%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082519+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082519+01'00') /Title (A Child for Keeps: the History of Adoption in England, 1918-45) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4648 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Child for Keeps: the History of Adoption in England, 1918-45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Keating?s )] TJ ET BT 116.000 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Child for Keeps, )] TJ ET BT 208.340 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on her excellent doctoral study of the subject )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.292 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.292 286.185 m 471.284 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.284 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the social history of 20th-century Britain. Despite the importance of child adoption in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a number of social and cultural concerns in this period ? changing views on illegitimacy, constructions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parenthood and childhood, and the roles of the state and the voluntary sector, to name a few ? this marks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first published book-length study of the subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.672 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.672 229.161 m 277.664 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part, this historiographical neglect is likely to be a result of severe problems accessing relevant records. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first place, given the shame associated with illegitimacy, it is impossible to tell how many children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretly born out of wedlock were adopted within the family unit, or by sympathetic friends and neighbours. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, since legalised child adoption was a practice introduced much later in Britain than the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States or many Commonwealth countries and the initial laws dealing with this were permissive rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandatory \(p. 2\), informal child adoption continued well into the 1930s. More seriously, however, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars hoping to examine either detailed legal documents dealing with child adoption, or records of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process held by any of the charities which assisted unmarried mothers or focused on child welfare, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed to be disappointed. As Keating observes, ?even when records still exist the data protection laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and confidentiality rules are strict and rigorous, and, if anything, seem to be getting tighter? \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given these restrictions, there is little possibility at present of finding a way to examine the historical reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(806)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Keating)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230517882)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Grey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.2917 286.4995 471.2837 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6717 229.4755 277.6637 241.3555 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8321 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that particular couples or individuals might have chosen to try and adopt a child, how the children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced life after adoption, or even what prompted the biological parents to give up their child when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know other single mothers and fathers struggled in the face of immense hardship to keep their children with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Inevitably, this means that any attempt to engage with the history of child adoption is substantially a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(top-down exercise: heavily reliant on both published and unpublished governmental and administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, such as Home Office or local authority files. It is to Keating?s credit that despite these limitations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the available evidence she has managed to create a sophisticated and engaging analysis of the shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of child adoption, and the impact of legislation on the practice, between 1918 and 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Child adoption had no legal status in Britain \(including under the separate legal system of Scotland\) until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1926, when the first Act was passed which regulated this in England and Wales. Until then, child adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an informal and generally secretive procedure which gave the adoptive parents no rights whatsoever: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological parent could \(and in some cases, did\) appear at any time and demand custody of a child they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither seen nor contributed to the care of for years at a time. The first chapter of )] TJ ET BT 425.240 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Child for Keeps )] TJ ET BT 514.580 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential context and the historical background to the study, examining how the subject of child ?adoption? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was discussed and dealt with in the late 19th and early 20th century. This sets out a valuable overview of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of related issues before the First World War: the stigma surrounding illegitimacy; child custody, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parental rights and duties, and the introduction of new laws against child cruelty. It also engages with late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century debates over so-called ?baby farming?, a pejorative term used to encompass a broad range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities which included respectable foster care but was generally associated in the Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination with child abuse \(and even outright homicide\) by malevolent working-class women committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a grand scale.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.656 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.656 497.955 m 128.648 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.648 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These are huge subjects in their own right, and so any attempt to cover them in a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter forces the author to make hard choices about what must be regrettably left out. Nevertheless, I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprised to find no reference here to key research by Richard Collier )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.920 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.920 469.443 m 383.912 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.912 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Megan Doolittle )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.236 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.236 469.443 m 503.228 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.228 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century child custody debates, or Ruth Homrighaus? important \(though unpublished\) doctoral thesis, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains the only book-length analysis of baby-farming in England.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.312 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.312 440.931 m 370.304 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.304 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While there are no omissions here in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of important issues or concepts, Keating is noticeably weaker on the subject of baby-farming \(and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later chapters where the matter is also touched upon\), despite the fact that it was frequently considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synonymous with informal child adoption until 1918.