%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 40 0 R 45 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722220316+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722220316+01'00') /Title (The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4324 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume, dedicated to the historian Lawrence W. Levine, was, in the words of its authors, ?born of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that the time is ripe for a broad assessment of U.S. cultural history?. It grew out of a conference held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in September 2005 in honour of Levine, who before his death had established himself as one of the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices in the cultural history of the United States.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.664 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.664 214.905 m 285.656 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.656 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The volume contains 14 essays by contributors among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom are some of the most distinguished practitioners in this field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These chapters follow an introduction of over 50 pages which constitutes an ambitious summation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of the field by two of the volume?s editors. In a scholarly )] TJ ET BT 337.304 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 399.296 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cook and Glickman survey the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field, its historiographical antecedents, and its lateral connections to give an overview of the current state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prospects of cultural history. This summary alone makes the volume worthy of the attention of anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in US history ? and, given the intellectual cross-fertilization between cultural history in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European and US contexts, of those engaged in the study of other national histories besides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Setting out the state of the field necessarily involves confronting one of the conundrums of cultural history: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of a component of its object of knowledge, ?culture?. Here, as the authors affirm, a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings contend: for example, culture defined as artistic expression \(whether of the ?high? or ?low? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(807)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James W. Cook)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence B. Glickman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael O'Malley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226115061)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(464pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Hagopian)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.6637 215.2195 285.6557 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varieties whose intersections Levine explored\); culture in the anthropological sense, i.e., a common set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs, beliefs or rituals, culture as a ?way of life?; and culture as a phenomenon encompassing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products purveyed by Horkheimer and Adorno?s ?culture industries? along with the set of institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements and relationships that sustain those products? circulation. These three examples do not exhaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the definitions that the authors enumerate, and the multiplicity of the alternate definitions poses a problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for anyone attempting to take stock of the sub-discipline: it is difficult to draw a boundary around and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populate the interior of a field whose outline and contents alter depending on which definition one employs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to determine what the practitioners of all the various kinds of cultural history have in common with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the prolixity of the field, the editors? introduction wisely does not attempt to draw anything like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unitary map. Instead, it sets out a number of propositions that delineate certain intellectual genealogies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traceries of scholarly interconnections, and career trajectories, pathways that are not mutually exclusive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be superimposed or can sit alongside one another. These characterizations of U.S. cultural history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe its methods, defining questions, and objects of knowledge, illustrating them by exemplary texts; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they point to the various sources on which some practitioners draw \(for example, the work of Clifford Geertz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Michel Foucault, the ?myth and symbol? school of American Studies, cultural studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham School, social history and labour history\) and, in a fascinating account, the routes by which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of cultural historians ?)] TJ ET BT 181.328 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(avant la lettre)] TJ ET BT 248.660 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? arrived at the ?cultural turn?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From a variety of starting points ? labour history, intellectual history, social history, political history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s history ? these historians became dissatisfied with the ?tools of quantitative social science? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought an analytical register ?more sensitive to the contingencies of individual perception, language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery, and day-to-day experience? \(p. 16\). As one of that number explains, they began to feel dissatisfied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the social historian?s emphasis on public life and institutional structures and began instead to seek a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ?experiential component? ? ?shared systems of signs or symbolic languages rooted in, and expressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of, social relationships and social experiences? \(p. 17\). Later, describing other works, the editors argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social history?s emphasis on quantitative categories and material conditions had become inadequate for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining the deep subtleties of human experience and localized meaning-making? \(p. 35\). The ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history? addressed these ?blind spots? and emerged as a corrective to the rigid ?determinisms? