%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150524012850+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150524012850+01'00') /Title (The End is Nigh: a History of Natural Disasters) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4363 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The End is Nigh: a History of Natural Disasters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When reviewing books one?s expectations can be raised by the title. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 431.924 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The End is Nigh)] TJ ET BT 509.600 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be forgiven for assuming that it must relate to the End of Time and the various ways in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world might end ? cosmic impact; neighbouring supernova; nuclear apocalypse; unstoppable virus; runaway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global warming, i.e. large scale global catastrophes. Unfortunately this expectation is diluted by the sub-title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which informs us that the book is merely a )] TJ ET BT 241.664 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(history of natural disasters)] TJ ET BT 371.348 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; disasters somewhat short of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterilization of the planet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to the inside of the dust jacket we find that Svensen?s natural disasters include the Lisbon and San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco earthquakes, the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina. Surprisingly, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told that these locally destructive events ?changed the course of history, influencing our reactions to, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives on, disasters ever since. It seems that the scope of the book, and our expectations, are reduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to issues of human perception and planning. The end is clearly )] TJ ET BT 337.304 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 352.640 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nigh and the scope is more along the lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?don?t sleep on the beach, or under anything that might fall down?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, even before embarking on the text there is a feeling that it may be providing a mixed message. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the examples given are undoubted disasters ? indeed tragedies for those killed, bereaved and rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homeless ? they have nothing to do with The End being nigh. Only Hurricane Katrina gives a hint of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction the book will take. The author, we are told, is going to consider ?whether our current climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(809)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henrik Svensen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861894335)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(238pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Baillie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change is creating an environment in which natural disasters will be more frequent and more deadly? \(dust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jacket\). Katrina might be a consequence of climate change, but that is certainly not proven and there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable evidence that the scale of the disaster was largely the product of human failings; the hurricane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself being exceptional only in that it happened to arrive on a piece of coast occupied by a major city. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(let?s see if Svensen can defuse the annoyance induced by the cover.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately the contents page fails to help, being needlessly opaque; what might a chapter entitled ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Day of the Dead? relate to, or indeed another, entitled)] TJ ET BT 292.280 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( ?)] TJ ET BT 301.280 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Problem Children?? In fact the former relates to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon disaster of 1755 and the latter to volcanic eruptions. So, let?s try the preface, entitled ?When Climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becomes Disaster?. Here we are told that since 2007 ?climate change is a reality? and lots of people ?will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably thus be affected by more extreme weather and natural hazards linked to floods, landslides and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storms? \(p. 7\). Probably! You would think that if climate change is a reality then ?certainly? might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more appropriate. With these first two sentences the author enters one of the greatest debates in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, namely the question whether man-made climate change is driving the world into uncharted territory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not. But remember the debate is about whether )] TJ ET BT 274.640 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(man)] TJ ET BT 295.304 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is responsible for climate change outside the bounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of natural variation; that is not conveyed by Svensen?s ?climate change is a reality?. There has always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate change and humans have always been affected by it; failing to properly define your terms does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endear you to the reader. But worse is to follow. The next sentence states ?Since 1970 almost five billion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people have been hit by natural disasters? \(p. 7\). Sorry, how does that work? Five out of every six people on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the planet have been hit by natural disasters since 1970 ? surely not? Thus by line six of the book one is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to check the source of the information. Surprisingly, five billion is the figure suggested by the source, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the wording is subtly different. The source )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.652 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.em-dat.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.652 497.955 m 357.632 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.632 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 374.624 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells us that these numbers were of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those )] TJ ET BT 62.348 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(affected)] TJ ET BT 100.340 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the disasters. Being )] TJ ET BT 215.000 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(affected)] TJ ET BT 252.992 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is subtly different from being )] TJ ET BT 399.644 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hit)] TJ ET BT 412.316 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; you could be affected by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster by seeing it on television.