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two explores the ways in which the voluntary sector began to deal with the increased public interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ? and demand for ? child adoption in the wake of the First World War. The focus is on the creation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years of three societies that took the lead in dealing with child adoption from 1918 onwards: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Child Adoption Association \(NCAA\), founded by Clara Andrew; the National Adoption Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(NAS\); and the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child \(NCUMC\). All three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropic organisations, created between 1917 and 1918, were concerned that adopted children should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only be taken by respectable people who were committed to providing a stable home. The NCAA and NAS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were sufficiently similar, both in name and their work, to generate much confusion about the difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them in the public mind, although the NCAA ultimately became larger and proved more successful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps in part due to having received the official patronage of Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, in 1919. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the NCUMC was initially suspicious of child adoption, fearing it undermined their work with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried mothers where the goal was always to keep their children with them, the growing demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child adoption in the interwar period meant it was an issue the society was forced to engage with right from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outset.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the early 1920s both the NCAA and NCUMC had begun to call for new legislation to be introduced on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child adoption, arguing that since ?adoption? was occurring in any event legislation would provide better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguards for the children involved. Chapter three examines the pressure placed on the government by these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other interested organisations to pass an adoption law. In fact, despite national conferences being held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject in 1918 and 1919, and a meeting on the matter arranged in 1920 with the Home Office by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Council of Women, neither the civil service nor the government were convinced that any measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to regulate child adoption was actually necessary. Although the 1921 Committee Child Adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee headed by Sir Alfred Hopkinson found that ?Every witness felt that adoption should be legalised )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.6557 498.2695 128.6477 510.1495 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.9197 469.7575 383.9117 481.6375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.2357 469.7575 503.2277 481.6375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3117 441.2455 370.3037 453.1255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7392 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some form? \(p. 85\), in practice both Parliament and the civil service were unhappy with this idea. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objections by civil servants were not confined to the Home Office, but complaints on various different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the proposed legislation were raised from within the Lord Chancellor?s Office, Ministry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pensions, Board of Education, and Ministry of Health, all of which feared that amending the law to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoptive parents greater legal rights might interfere with their work \(and, crucially, with their authority in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual cases\). Since it was agreed by officials that the Hopkinson Report?s claimed urgent need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation was unconvincing, Bills to introduce an adoption law were repeatedly blocked between 1921 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1924.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, these behind-the-scenes delaying tactics could not be used indefinitely, and the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately preceding the introduction of the Adoption of Children Act in 1926 are the subject of Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four. In 1924, responding to a new Bill in the House of Lords introduced by the Duke of Atholl, the Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office arranged for a second Committee on Child Adoption to be convened. Headed by a High Court judge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mr Justice Tomlin, this eventually delivered three reports and called more witnesses than had been heard by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1921 Committee. It was substantially less enthusiastic about the need for a child adoption law than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopkinson Committee had been, but nevertheless recommended that one should be introduced. Importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tomlin Committee \(and indeed the civil service\) felt that any uptake of such adoption legislation would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be relatively small, and were keen to avoid a situation whereby laws were rushed through and created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unforeseen complications. Instead, what became the 1926 Act was intended as ?a way of introducing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice gently to English society? \(p. 114\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, as Keating points out, even after the backlog of cases brought by parents who had been involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal adoptions before 1927 was cleared, the numbers of those applying for adoption orders continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise and had reached more than 5,000 a year in 1936 \(p. 117\). Chapter five examines the first years of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoption in England, and the issues this presented to the courts and those organisations \(such as the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the London County Council, as well as the NCAA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and NCUMC\) which dealt with the adopted children and their families. While the majority of adopters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married couples, there were also a small number of unmarried parents who adopted their own illegitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child in order to legitimise them, and until the policy on this changed shortly after the Second World War, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of single childless men and women also adopted children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six explores the increasing regulation of adoption societies in the wake of the 1926 Act. Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most respectable and successful of these organisations, such as the NCAA and NAS, had been occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspected of conducting lax checks on potential adopters or being out of step with the best practice in child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare. Generally, the NAS and NCAA were prestigious enough to be able to shrug off such criticisms, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the smaller societies were increasingly thought during the 1930s to be a marginally more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable \(and definitely perceived as less homicidal\) version of the ?baby-farming? which had so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised British commentators on child welfare in the late 19th and early 20th century. In response to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns, the Departmental Committee on Adoption Agencies was appointed in 1936, headed by Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horsbrugh, the Member of Parliament for Dundee. Crucially, this covered not only legalised child adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the societies which arranged this, but also investigated the informal adoptions which fell outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1926 Act. The recommendations of the Horsbrugh Committee formed the basis of the 1939 Adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children \(Regulation\) Act, which required a local authority to be notified