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?totalizing logics? of 1970s social science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors point out, though, that a new generation of historians emerged around the end of the 1980s who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?came to culture not through some other rubric . . . but as a more explicit starting point? \(pp. 24?5\). Among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the differences of emphasis and narrative style among practitioners with different starting points \(temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and theoretical\), they point to a challenge that some of the new generation of scholars posed to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors: Robin Kelley, for one, asked whether historians like Levine were too ?celebratory? of the act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?mak[ing] meaning out of popular culture?. Kelley suggested that one should not go too far in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction: after all, ?popular culture can simultaneously subvert )] TJ ET BT 340.964 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and reproduce )] TJ ET BT 414.284 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony [emphasis added]? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 28\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.008 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.008 245.859 m 83.000 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.000 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The introduction demonstrates that cultural history is animated by productive tensions, the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Levine and his critics being a marker of the intellectual tradition his work helped to form, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of the continuing vitality of the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the introduction comes a section titled ?Practicing Cultural History?, including versions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers presented at the 2005 conference. O?Malley?s introduction to this section says that its eight essays, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in approximately the chronological sequence of the histories they describe, demonstrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between two approaches in cultural history: the attempt to form an empathic bond with the past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicative of the concern for the lives of the less powerful and subaltern groups exemplified in Levine?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and rooted in the ?new social history? and the New Left; and a more discursive approach introduced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-modernism and cultural studies in the 1980s, which was suspicious of attempts to ?recover? others? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices or ?speak for? the subaltern.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.300 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.300 91.299 m 217.292 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Fabian?s ?A Native among the Headhunters? examines the life of William Brooks/Stumamu, a member )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Chinook Native American tribe who converted to Christianity, moved to Philadelphia, and began an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.0077 246.1735 82.9997 258.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.2997 91.6135 217.2917 103.4935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7327 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with various white men who were interested in the young man for various reasons: whereas a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionary wanted the Christian convert to assist with fundraising; a craniologist and a phrenologist were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinated by the Native American?s skull, flattened according to his people?s custom. Records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooks?/Stumamu?s words allow us to see him observing and critiquing the white society just as they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observing him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Malley?s ?Rags, Blacking, and Paper Soldiers: Money and Race in the Civil War? examines notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?authentic and ?counterfeit? bound up in two of the Union side?s measures during the Civil War: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing the war by printing paper money, and enlisting African Americans in the Union armies. The essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces the intersections between two discursive systems, the languages of race and money, evident, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, in popular songs that regarded the enlistment of African American soldiers \(initially considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even by Lincoln as being inferior to whites in martial qualities\) as somehow akin to the use of debased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Envelope, Please,? by Shane White, Stephen Garton, Stephen Robertson, and Graham White, is based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on early 20th-century court records in New York?s Municipal Archives which document con tricks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrated by black confidence men against their almost invariably African American victims. The con )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tricks lead beyond the historians? ?conventional emphasis on black elites and respectable behavior? to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of the streets \(p. 128\) ? and this evidence points to practices of meaning-making through the belief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic, fortune telling, and supernatural powers. The sums of money involved also indicate the amount that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class Harlemites were able to save. The evidence, and the authors? attempt to make sense of it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds one of Levine?s interpretation of the trickster tales of slavery times, but the resulting interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems more tenuous than this earlier historiography. This is partly the result of the incompleteness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidentiary record: the court documents are suggestive, but there is also something frustrating about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidity with which some individuals disappear from them ? we can discern discursive patterns but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terribly much about how the discursive strategies ? and criminal conduct ? operated over time in people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Perhaps when this material is pieced together with additional sources from the authors? study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Black Metropolis? of Harlem and other relevant scholarship, the interpretation of Harlem life it evokes will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become more convincing and complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott J. Gorn?s ?Re-membering John Dillinger? deals with the mythology surrounding the Depression-era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bank robber Dillinger. The word )] TJ ET BT 193.316 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(re-member)] TJ ET BT 249.956 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wittily refers to the legend that Dillinger?s sexual organ, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroically magnified in the myth, was preserved somewhere in the Smithsonian Institution?s museums. Gorn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grapples with how and why Americans remember the Dillinger lore. ?Why do parts of it get retold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten, changed \(p. 166\)?? As the interpretation unfolds, Dillinger?s story is a venue where ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic fairness and social justice were rehearsed, onto which ideas about authority and crime fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were projected. And, in a satisfying conclusion to his informative and diverting narrative, Gorn makes sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fantasies about Dillinger?s sexual endowment, in relation to the ?vernacular of the culture?