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At least this time the annoyance is tempered by the fact of learning something new. Did you know that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002 some 650 million people were affected by disasters ? a tenth of the world?s population ? while some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25,000 people were killed. That, at least, gives some perspective; only one person in 26,000 )] TJ ET BT 477.956 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(affected)] TJ ET BT 515.948 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster in 2002 was actually)] TJ ET BT 172.664 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( killed)] TJ ET BT 202.328 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At last the book is becoming interesting because we can now begin to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the lack of perspective. For example, each year in Britain 3000 people die on the roads out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of 60 million; that is one death in 20,000. So natural disasters are not even doing as well as road )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users. I wonder if Svensen paused to ask himself just how many people die each year on the planet as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole? If he had done he would have discovered that for every person who dies in a ?natural disaster? more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 5000 die from some other cause, be it age, disease or malnutrition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways this sums up the book. We are told about disasters ? apparently ?between one and two natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters occur on the earth every day? \(p. 14\) ? but either statements like this make us bristle or their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation leaves us wanting to argue; there is a lack of convincing argument in the text. To take just one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example from the introduction; why are the losses of human life in natural disasters in recent years classed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as )] TJ ET BT 47.012 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(incomprehensible)] TJ ET BT 132.332 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? In fact they are )] TJ ET BT 215.960 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(completely comprehensible)] TJ ET BT 346.928 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; history tells us that major natural disasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to kill a lot of people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text is packed full of information but perhaps lacks structure. There are many observations both on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters and on human responses but it is not altogether clear where the book is heading. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive references to human populations, both past and present, blaming God or Allah, but beyond the too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous observations on the subject, there is little serious discussion of how authorities are to cope with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obvious tension between science and belief when it comes to planning for natural disasters in the future. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If anything Svensen?s tone is despairing. The basic content of the book is not the problem; if all you want is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some anecdotal information on a selection of ancient and modern disasters you may be happy enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading it. The problem is with points of detail like this: we are told that in 2003 72,000 people died in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Europe as a result of a heatwave \(p. 157\). In recent times Europe usually escapes large disasters, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heat, a likely symptom of global warming, brings Europe into the firing line; if things get warmer more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people will die. However due to a typographical error the 2003 heatwave is also assigned to 2006 making for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion with the other heatwave that recently affected )] TJ ET BT 306.608 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(northern)] TJ ET BT 348.608 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Europe. This is then followed by a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6517 498.2695 357.6317 510.1495 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.em-dat.net/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6196 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement sufficiently bizarre to suggest the text was not adequately proofed. Talking of Europe since 1970, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it states: ?A total of 45 per cent of all deaths have been caused by natural hazards? \(p. 157\). I very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt Svensen meant to write that! Maybe something got lost in translation. So let?s take a look through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter, )] TJ ET BT 119.324 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mythologies)] TJ ET BT 178.652 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, looks at ancient attitudes to disasters and the near universal blaming of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gods, with the logical extension of placating those same gods to prevent disasters. By medieval times the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian God was the instrument of disaster \(in Europe presumably\) and could apparently be placated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processions and other ceremonies, where previously sacrifice may have been necessary. However, with God )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came the refinement that although He might send the tribulation, the blame actually lay with human sin; so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for much of recorded history it seems that it was people who actually )] TJ ET BT 368.960 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caused)] TJ ET BT 402.284 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( natural disasters by displeasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God, i.e. the victims were to blame. This is well exemplified by a short discussion of the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster. Which is fine, but a lack of perspective soon appears. We know that one third of the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe dies in the 14th-century catastrophe \(indeed for all anyone knows it could have been one third of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?s population, though Svensen doesn?t look beyond Europe\). Then we are told that since the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Death ?plagues and virus illnesses have ravaged the world repeatedly? \(p. 28\). The examples given are that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1470s 15 percent of Northern Europe?s population died in an epidemic, while ?even today thousands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cases of bubonic plague are reported annually? \(p. 28\). You can?t compare a few thousand modern cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a disease, many of whom were presumably curable, with earlier major pandemics. A better example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ravaging)] TJ ET BT 77.348 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have been the death-toll from the flu pandemic of 1918?9, which is mentioned later in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter concludes with a discussion about the changing role of God in disasters as the Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeded in the 18th century and thereafter. We are given details of panic caused by minor quakes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England shortly before the real disaster of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 \(the subject of chapter 2\). If you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work hard at this last section you can see that the 18th century saw the start of the questioning of the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom; the idea of )] TJ ET BT 132.008 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natural)] TJ ET BT 167.348 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( causes for disasters started to become acceptable for the more scientifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded. Yet we are also told that until at least the early 20th century superstition and apocalyptic thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still ruled. What we are not told is that later in the book such beliefs will hold sway right to the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Day