ?strong daily ties? with various types of connected outsiders \(p. 74\). With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the three possible ends to incarceration, the author says death rates were low and escapes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncommon. Most prisoners left prison after paying their debt or fine or completing their sentence; and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were released as an act of charity pursuant to religious practices \(pp. 74?80\). Geltner concludes by repeating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his rather positive view of medieval prisons. Although they were ?unpleasant?, they were ?far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerable?, ?not hellholes?, and not ?dumping grounds for dissidents?. The medieval prisoner?s major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger ?was a spiraling debt, not physical survival in an ultraviolent cage? \(p. 80\). They ?operated as spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and temporal extensions of urban life, connecting free society back to itself? \(p. 81\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although first three chapters were linked to each other and the major themes set out in the introduction are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, the relevance of chapter four, ?The prison as place and metaphor?, is more doubtful. It seems more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like a separate and tangential essay whose connection to social history is at least ambiguous. The thrust of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter is religious and literary, juxtaposing prison and purgatory. The specific topics of discussion are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Early imaginaries: martyrdom, monasticism, and purgation?, ?Excursus: jail-breaking saints?, ?From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purgation to purgatory: God?s great prison? and ?This world and the next: the urban prison?. He concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter, noting that the ?meaning of imprisonment was in the eye of the beholder?, with no ?single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unified understanding [nor] reigning interpretation?. He asserts that the novelty, ubiquity, and location of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these new urban spaces as well as the continuing social ties between those inside and outside them resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in contemporary ?preoccupation with these prisons?. Not only were they not ?a place of shame?, in contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to modern prisons, they were a ?public site for celebrating or protesting against the regime, for promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, and for negotiating or challenging the social order? \(pp. 98?9\). Although this chapter is interesting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its contribution and relevance to the main themes of the book are unclear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s conclusion, ??Marginalizing? Institutions, Instituting Marginality?,emphasizes the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal prisons as a late 13th-century, not a modern, development and contrasts the invisibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monstrous nature of modern prison. Geltner challenges the traditional view that medieval prisons were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?savagely cruel and not punitive? \(pp. 100?1\). But the conclusion reveals the breadth and ambitious nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the author?s thesis, arguing that what he has asserted regarding medieval prisons has ?wider implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the study of medieval society?, and identifying three central premises regarding premodern prisons. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their use of ?punitive incarceration? is linked to the development of modern prisons as a vehicle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementing the penology of the modern state. Second, punitive incarceration was well known to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?medieval law and jurists?, despite conflicting with contemporary attitudes. Third, the image of the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison as ?hellhole?, as viewed by both medieval and modern commentators, ?is simply untenable?. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes that these notions challenge ?a progressive or ameliorist understanding \(even in theory\) of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons and penology. In sum, life in prison for most prisoners was ?typically a more coercive version of life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at large? \(pp. 101?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To understand these broader implications of the development of medieval prisons, Geltner turns to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the formation of institutions as a response to social problems and the work of the historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premodern institutions. Prisons, like other urban institutions, contributed to the ?reification of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginality? and reflected ?a drive to accentuate order over social sanitation and underscore[d] a preference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of regulated interaction over social destruction? \(pp. 104?5\). As such, prisons existed in ?the landscape of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social marginality? as ?political symbols of political or ? religious authority?. Segregating those whose )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8131 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs or conduct conflicted with contemporary norms ?regimented and tolerated? but did not reject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners, ?contain[ing], maintain[ing], and even protect[ing] urban marginals and minorities? as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conceal[ing], banish[ing], or destroy[ing] them? \(pp. 106?7\). Thus, these Italian prisons, like other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval urban institutions, revealed ?a significant shift in contemporary practices of social control?, ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rough tolerance? toward social marginals, including criminals?, and facilitated ?the extension, rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraction, of civic life? \(p. 108\). In conclusion, these prisons and their manner of operation ?meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban marginals could constructively engage in surrounding society, rather than be suffocated or outcast? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?normalized and accepted marginality? \(p. 108\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judging the author?s success requires an examination at two levels. First is the book?s contribution to filling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the Italian lacuna?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.316 654.771 m 144.308 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 144.308 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In that respect, the work is successful. Geltner provides considerable data about these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons and, therefore, a very good picture of their founding, administration, and inmates. Moreover, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how imprisonment was often punitive not just custodial, as scholars have found was true in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval prisons. As is traditional in good historical scholarship, the author has engaged in the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consuming and difficult task of archival research. In doing so, he has produced informative and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented scholarship on Italian medieval prisons and made a valuable contribution to this understudied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and important historical subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is less clear, however, whether his broader and more ambitious goals have been achieved. Whether he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augmented ?the traditional historiography of the prison with anthropological, urbanistic, and sociological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives? is