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.584 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.584 274.371 m 518.576 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Kasson?s ?Behind Shirley Temple?s Smile: Children, Emotional Labor, and the Great Depression? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the way in which the work of child performers such as Shirley Temple operated at the intersection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two economies, financial and emotional. Although her movie-struck mother said that acting was ?simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of her play life?, Temple recalled the words of a film director who used to threaten and punish ? Kasson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says torture ? uncooperative child actors: ?This isn?t playtime, kids ... It?s work? \(pp. 192, 203\). Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her cheery smile and her projection of childhood innocence, mingled with vulnerability, emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directness, and flirtatiousness, Temple repeatedly taught adults ? the movie characters in her films, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably the audience beyond ? lessons that helped equip them for their familial responsibilities and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social entailments of living in Depression America. It is difficult to do justice to the intricacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kasson?s argument but suffice it to say that it is gratifying to see a historian at the top of his game producing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a complex and persuasive analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Tyler May?s ?Gimme Shelter: Do-It-Yourself Defense and the Politics of Fear? demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections among the various social panics in different phases of post?Second World War US history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact that changing notions of risk and security had on individual and family life. During the cold war, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.5837 274.6855 518.5757 286.5655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government leaders preferred privatised civil defence measures to ?the ?communistic? idea of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shelters? \(p. 221\). Simultaneously, the nuclear family was seen as a psychological bulwark against un-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American or collectivist ideas: at its best, it supposedly raised emotionally healthy and self-reliant citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose freedom from neuroses was the best defence against alien creeds. This theme of vigilance born during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cold war was adapted into later manifestations of law and order and crime-fighting. As confidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government dropped to its nadir following Watergate, Americans armed themselves with personal firearms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a do-it-yourself effort to achieve security. After the decline of the nuclear family, which held demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance until the late 1960s, some Americans sought security by living in gated communities. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebration of ?free-market capitalism, private consumerism ? , and muscular patriotism grounded in martial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship? arose in the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001, fueling a ?quasi-cold war revival? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 238\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??Be Real Black for Me?: Representation, Authenticity, and the Cultural Politics of Black Power?, by Waldo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Martin Jr., concentrates on a song recorded by Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway in 1972, co-written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and Charles Mann. In Martin?s analysis, the song engaged with the ?Black is Beautiful? sensibility that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised the Black Power era and in so doing helps to reveal something about what Martin terms ?black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural politics?. The chapter addresses the tradition of church music that helped form Flack and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hathaway?s compositional and performing style, which merged with a Black Power consciousness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce an ?emotion-drenched and compelling secular hymn? \(p. 250\). The close analysis of the song?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lyrics shows how it engages with hot-button issues such as intraracial gender and sexual relations, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicised valorisation of dark skin and crinkly hair. The notion of ?real blackness? also feeds into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentialist/anti-essentialist debates of the 1980s and 1990s and the politics of identity. Thus, beginning with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a song that seems to assert an authentic ? ?real? ? blackness, the essay destabilises and interrogates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept and proffers an alternative definition involving Geertzian ?webs of meaning? \(p. 260\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Avila?s ?Turning Structure into Culture: Reclaiming the Freeway in San Diego?s Chicano Park? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts the history of the formation of ?Chicano Park?, an initially unhospitable parcel of land dotted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concrete freeway pylons now vivified and made beautiful by murals that celebrate Chicano history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MesoAmerican civilisations. A relatively disempowered community that was being pushed aside by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperatives of urban renewal and military-industrial development \(San Diego being host to major, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding, military bases\) resisted and, after an occupation of the site, forced the city government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designate it as a park. One member of the community imagined it, with the setting sun visible under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freeway, as a ?cathedral?. Another compared it to a forest: ?the area is cement, so the pillars are our trees? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 275\). Avila sees the park as expressing the cultural values of a group under siege, and as a ?vision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban modernity that did not demand the sacrifice of neighbourhood vitality, communal solidarity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural integrity? \(p. 281\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section, titled ?agendas for cultural history? includes four essays by authors who, as O?Malley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction tells us, represent different generational cohorts. The four essays are quite different from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, although all either exemplify or explicitly address questions of theory and method.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James W. Cook?s ?The Return of the Culture Industry? addresses Horkheimer and Adorno?s critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass culture articulated in )] TJ ET BT 163.328 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dialectic of Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 316.652 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elaborated in Adorno?s essay ?Culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Industry Reconsidered?. Addressing a number of forms of entertainment and performance on both sides of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic, Cook interrogates concepts such as ?mass? versus ?popular? and ?vernacular? culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points to the analytical advantage of the term )] TJ ET BT 253.316 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture industry)] TJ ET BT 329.648 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( over )] TJ ET BT 356.972 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mass culture)] TJ ET BT 417.968 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Referring to a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent works that use the phrase ?the culture industry/ies? Cook shows that it has been subtly reconfigured to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connote something other than simple manipulation or ideological domination; instead these works see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture itself as an arena of conflict and contestation, and perceive that audiences do not simply consume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural-industrial products but appropriate them for their own purposes or annex and subvert them. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point is more than simply that most culture industry products are ideologically contradictory, simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by producers and consumers. He suggests rather that producers and audiences changed over time, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an evolving form of ?knowingness? made it possible for producers to comment on their own creative effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even as audiences became increasingly competent at seeing through them while suspending their own )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism in pursuit of the pleasures of diversion: as P. T. Barnum put it, ?the public appears disposed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amused, even when it is conscious of being deceived? \(p. 307\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nan Enstad?s ?On Grief and Complicity: Notes toward a Visionary Cultural History? begins with a vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tableau: an art installation titled the Tobacco Project by a Chinese-born artist, involving slides projected onto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Duke Homestead, birthplace of one of North Carolina?s tobacco industry magnates, and accompanied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an audio tape. The slides were the medical charts of the artist?s father, dying of cancer. This scene prompts a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditation on the state of cultural history and cultural studies, and a questioning of the place of grief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiring a newly visionary activist history. The essay evokes a time of crisis, with fascism on the rise, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes on weighty themes of trauma, vulnerability, and death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this chapter did not work for me. For one, I thought the connection between the opening scene and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remainder of the essay was artificial and forced. For another, the essay differs from the others in being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less sure-footed in its command of historical detail and in the precision of its language, and the editors were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less exacting than they might, and perhaps ought to, have been. The author drops a clanger in her reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the International \(not, as it should be, the Industrial\) Workers of the World, which might be insignificant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were it not in the midst of a discussion of the labour activist and musician Joe Hill. In that context, it raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubts about her command of the relevant history. The author insists on using the word )] TJ ET BT 456.644 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corroboration )] TJ ET BT 527.648 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she means something like complicity or collusion. One of the endnotes complains about her readers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstanding her analysis of the ?opposition between corroboration [)] TJ ET BT 387.296 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 400.628 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] with power and resistance? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of her previous works, a failure of communication for which they can hardly be blamed; another note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains a rather gratuitous swipe at the limited historical understanding of the author?s own students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essay is conceptually hobbled by a set of binary oppositions, without apparently recognising the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many historical subjects occupy intermediate positions or negotiate the space between polar terms such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as oppression or resistance. The author calls )] TJ ET BT 248.636 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(resistance)] TJ ET BT 297.296 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?utopian?, but we must be living in dark times indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if resisting oppression, rather than ending oppression, is regarded as such; this seems to signify a failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical imagination inconsistent with the aspiration to a ?visionary? history. The author does not consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some obvious questions, which I would have supposed a cultural historian would find irresistible, about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the artist and the North Carolina Tobacco Museum, of which the Duke Homestead is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part: was his installation approved by the museum? How did this event play out in the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the museum and the agrarian-industrial enterprises whose history it records and, to judge by its Web site, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to celebrate?