of the Dead? chapter starts by placing the Lisbon earthquake in historical context and outlining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the Marquis de Pombal, who was to lead the reconstruction. It is after three pages that we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told ?The course of events is well known? \(p. 36\); certainly something true of specialists who know the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of events; most readers might have appreciated being told the details at the start! The earthquake and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tsunami are treated rather cursorily in order to get to the socio-religious aspects of the aftermath. This was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all, the first earthquake disaster to provide serious records, happening at a critical time in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of the development of rational explanations. The earthquake itself raised questions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benevolence of a God who would send such a chastisement, giving rise to Voltaire?s famous line ?If this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best of all possible worlds, what are the others?? \(p. 47\) There is plenty of interesting detail, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Pombal, who was pivotal in sorting out the mess left by the quake, drove out the Jesuits who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming that human sin was to blame and that the earthquake was punishment from God. One aged Jesuit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gabriel Malagrida who wrote a pamphlet to this effect was publicly tortured and executed. It sounds almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as if science was winning.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7979 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately there is only a brief mention of the distant physical effects of the Lisbon earthquake. Svensen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores the reports of seiches and other effects from Europe, the British Isles and the Carribean, and refers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to a minor tsunami that struck a Norwegian fjord. This failure to fully address the physical symptoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to disguise some of the most interesting oddities of the event. Svensen discounts another Norwegian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account that mentions ?flames and balls of fire careering through inland lakes? \(p. 49\). Ironically, something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very similar was described by a British sea captain on the same afternoon, out in the Atlantic. He felt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange agitation of his ship and raced up on deck in time to see ?three craggy pointed rocks throwing up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water of various colours resembling liquid fire? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.640 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.640 683.283 m 279.632 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.632 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; thereafter a black cloud ascended. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian flames and balls of fire shouldn?t be so readily discounted. Perhaps the quake caused the release )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gas hydrates from ocean and lake beds; something that it would actually be worth knowing about!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, Svensen spends pages on the Danish Bishop Pontoppidan and the issue of Creationism. Yet he tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us that the Bishop was a top notch natural historian who wrote a dissertation on phenomena before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon quake, and produced a list of the natural disasters from 1750?5. Surely a decantation of that list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have served a book on natural disasters better than a discussion on blaming God. However by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage it is becoming apparent that religion and human reactions to disasters interest Svensen more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters themselves. This is where the book continues to annoy; if we don?t fully understand the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes of previous natural disasters how are we to prepare for future examples. You would expect the author, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a geologist, to take a more )] TJ ET BT 176.660 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(scientific)] TJ ET BT 219.992 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now I can understand why Lisbon got a lot of coverage because of its pivotal position, and the fact that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have killed 100,000 people. However, in the overall scheme of historical disasters it is surprising that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the San Francisco quake, and its 3000 death-toll, even gets a mention. The discussion is partly on religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this time the real thrust is on denial; the playing down of the disaster for economic reasons. Politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded that the destruction of the city be blamed on )] TJ ET BT 300.644 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the fire)] TJ ET BT 334.976 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than on )] TJ ET BT 407.624 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the earthquake)] TJ ET BT 479.276 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; after all if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area was earthquake prone no-one might want to build there. No, sorry, there is a lot more about religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than I first thought; )] TJ ET BT 130.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seven)] TJ ET BT 156.668 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pages are devoted to the Pentecostal Movement that flourished after the San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco quake. So the pattern is set for the book; people blame God for natural disasters. By this stage I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was starting to hope that that would be enough on this topic, though I had a nasty feeling it was going to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recur.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book is titled as a history I was hoping that attention would shift back in time; what about those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient disasters like the earthquake and tsunami that caused two Greek cities, Buris and Helice, to vanish in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a single afternoon in 373?2 BC? No, chapter 4 on cities starts with the mega-disaster that destroyed the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Tangshan, China, in 1976, before moving to the 1972 earthquake that destroyed the Nicaraguan capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Managua ? which did at least lead to some political change. However it turns out that the real aim of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is a six-page discussion of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans in 2005. In a history of )] TJ ET BT 490.580 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters I find it hard to see why Katrina is mentioned at all. Only about 3000 people died and it could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that all the deaths were due to human failures, after all the city could have been evacuated, given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warnings. In contrast, Svensen manages to dismiss Pompeii and Herculaneum in three lines and gives away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his perspective with this line: ?There are examples of cities actually disappearing for good, but they are few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and are way back in history? \(p. 86\). Way back in history! It would seem that there is no place for time depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a book on the )] TJ ET BT 114.344 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(history)] TJ ET BT 147.680 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of natural disasters. Of course, Katrina is in there because it just might be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptom of ?climate change?