%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418011822+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418011822+01'00') /Title (Review Article: American Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2930 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: American Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The struggle to understand the meaning of the American Civil War continues, and doubtless it will become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more contentious as its 150th anniversary approaches. The triumphal, celebratory and exclusively white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(811)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark S. Schantz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801437618)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(245pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dora L. Costa)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew E. Kahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0691137049)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Holden Reid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7915 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centenary ceremonies of 1961 and beyond have been replaced by a much more sombre, mournful, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mawkish tone. Dramatic accounts of great battles that emphasized their spectacle have been replaced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed studies of their cost. Historians have also focused on the messier side of the Civil War, such as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irregular dimension, and discovered that women participated in it ? as they always have in violent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary upheavals since ancient times. But the human cost of the war transfixes themost recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of its historians; 'major engagements routinely produce casualty rates thatrival Waterloo', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bemoansMark Schantz at the outset of his elegant, fascinating and well researched study of the Civil War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era's attitude to death. Having made this bold claim, he strugglesfor the rest of the book to register his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to comprehend these figures, later referring to them as 'staggering', 'unprecedented' and 'limitless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carnage' \(pp. 64, 91, 106\), though such losses were well within themean of 19th-century warfare. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, alas, not average for American wars and are larger than all the fatalities of the rest ofAmerican wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined. How men endured such levels of sacrifice has become the question uppermost in historians' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds, and both these books advance stimulating answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Costa and Kahn admit frankly that their book is history written by economists. Although it evinces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendentiousness and an ovrerly schematic approach to the evidence and an excess of jargon, theyhave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought a refreshingly sceptical perspectiveand reveal interesting insights in all sorts of areas. 'Life under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure brings men's worst or best characteristics to the fore', they affirm. Costa and Kahn focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers of the Union Army and unlike other books in 1865 they follow the soldiers home, for 'their wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices and experiences continue to shape their lives'. They exploit the 41,000 computerized soldiers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records in the National Archivesin seaching out the reasons why some units were good and others mediocre. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They argue that 'loyalty to comrades trumped cause, morale and leadership. But loyalty to comrades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended only to men like themselves ? in ethnicity, social status and age'. This is in some important respects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a return to an earlier approach to the study of morale ? 'small group cohesion' ? and one that developed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the study of the Second World War \(pp. 2, 5?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As economists, it is not surprising that Costa and Kahn focus on soldiers' choices. They concede that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited evidence available only permits them to infer motives, but they argue convincingly that the motives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that prompted men to enlist were different from those that kept them in the ranks.'By comparing the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices that thousandsof similar men made in different peer environments', they contend, 'we can tease out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of peer effects'\(p. 33\). Or to put it another way, shorn of management jargon, historians can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare the behaviour of soldiers in effective regiments with those in unreliable regiments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue that the authors must confront is the degree to which Union soldiers were motivated by ideology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The important books by James M. McPherson, )] TJ ET BT 261.668 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(For Cause and Comrades)] TJ ET BT 386.000 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 392.000 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Earl J. Hess, )] TJ ET BT 475.316 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldier in Battle )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.688 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.688 302.883 m 129.680 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.680 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that gave this topic very firm analytical direction, both stressed the supreme importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideology in shaping a positive experience for both officers and men. It also offered a handhold in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversity that enabled both Union and Confederate soldiers to withstand the trials of war, and in the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case aided the advance to ultimate victory. I have sometimes expressed doubt as to whether 'ideology' is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right term to describe the generalnotions cherishedby the majority of Union soldiers, as they do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent a body of doctrine. But the term can be justified in the sense impartedby the)] TJ ET BT 451.280 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Concise Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 125.684 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( definition: 'the manner of thinking characteristic of a class or individual' that also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes 'visonary speculation'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Costa and Kahn's research in some ways supports the approach of these earlier studies. As soldiers' mail was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not