of any informal adoption by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone of any child under nine years old. Perhaps most significantly, the Act finally made illegal both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising of children for adoption or adoption for financial reward save by a local authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Second World War, child adoption remained an issue of concern on the Home Front, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities and changes resulting from this period are examined in chapter seven. Just as in the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, the issues of war orphans and a rise in rates of illegitimacy prompted a reassessment of adoption policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practice. In part, this was spurred on by the fact that the outbreak of war meant that the implementation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1939 Act was delayed. By 1942, however, despite the Home Office?s lack of enthusiasm for enforcing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, there were increasingly vociferous worries raised by the press; the general public and the infant welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector that the sort of abuses which the 1939 Act had been designed to stamp out were actually on the rise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result, the Act was finally introduced in June 1943. It is important to note, as Keating points out, that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in the early months after the Act was enforced ?the initial procedure was not a mere formality? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(180\). Councils could ? and did ? withhold registration from adoption societies which did not meet with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval until they felt that the guidelines for child adoption were properly complied with. Two further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in legislation, the 1949 Adoption of Children Act and a consolidating Act passed in 1950, were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the criticisms of adoption practice which had been made by the 1945 Curtis Committee, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead reflected in law a cultural and policy shift which placed ?much more emphasis on the new family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than on the birth mother trying to make her lonely decision? \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The years 1918 to 1945, as Keating demonstrates, saw profound and dramatic changes in the discourse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of child adoption in England. At the end of the First World War, child adoption was still an informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process set outside the law and looked at askance, while after 1945 ?it was an established way of setting up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family? \(p. 195\). The final chapter, which reviews the arguments presented here and briefly outlines shifts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policy and discourses of child adoption since 1950, illustrates that the subject of adoption continues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverberate across discussions of the family, the ongoing debate over ?nature versus nurture?, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly eternal question in cases of child adoption as to what degree secrecy should play in the process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably, the most striking thing about child adoption in 20th century England is how far removed, in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways, it has been perceived to be from the experiences of the ?normal? family. Despite repeated calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in legislation throughout the period discussed by Keating \(and indeed after that time\), until well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Second World War adoption was regularly perceived as a side-issue compared with other aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family life or child welfare, requiring very little state intervention. Yet the debates about how adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should work, who should adopt children, and \(from the 1940s onwards\) the belated question of what was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best interests of the child, have always influenced ? as well as been influenced by ? social constructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perceptions of what family life could and should be like. In writing the first monograph on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoption in England, Keating has opened up a significant new aspect of our understanding of family life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century for further exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer E. Keating, ?Chosen children? The legalisation of adoption in England and its aftermath, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918-1939? \(Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sussex, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.332 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.332 363.411 m 441.320 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A small number of book chapters and articles on the history of child adoption in England have been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published: see variously George K. Behlmer, )] TJ ET BT 283.316 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends of the Family: The English Home and Its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardians, 1850?1940)] TJ ET BT 175.352 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, CA, 1998\) pp. 272?315; Stephen Cretney, )] TJ ET BT 434.660 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law, Law Reform and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Family)] TJ ET BT 115.676 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\) pp. 184?202; Katherine Holden, )] TJ ET BT 351.632 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shadow of Marriage: Singleness in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England 1914?60)] TJ ET BT 149.684 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2007\) pp. 140?163; Pamela J. Walker ?Adoption and Victorian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture? in )] TJ ET BT 118.004 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Family)] TJ ET BT 221.000 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11, 4, \(2006\), 211?21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.320 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.320 277.875 m 387.308 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a wider discussion of Victorian baby-farming see Margaret L. Arnot, ?Infant death, child care and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the State: the baby-farming scandal and the first Infant Life Protection legislation of 1872? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity & Change)] TJ ET BT 167.360 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9, 2 \(1994\), 271?311.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.680 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.680 235.107 m 330.668 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Collier )] TJ ET BT 141.344 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masculinity, Law and the Family)] TJ ET BT 300.344 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1995\), pp. 175?200.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.996 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.996 220.851 m 500.984 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Megan Doolittle, ?Fatherhood, Religious Belief and the Protection of Children in Nineteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Families?, in )] TJ ET BT 129.020 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Fatherhood in the Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 372.332 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Trev Lynn Broughton and Helen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogers \(Basingstoke, 2007\) pp. 31?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.000 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.000 178.083 m 304.988 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Ellen Homrighaus, ?Baby Farming: The Care of Illegitimate Children in England, 1860?1943? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Unpublished PhD thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.328 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.328 149.571 m 490.316 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_social_history/summary/v044/44.2.carp.html)] TJ ET 0.24 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