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We next turn to a parochial chapter about Norwegian rock falls and tsunamis. The reader may wonder why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have never heard of such things, and the reason is simple. Norwegian natural disasters sometimes kill as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many people as a car crash \(ok to be fair let?s say a bus crash\). We are told that ?as many as 2,000 people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have lost their lives in landslides since 1850 alone? \(p. 92\) ? making Norwegian fjords practically the safest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places on the planet. Svensen does try hard to convince us that there is an issue with serious rock falls and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local tsunamis, I think he fails; these happenings just don?t appear on the radar. But not to worry, religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes its mandatory appearance. There was the old woman who recounted a vision at an evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting in 1904. A Christ-like figure had appeared to her and warned of a major rockfall at a mountain )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.6397 683.5975 279.6317 695.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7939 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called Ramnefjell. A year later she had the same vision, and )] TJ ET BT 324.956 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the very next day)] TJ ET BT 406.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a section of Ramnefjell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapsed causing a tsunami that killed 61 people. I?d like to see the definitive evidence that that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented before the event! Then, in 1936 after an identical rock fall and tsunami in which 73 died, God )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was back in the front line still taking the blame, despite the fact that few lessons had been learned about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers of living up steep sided fjords. Fortunately after 1936 lessons were learned and by 1950 you could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have identical happenings with no death toll. God is presumably smarting at the fickleness of people for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally learning not to live in dangerous locations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This all leads to ten pages on the psychological consequences of living with risk. Why do people continue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live in places that are dangerous? We don?t get an answer except of course that most people are fatalistic; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either that or they claim to have premonitions of disasters. Svensen finishes the chapter with a recent )] TJ ET BT 520.604 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fictional)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premonition \(p. 113\), though it reads exactly like the rest of the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What might a chapter on ?Problem Children? be about? Well, as it turns out it is about volcanoes, and starts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with another example of denial. Apparently the president of Guatemala couldn?t be having active volcanoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they might detract from economic progress, so he decreed that there were no active volcanoes despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical evidence to the contrary. It seems that prayer is the chief defence mechanism for people who feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to live dangerously close to active volcanoes. Maybe this is what is coming out of Svensen?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that prayer sometimes works. It seems that is successfully stopped lava flows on Etna in AD 253 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at Laki in 1783. Or again, there is )] TJ ET BT 218.984 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(wishful thinking)] TJ ET BT 296.000 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which seems to have replaced religious sentiment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern day Iceland. But what is Svensen?s point? Suddenly he switches to super eruptions. Permian flood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basalts 253 million years ago, Yellowstone 600,000 years ago and Toba around 71,000 years ago lead to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point that ?Natural disasters can be important ?engines? of evolution? \(p. 136\). This fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important issue gets a whole page and a half, followed immediately by two pages on Tolkien?s fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mount Doom and the pilgrimage sites on Japan?s Mt Fuji.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the ?Politics of Disaster? well exemplifies the lack of direction in the overall text. First there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the dramatic cold affecting Europe in the early 1740s. It is not clear what caused this specific incident, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in theory it should have been in a separate section ? natural disasters of unknown cause. The discussion then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves to Eastern Asia and the huge famines of the later 19th century that are clearly, according to the text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by maladministration and globalization of markets. What this has to do with )] TJ ET BT 437.984 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natural disasters)] TJ ET BT 518.996 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at all clear. However, the huge death tolls apparently made it easy for developed nations to acquire new land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for aggressive missionary activity to attempt to bring Christianity to affected areas \(presumably they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed God to take the blame\). Thereafter the chapter loses its way with a jump to El Nio and droughts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Stalin to Mao and the deaths of 20?40 million people in China as recently as 1959?61. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters are at best part natural and part man-made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the chapter we are being told that famines always have complex causes involving ?natural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, political and social conditions? \(p. 152\). What is also clear is that failing to define )] TJ ET BT 482.960 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(disasters)] TJ ET BT 76.688 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the beginning of the book has left Svensen floundering in a maelstrom of complexity. Finally he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds to this by telling us that ?in principle we can prevent climate changes and droughts from developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into disasters?. Personally I would have defined ?natural disasters? as ?disasters caused by natural forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over which humans have no control?. Again defining terms might have helped in the chapter on ?Climatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disasters?. We are told that ?The possibility of the ice-caps returning constitutes the ?ultimate? climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat? \(p. 153\). The simple answer to this is ?No, it doesn?t?. A lot of life on earth would survive an ice age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if most humans wouldn?t; life has survived large numbers of ice ages in the past. The ultimate climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat is where human induced global warming causes a run-away greenhouse