censored, their communities quicklydiscoveredwho had brought glory or disgrace to their hometowns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are also at pains to emphasize the religious dimensions of the war. Consequently, they argue that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just the individual ideology or outlook of a soldier that counts, 'but also the ideology of the his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hometown', for morale was sustained or weakened by opinion at the home front' \(p. 95\). They also postulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that dedication to the cause, and an abilityto adapt presumptions about their cause \(such as a readiness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace the destruction of slavery\) were determined by the duration of service. The longer soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainedin the Union Army the less likely they were to desert; the better soldiers they became, with a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as wide sense of unit loyalty, the more likely they were to adapt their political views to the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of the war. Yet no aspersions of dishonour were cast on those who decided not to re-enlist in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6877 303.1975 129.6797 315.0775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1864, but when this did occur, entire units \(either companies or regiments\) tended to re-enlist)] TJ ET BT 481.952 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 484.952 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle is a disciplined, corporate activity, it is not surprising that men preferred to serve in existing units )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than join new ones that had to start from scratch in building up discipline under fire and tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proficiency; or that veteran units developed a powerful sense of )] TJ ET BT 342.608 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corps d'elite. )] TJ ET BT 407.504 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is more)] TJ ET BT 453.500 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 456.500 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that 'men from a higher social class were better soldiers' \(p. 100\), an argument that denotes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessive reliance on misleading statistics. The complexities of industrialized warfare certainly demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the more intelligent make better soldiers, and such men are not tied to class, although it does depend on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what tasks soldiers are asked to carry out; some are so hazardous that an inability to think too hard about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them constitutes a positive advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this book has a weakness, it is an excessive literalness in interpretation. The authors seek to categorize or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classify soldiers conduct as one thing or another, when it is often both 'We cannot explain', they complain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('why any given soldier was a hero or a coward' \(p. 98\). But the great majority were neither. 'Does cohesion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce military effectiveness, or does military effectiveness produce cohesion?' they ask \(p. 92\). There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute admittedly, but the two are interdependent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strengths and weaknesses of the book are most evident in its most original parts, Costa and Kahn's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsideration of desertion and the prisoner of war \(POW\) experience. Until comparatively recently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desertion has been a subject neglected by Civil War historians. As Costa and Kahn point out, for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers, the likelihood of catching a deadly disease \(half of all fatalities were the result of illness\) rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the camp a more deadly place than the battlefield - and the majority spent more time in the former than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter. Deserters faced only a 40 per cent chance of being caught and a negligible chance of being shot if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrested. Some could also call on the support of their communities if they were Democrat-leaning. Married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were one and a half times more likely to desert than single, and younger soldiers had about a ten per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent likelihood of deserting. Costa and Kahn conclude that 'individual characteristics, company diversity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, and morale affected desertion probabilities'. But surely unexpected defeat and opportunity were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally important? The statistical evidence also leads them to fallacious conclusions, such as, 'A good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldier was older' \(p. 100\). This is spurious: armies have grown younger not older, as men over 25 cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand the physical strain of intense combat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet they have many sensible things to say about desertion. It was more likely if 'company desertion rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were high', as new men followed the disreputable example of the older hands; desertion resembled an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infection and could spread quickly. Before November 1863 most deserters simply travelled home by the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routes they could find. A number of states sought to disenfranchize deserters \(as they were deemed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relinquished theircitizenship\), but only three ? Kansas, Wisconsin and Vermont ? had a strict code of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement: three states that supported Lincoln strongly in the 1864 Presidential Election. After 1865 64 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of deserters in the sample moved westwards from their native states. But the whole system was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably informal and flexible by later standards. If an absentee returned to the ranksto fight, he would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed back and then honourably discharged. The exception to these high desertion rates were black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments. By 1865 there were 135 regiments, and of these 35 sustained 75 per cent casualties; even so, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desertion rates were less than 8 per cent; that is, whites were one third more likely to desert than blacks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summing up a complex matter, Costa and Kahn claim that group loyalties were the main elements that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in check the temptation to desert. Like other scholars \(such as McPherson, who now concedes that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an error\), they underestimate the importance of leadership. Costa and Kahn argue on statistical grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that group loyalty was twice as important as ideology and six times more important than leadership in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducing desertion. Yet I am unconvinced, not least because like many American authors they undervalue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of non-commissioned officers in the creation of viable units ? a source of leadership more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately effective than that furnished by officers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other novel approach of Costa and Kahn is to integrate POW experience with an analysis of combat. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total 211,411 Union soldiers were taken prisoner. Of these 16,668 were paroled, and of the remainder 30,218 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died. The chance of surviving a Confederate POW camp was determined by when prisoners were taken and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they were sent. 40 per cent of all Union POWs were captured after July 1863 and of these 27 per cent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died \(as opposed to 4 per cent before that date\); 17 per cent of all Union prisoners were sent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andersonville, and of the 45,000 men who entered its gates 40 per cent did not pass out of them. How and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why did men survive this experience? Costa and Kahn posit two essential reasons: the size of the camp, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the larger it was the more disease-ridden it became, and 'social networks' \(p. 133\), that is, friendships. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners were responsible for creating their own accommodation, and food was always in short supply, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social Darwinian survival of the fittest operated; but the weak and the sick were helped by their friends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially from the same 'outfit'. Rank also helped; officers and NCOs fared best.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Costa and Kahn are primarily concerned with the more mundane but crucial choices that might determine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death or survival. Schantz aims to study the 'wider cultural matrix in which the war was fought', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially those attitudes that Americans entertained about death. His book has been anticipated by Drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilpin Faust's )] TJ ET BT 103.520 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.844 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.844 640.515 m 420.836 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.836 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but he still makes his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution. He focuses on the 'cluster of assumptions' that conveyed to soldiers 'messages about death that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made it easier to kill and be killed'. Schantz argues that this wider background ? a 'culture of death' ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('facilitated its [the war's] destructiveness' \(p. 3\). Schantz sees his approach as having wider historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications. He considers that he is advancing 'an implicit argument for the unifying power of death in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America'. Death rubs a smoothing balm over the scars resulting from 'the deep divides of race, class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender' ? a 'shared body of cultural assumptions and attitudes ' that 'helped sustain a war that fractured a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation' \(p. 4\). Schantz thus challenges 'a fundamentally optimistic view of the war' that argues that it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive results for all the loss. Schantz also wants to place a dividing line between our experience and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Civil War which he suggests is fundamentally 'alien to our own time'. He makes a strong case that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be venerated less and instead taken on its own terms \(pp. 5, 210\). These asides are revealing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another way: Schantz assumes that only Americans will read his book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He certainly has a point though. He explores how families in the mid 19th century were all too familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death. The widespread prevalence of disease, high infant mortality rates and poor medical treatment carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off many loved ones of all ages. Because it was such a common experience, mourning and funerals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed a strong level of ritual, beginning with the redemptive power of deathbed symbolism, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'last words' \(that could be invented, as with the case of Robert E. Lee if medical reasons prevented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate utterance\), followed by mourning eulogies, memorials and lithographs that could confer gentility on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rising middle class. Schantz offers much interesting information on the rural cemetery movement and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for Greek revival styles. Such rituals offered the departed the possibility of posthumous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorials and thus their own modest 'place in history'. There was also the phenomenon of the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention given to the cult of the glorious death, especially of 'the young, and those cut down in their prime' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 18?19, 33\). Schantz explores the submissiveness behind these attitudes and the enormous significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attached to resurrection ? the passage of the dead to a serene, heavenly paradise; death was thus beautiful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pleasing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the consequences of this preoccupation with death that are Schantz's main concern. He concedes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians lack evidence 'that soldiers consciously risked their lives ... because they knew that that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be fully restored in heaven' \(p. 60\), yet he does suggest that the acceptance of death enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans 'to endure such a grisly conflict' \(p. 61\). They could do so, he argues, because their familiarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with death had trained, in effect, an entire generation 'to see it not as something to be avoided, but as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable destiny of humanity' \(p. 9\). There are undertones here of the sort of rhetoric that has been applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the later British experience on the Western Front in 1914?18. It also evokes images of willing mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suicide satirized in Gore Vidal's novel )] TJ ET BT 220.148 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Messiah)] TJ ET BT 260.144 