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.636 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.636 345.651 m 148.628 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Deloria?s ?From Nation to Neighborhood: Land, Policy, Culture, Colonialism, and Empire in U.S.-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Relations? also begins with a vignette: the author describes buying a book of postage stamps using a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20 dollar bill. The bill carries the image of Andrew Jackson, a leading proponent of Indian Removal, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stamps are loaded with nationalist imagery, but among the change the machine issues come dollar coins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying the likeness of an American Indian woman, Sacajawea, who accompanied Lewis and Clark on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyage of discovery which helped open up the West to white American explorers, settlers, and commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. Deloria describes the buying of the stamps as ?an act of culture?, the ?stuff of cultural analysis? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344\). Beginning with the circulation of Sacajawea?s image, Deloria embarks on an account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogies of ideology, subjectivity, and power that can be traced in the encounter of groups of people in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America under conditions of struggle. After a brief outline of the emergence of the field of Native American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, Deloria sets out four phases of the imperial relationship between white Americans and Indians. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter establishes the indispensability of an understanding of political developments, such as laws, treaties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and warfare, in order to situate and understand the cultural history with which they interact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Christophe Agnew?s ?Capitalism, Culture, and Catastrophe? places Levine?s body of work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the development of American cultural history, and takes stock of the current state of and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges in the field. Agnew revisits Levine?s first book, a study of the populist leader William Jennings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryan )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 66.344 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 66.344 79.299 m 80.336 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.336 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to discover the threads that ran through the rest of his work. Agnew associates the ?democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening? already evident in his rendering of Bryan?s last decade with a ?low or demotic modernism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(axiomatic for a generation of American cultural historians \(pp. 386, 389\). Levine?s subjects were creators as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.6357 345.9655 148.6277 357.8455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 66.3437 79.6135 80.3357 91.4935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 8042 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as creatures of culture. As Agnew explains, after quoting Levine?s essay from the 1992 )] TJ ET BT 480.248 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(AHR )] TJ ET BT 506.576 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to above \(reprinted in a collection of his essays\), ?The slaves did not submit to the slaveholder?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible, nor did Depression audiences necessarily buy the Hollywood ending. American culture, American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures, are at every point hybrid, creolized, coauthored? \(p. 388\). Agnew compares Levine?s account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African Americans? forging and nurturing of a culture on the rock of exploitation and injustice to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations of the effects of catastrophic experiences: E. P. Thompson?s analysis of the making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English working classes, and especially Karl Polanyi?s )] TJ ET BT 301.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Transformation)] TJ ET BT 428.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.660 709.539 m 445.652 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.652 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He describes the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars who, following Levine, tried to capture the experiences of people enduring, and forming their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own solidarities, in the face of various kinds of dislocation and dispossession, discovering the common bond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of humanism that runs between Levine?s work and that of later generations of historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final part of the book, titled ?Epilogue?, Karen Halttunen?s chapter ?The Art of Listening? recalls the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of Levine?s work on African Americans? history in the context of his involvement in the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights movement, and then recapitulates some of the themes of the book to which this review has alluded: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the distinction between the empathic and discursive approaches to cultural history; the definition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of culture; the notion of human subjects as creators as well as creatures of culture; the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between practitioners of ethnographic listening and ?discursive purists? who saw problems in historians? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving voice to subaltern groups. The essay then provides a useful summary of the themes of the preceding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their introduction, the editors of the volume point to a problem arising from the very success of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, whose borders were always fuzzy, and which has now expanded into virtually every other field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history: ?this pattern of expansion has led some commentators to suggest the field?s impending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsolescence. If ?we are all culturalists now? \(as one recent formulation has it\), why bother with a dedicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field called cultural history? \(p. 38\)? The essays in this volume provide one answer to the question, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrating the productiveness of the scholarship that goes on under the rubric of cultural history \(whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the official disciplinary designation of the posts its practitioners fill\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, another problem equally troubling for the subdiscipline that runs through the book: if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors of this volume had based a definition of ?culture? not on a broad survey of all that has been written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field, but on the chapters in this volume alone, they would have found numerous quite distinct concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jostling together. Some of the authors demonstrate their critical awareness of the diverse meanings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term and raise this as an intellectual issue, but others seem to use the term willy nilly. In one essay, we see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to an ?enlightened intellectual culture?, i.e., an environment populated by the learned \(p. 64\), as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a reference to the contrast between nature and culture, which implies an entirely different meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 68\). A later essay refers variously to popular culture, American culture, a culture of crime, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously referenced ?vernacular of the culture? \(pp. 156, 169, 176\). Still another essay mentions cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance, cultural fallout, cultural norms, a culture of fear, and domestic culture \(pp. 217?219, 238\). Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deloria, acknowledging that ?a rigorous definition of ?culture? is far beyond the scope of this chapter? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(372n 1\), proceeds to use the phrases American culture, cultural practice, material culture, cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation, culturally mixed individuals, cultural brokers, contemporary Native cultural life, and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or cultural commensurability \(pp. 343, 348, 358, 359, Cf. p. 373n 4\). This multiplicity of uses points to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain semantic embarrassment. A disciplinary subfield can accommodate many different specialisms, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem arises when its core designation has so many competing and inconsistent meanings. If )] TJ ET BT 492.296 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to mean whatever the historian wants it to, the resulting problem is not just that it is hard to tell where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cultural history? begins and ends. A more serious problem arises if the ready availability of such a labile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term too conveniently substitutes it for the hard work of drawing, rather than implying or assuming, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections among ways of seeing, modes of expression, ethnic or group identities, traditions, ways of life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and emotional or intellectual dispositions. Because they can all be smooshed together in the word )] TJ ET BT 504.632 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the overuse of an under-theorised term may preclude the rigorous examination of some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging problems in history ? say, for example, that of causation. Even if one sees things in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual shaping or reciprocal effects, rather than uni-linear causal relationships, the point is that one has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish concepts or phenomena, not lump them together, in order to discern their relationships. )] TJ ET BT 510.308 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.6597 709.8535 445.6517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 7804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to accommodate within itself all the things we might want to link together may make it an attractive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term for the same reason that it is a deeply problematic one. The notion of culture may not offer any help in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving beyond fixed positions in debates such as the one involving the orientation to empathy or discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the historian, and the field of study, at an impasse. If, as Agnew says, we are ?already looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?beyond? the cultural turn to discover what we should ?bring back in?? \(p. 405\), one of the answers may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an issue that has never really gone away: a continued alertness to the fact that )] TJ ET BT 408.932 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture)] TJ ET BT 442.928 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can obscure as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal, and that the capaciousness of its meaning poses a problem not only to those who want to define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field, but also to those who practice within it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors declined to respond to this review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of his significance as a seminal figure in the field of cultural history, as well as the one to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom the book is dedicated, it is worth touching on Levine?s own works, including the path-breaking )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom )] TJ ET BT 529.304 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1977\); )] TJ ET BT 129.008 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America )] TJ ET BT 475.664 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MA, 1988\); )] TJ ET BT 123.680 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Unpredictable Past: Explorations in American Cultural History )] TJ ET BT 455.012 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1993\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.344 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Opening of the American Mind: Canons, Culture, and History )] TJ ET BT 407.000 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boston, MA, 1996\).. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Levine?s first book is discussed in Jean-Cristophe Agnew?s contribution to this volume, and is cited )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in note six, below.