effect leaving a planet with all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life sustaining qualities of Venus! We don?t know that this will happen but it is without doubt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ultimate climate threat)] TJ ET BT 143.348 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But, of course, Svensen only mentioned the ultimate ice-age threat to dismiss it and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move to the issue of global warming. Here he is really out of his depth. There is no doubt that the planet is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmer than it was a century ago; part of this is due to the fact that we are still coming out of the Little Ice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age. The raging debates are on the issue of just how much of the warming might be due to human influence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed, on what any consequences might be. Svensen ends the first section with the question ?Can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific natural disasters of recent years be direct consequences of global warming?? \(p. 155\) He doesn?t )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6024 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know and neither does anyone else. This general lack of credibility has already been covered above in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion on European heat waves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suppose in a history of natural disasters the Boxing Day tsunami of 2004 has to be addressed. But there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting precedents that are ignored, while the issue of blaming God surfaces yet again. We learn that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Religious attitudes are seldom taken seriously by disaster researchers ? [yet] the religious dimension can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pivotal for an understanding of how ?disasters affect us afterwards? \(p. 167\). Apparently some religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders see in any catastrophe signs of the End being Nigh; hence the title. Thus, after a couple of sparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages on the tsunami disaster itself, the author devotes a dozen pages to religious reactions!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the concluding chapter the issue is vulnerability. It is the under-resourced who tend to suffer most in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural disasters. In the best of all possible worlds people would be well fed and resourced; they would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated and would have the ability to relocate away from hazardous situations. Unfortunately people don?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn from past experiences. Take Vesuvius; why does anyone live close to it, especially when even those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible don?t think 600,000 people could be evacuated successfully in a crisis? The answer is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human condition: )] TJ ET BT 121.352 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(it won?t happen to me)] TJ ET BT 228.020 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even if it does happen, it seems that most people would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatalistic: )] TJ ET BT 81.680 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(it was God/Allah?s will)] TJ ET BT 194.708 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. And this seems to be Svensen?s problem. By taking this approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing natural hazards he has painted himself into a corner; he fails to come up with any worthwhile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions. He tells us that natural disasters will arise whatever we do, and:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adaption to future changes and natural hazards, whether they are the results of climate changes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or not, will strengthen the ability of societies to withstand changes. If we succeed in this, it will )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent a great victory. \(p. 196\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summary,)] TJ ET BT 94.676 439.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The End is Nigh)] TJ ET BT 175.352 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fails to deliver much of what at least this reviewer was hoping for. It makes no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to define or categorize natural disasters; the fate of a few Norwegians gets as much coverage as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events that killed millions. The environmental downturn and plague at the time of Justinian is wrongly dated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to AD 530 \(p. 186\). That this event probably killed as many as the 14th-century Black Death makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange that it doesn?t make it onto the list of major natural disasters \(p. 197\). The book fails to suggest how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we might solve the issue of blaming deities and it fails to identify the fundamental factor in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, namely that it is exponential population growth that forces more people to live at increased risk in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 274.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Niddrie, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 274.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When the Earth Shook)] TJ ET BT 228.992 274.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1961\), p. 53. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.316 274.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.316 272.643 m 397.304 272.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 233.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independant)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 219.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-end-is-nigh-by-henrik-svensen-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 217.875 m 516.272 217.875 l S BT 34.016 205.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1764536.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 203.619 m 101.024 203.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.024 205.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 200.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 182.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 182.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/809)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 181.113 m 322.316 181.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 156.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3791)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.em-dat.net/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-end-is-nigh-by-henrik-svensen-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1764536.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.3157 272.9575 397.3037 284.8375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 218.1895 516.2717 230.0695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-end-is-nigh-by-henrik-svensen-1764536.html) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 203.9335 101.0237 215.8135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-end-is-nigh-by-henrik-svensen-1764536.html) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 181.4275 322.3157 193.3075 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/809) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000005061 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000005280 00000 n 0000005389 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009078 00000 n 0000009162 00000 n 0000009246 00000 n 0000017920 00000 n 0000018048 00000 n 0000018122 00000 n 0000018187 00000 n 0000024436 00000 n 0000024520 00000 n 0000032552 00000 n 0000032582 00000 n 0000032710 00000 n 0000032746 00000 n 0000032811 00000 n 0000040803 00000 n 0000040908 00000 n 0000046985 00000 n 0000047113 00000 n 0000047168 00000 n 0000047295 00000 n 0000047455 00000 n 0000047582 00000 n 0000047742 00000 n 0000047870 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 47965 %%EOF