not clear. Nor is it evident that his research provides a basis for his assertions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval prisons outside of these Italian city states nor for his linkage of the development of modern prisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to these medieval origins. In both cases, the problem is a factual one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The construction of these prisons within the urban space of these Italian city states provides a foundation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several separate and interrelated arguments. It is related to medieval urban planning and the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of municipal government. It reflected a new approach to social control and the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal and deviant people, seen also in other urban located institutions. The visibility and accessibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prisoners partially integrated them with those in the outside world. It also made their daily life tolerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their treatment often charitable and beneficial although often coercive as well. Some aspects of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas draw some support from contemporary and modern commentators, especially Dunbabin. But other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones do not have the kind of support found in primary sources to provide the requisite underpinning. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geltner?s assertions are theories, both plausible and interesting, but such theories need factual support. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the extension of his findings and assertions to prisons outside these Italian cities needs more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual support from data regarding other medieval prisons. In fact, the picture he paints does not seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent with what scholars have said about English prisons. Moreover, it is doubtful whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions in London?s Newgate and Ludgate prisons could be characterized as ?tolerable? or evidencing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new more positive attitudes toward social control.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.656 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.656 274.371 m 287.648 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.648 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such is also the case with his linkage between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval prisons and modern ones. Although Geltner is to be commended for using the perspectives of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines as a source of new scholarly approaches and ideas, in the end a social history, like any history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be grounded in contemporary factual data. Nevertheless, Gartner?s theories suggest new avenues for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further exploration by medieval scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This interest has included Italy. Trevor Dean, )] TJ ET BT 284.972 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime and Justice in Late Medieval Italy )] TJ ET BT 484.616 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.608 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.608 151.827 m 559.604 151.827 l S BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 137.571 m 78.008 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Pugh, )] TJ ET BT 126.356 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imprisonment in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 296.672 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1968\); Jean Dunbabin,)] TJ ET BT 471.980 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Captivity and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imprisonment in Medieval Europe, 1000?1300)] TJ ET BT 288.992 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2002\); Richard Ireland, ?Theory and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice with the medieval prison?, )] TJ ET BT 235.316 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Journal of Legal History)] TJ ET BT 403.976 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31, 1 \(1987\), 56?67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.296 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.296 94.803 m 547.292 94.803 l S BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 80.547 m 78.008 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His quotation is from Frederick Pollock and Frederic W. Maitland, )] TJ ET BT 387.980 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of English Law Before )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Time of Edward I )] TJ ET BT 169.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1898\). Pollock & Maitland?s point is more limited ? that punitive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.3157 655.0855 144.3077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.6557 274.6855 287.6477 286.5655 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.6077 152.1415 559.6037 164.0215 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 137.8855 78.0077 149.7655 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.2957 95.1175 547.2917 106.9975 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 80.8615 78.0077 92.7415 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 2370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment was an advance over an older revenge based society, which would have regarded )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment as ?useless?. )] TJ ET BT 197.336 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid)] TJ ET BT 216.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 516.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.668 780.819 m 309.656 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His use of the word ?lacuna? probably overstates the gap in scholarly literature as Dunbabin has )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous references to the prisons in these four Italian cities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.288 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.288 752.307 m 413.276 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margery Bassett, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newgate Prison in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 319.328 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Speculum, 18 \(1943\) 233?46.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.648 738.051 m 521.636 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/153.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 309.008 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.008 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/805)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3787)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/153.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.6677 781.1335 309.6557 793.0135 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.2877 752.6215 413.2757 764.5015 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6477 738.3655 521.6357 750.2455 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 309.0077 695.4775 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/153.full) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/805) >> endobj xref 0 57 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000005247 00000 n 0000005356 00000 n 0000005466 00000 n 0000005575 00000 n 0000009136 00000 n 0000009264 00000 n 0000009348 00000 n 0000009377 00000 n 0000009505 00000 n 0000009541 00000 n 0000009570 00000 n 0000009696 00000 n 0000009732 00000 n 0000009816 00000 n 0000016140 00000 n 0000016170 00000 n 0000016298 00000 n 0000016334 00000 n 0000016399 00000 n 0000024257 00000 n 0000024322 00000 n 0000031889 00000 n 0000032008 00000 n 0000040192 00000 n 0000040222 00000 n 0000040350 00000 n 0000040386 00000 n 0000040416 00000 n 0000040544 00000 n 0000040580 00000 n 0000040708 00000 n 0000040763 00000 n 0000040889 00000 n 0000040944 00000 n 0000041071 00000 n 0000041126 00000 n 0000041250 00000 n 0000041305 00000 n 0000041417 00000 n 0000043840 00000 n 0000043968 00000 n 0000044023 00000 n 0000044151 00000 n 0000044206 00000 n 0000044334 00000 n 0000044389 00000 n 0000044516 00000 n 0000044623 00000 n 0000044751 00000 n trailer << /Size 57 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44846 %%EOF