\) In the first of the works listed here, Levine analysed materials such as trickster )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives to introduce complexity and ambiguity into an interpretation of enslaved African )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? lives. Too often, Levine observed, the slaves emerged from historians? works ?as docile, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting beings or as alienated prisoners on the edge of rebellion? \(p. 114\). Levine?s analysis showed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them not to be so brutalized as to be denied all culture except that imposed on them by the white )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master class, nor to be deprived of all agency; instead they were people adapting to the realities of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence in a society dominated by the master class, living in a world animated by their hopes and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith, albeit one ?dominated by malevolence, injustice, arbitrary judgment, and paradox? \(p. 134\). In )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Highbrow/Lowbrow)] TJ ET BT 161.372 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Levine showed how the bifurcation of ?culture? into ?high? and ?low? forms )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a matter of the intrinsic qualities of culture products nor of the natural segregation of social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes who pursued entertainments proper to their station: after all, for American audiences in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century America, ?Shakespeare )] TJ ET BT 272.612 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 291.284 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular entertainment? \(p. 21\). Cultural hierarchy was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical and cultural artefact, the result of a process in which middle-class audiences were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schooled in tastes and public comportment that allowed them to distinguish themselves from the lower )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one who took a doctoral field examination in American social history at a major East-Coast )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research university in 1990, I can testify that these works were immensely influential on those of my )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peers who studied popular and expressive culture and African American history, and who attempted to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the lives and beliefs of people other than those in politically dominant and economically )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantaged groups. The third of these works, containing essays on a variety of topics, challenges )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? attempts to arrive at a single, synthetic narrative, and, demonstrates an effort to complicate )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the picture, ?finding intricacies where before we had certainties, turning unity into multiplicity, clarity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into ambiguity? \(p. 12\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.680 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.680 178.083 m 231.668 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key reference point is the exchange among Lawrence Levine, Robin D. G. Kelley, Natalie Davis, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and T. J. Jackson Lears in a forum on ?the folklore of industrial society: popular culture and its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences? in )] TJ ET BT 131.996 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review )] TJ ET BT 270.980 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(97, 5 \(December 1992\), 1369?1430. In response to Kelley )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a related criticism by Lears, Levine wrote, ?If we become too obsessed with power, we risk losing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sight of the culture itself ... until we do the requisite research into the culture, the institutions, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences, we will not begin to know the exact results of these [power shifts], no matter what our )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective ideologies tell us about the putative state of cultural hegemony? \(p. 1429\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.956 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.956 66.291 m 525.944 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(References to the ?subaltern? groups refer to the field of ?subaltern studies? connecting ultimately to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.6797 178.3975 231.6677 190.2775 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.9557 66.6055 525.9437 78.4855 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 4109 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of Antonio Gramscsi; in relation to the issue of ?speaking for? the subaltern, an important )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference is Gayatri Spivak, ?Can the subaltern speak?? in )] TJ ET BT 346.604 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture)] TJ ET BT 550.268 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg \(Urbana, IL, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.256 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.256 766.563 m 415.244 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A monograph has since appeared: Elliott J. Gorn, )] TJ ET BT 303.980 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dillinger?s Wild Ride: The Year that Made )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America?s Public Enemy Number One )] TJ ET BT 252.980 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.616 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.616 738.051 m 421.604 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The museum?s calendar of events includes activities such as planting a tobacco seedling and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participating in a festival including the harvest, stringing and curing of tobacco plants by costumed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreters. See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.760 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.760 695.283 m 205.748 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence W. Levine, )] TJ ET BT 170.972 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defender of the Faith: William Jennings Bryan: The Last Decade, 1915?1925 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.652 666.771 m 232.640 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Polanyi, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time )] TJ ET BT 504.020 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1944; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repr., Boston, MA, 1957\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.672 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.672 638.259 m 242.660 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 583.491 m 240.992 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/5/1443.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 287.012 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.012 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 551.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 533.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 533.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/807)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 532.473 m 322.316 532.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32177)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/5/1443.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.2557 766.8775 415.2437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6157 738.3655 421.6037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.7597 695.5975 205.7477 707.4775 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.6517 667.0855 232.6397 678.9655 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 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