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1955\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schantz pushes an interesting argument to untenable extremes. It is one thing for soldiers to accept death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite another to expect it, let alone look forward to it. Schantz offers some stimulating thoughts on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic views expressed in the black press on suicide, but surely this is a special case. The willingness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of soldiers to sacrifice themselves, that is, risk death and mutilation, depends on the cause that engages their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty. It is striking that the authors of both these studies fail to address this issue. Schantz's comments on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers' motivations are vague or indirect. And black soldiers showed a willingness to die, and deserted less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently, not out of any suicidal wish but because they embraced the positive outcomes they expected from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.8437 640.8295 420.8357 652.7095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, not least citizenship and the vote.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, Schantz's argumentis one dimensional. Civil War soldiers often took their fate into their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands and either deserted or 'straggled', that is, were absent from the ranks. In February 1865 Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absentees totalled 338,536 and Confederate absentees were approximately 194,494. These figures suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a significant number of Americans in uniform had decided that the 'culture of death' was not for them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schantz also has difficulty explaining away the long term impact and significance of the casualty figures. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if it is unconscious, the imported symbolism of 1914-18 that has seized the imagination of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current Civil War historians raises certain problems. Scantz is content to show that Matthew Brady's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition of photographs taken on Civil War battlefields did not traumatize the home front; on the contrary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it fortified Northern resolve and helped it to come to terms with high casualties. This theme strengthens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schantz's view that attitudes to death helped sustain the war effort. But he also develops an argument that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War 'took a terrible physical and emotional toll on America' \(p. 120\). This seems more difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain; there is nothing comparable in American history in the later 19th century to the mood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('disenchantment' that gathered strength after 1929 in Britain, despite her victory in the Great War. Even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the states of the old Confederacy defeat was transmogrified into a moral victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These points highlight a significant cavity, namely the book's failure to take into account any comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension. It assumes that the Civil War was a singular, exceptional, unique American event and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces that shaped it were exclusively American. Yet many of the features of the supposed American 'culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of death' could be found in other Western societies, especially in Britain. Given the British cultural sway in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century, the degree of British influence on American attitudes to death would have been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating theme. The ultimate literary expression of beautiful, futile, military sacrifice is Lord Tennyson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem, 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' \(1854\). Moreover, the important role of sentimental females in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection with the reassuring beauty of death is given its fullest artistic expression in John Everett Millais, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orphelia)] TJ ET BT 77.348 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1852\). Some indication of the contribution of the work of the Pre-Rapaelites in popularizing such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery would have been welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These comments should be construed as evidence of how much I have enjoyed these two books and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree to which they have stimulated thought as well as dissent. Both books have made a worthwhile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the long-running, indeed perennial, discussion of the Civil War's meaning and legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 298.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James M. McPherson, )] TJ ET BT 173.672 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(For Cause and Comrades )] TJ ET BT 301.004 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1997\) and Earl J. Hess, )] TJ ET BT 498.956 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Union )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldier in Battle )] TJ ET BT 145.688 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lawrence, Kansas, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.640 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.640 282.387 m 328.628 282.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drew Gilpin Faust, )] TJ ET BT 159.344 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War )] TJ ET BT 462.668 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 253.875 m 149.000 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 229.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 210.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 192.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 192.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/811)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 190.857 m 322.316 190.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 165.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3793)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3794)] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6397 282.7015 328.6277 294.5815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 254.1895 148.9997 266.0695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 191.1715 322.3157 203.0515 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/811) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000544 00000 n 0000000626 00000 n 0000003608 00000 n 0000003717 00000 n 0000003827 00000 n 0000003936 00000 n 0000007497 00000 n 0000007625 00000 n 0000007709 00000 n 0000007793 00000 n 0000015761 00000 n 0000015791 00000 n 0000015919 00000 n 0000015955 00000 n 0000016020 00000 n 0000023606 00000 n 0000023690 00000 n 0000031544 00000 n 0000031574 00000 n 0000031702 00000 n 0000031738 00000 n 0000031836 00000 n 0000037977 00000 n 0000038105 00000 n 0000038160 00000 n 0000038287 00000 n 0000038342 00000 n 0000038470 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38565 %%EOF