%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228133842+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228133842+00'00') /Title (A Man and an Institution: Sir Maurice Hankey, the Cabinet Secretariat and the Custody of Cabinet Secrecy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4479 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution: Sir Maurice Hankey, the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Secretariat and the Custody of Cabinet Secrecy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution)] TJ ET BT 154.688 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in reality three books combined into one. It is, first, a contribution to a biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary; second, a history of the origins of the Cabinet Office and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its development until Hankey?s retirement in 1938; and third, an account of how the Cabinet Office came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the guardian of official secrecy. Of these three topics, it is primarily the second that makes the book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing and permanent value to the constitutional historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The biography of Hankey is in a sense redundant. It had already been written by the time )] TJ ET BT 463.928 182.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institution)] TJ ET BT 83.360 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published, in three magisterial volumes by Stephen Roskill, published between 1970 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974, and also in Hankey?s own memoirs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.992 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.992 153.009 m 251.984 153.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.984 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There was really no need to go over the same ground again. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third topic, that of the development of the doctrine of official secrecy, is dominated by an account, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last chapter of the book, of the ?trial? of the diaries of Richard Crossman, and a plea for the relaxation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine. Much of this discussion has now been made redundant by the Freedom of Information Act, 2000. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was perhaps a mistake of judgment to include this topic in an analysis of the Cabinet Office.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.960 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.960 95.985 m 490.952 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The account given of the history of the Cabinet Office, however, is of major importance, and it remains of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable relevance, not only for the historian but also for the contemporary analyst of the machinery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(813)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John F. Naylor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521093477)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(436pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vernon Bogdanor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.9917 153.3235 251.9837 165.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.9597 96.2995 490.9517 108.1795 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7784 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. Naylor brings out well the fundamental conflict that has always been implicit in the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Secretary. For the Cabinet Secretary is, at one and the same time, both a servant of the Cabinet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an adviser to the Prime Minister.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Cabinet Secretariat?, Lloyd George told the House of Commons in June 1922, ?has nothing whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do with any question of policy. It is purely a recording machine? \(p. 87\). That, no doubt, was how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office was understood when it was established in 1916. The primary purpose of the Secretariat was to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an accurate record of Cabinet decisions and of the decisions of Cabinet committees ? the function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Secretary was to act as the Cabinet?s memory and as a guardian of constitutional conventions; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had also to ensure that these decisions were in fact implemented by departments. This was a matter of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty in the Lloyd George War Cabinet, since it comprised just five members, only one of whom, Bonar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, was a departmental minister. The ministerial head of every other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(department was outside the Cabinet, though summoned to the War Cabinet whenever matters of concern to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his particular department were being considered. Where departmental disputes arose, it would be for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Secretary to arbitrate them. The Cabinet Secretary, therefore, helped to ensure that the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery of Cabinet government worked effectively. His co-ordinating role helped to make collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility a reality. The role which he assumed as guardian of Cabinet secrecy was also intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen collective responsibility by ensuring that the position taken by individual ministers before final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions were reached remained private.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cabinet Secretariat was established at the same time as the establishment of another new organisation, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private office for the Prime Minister, the so-called ?Garden Suburb?, with which the Cabinet Office was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often confused. The Garden Suburb, however, worked for the Prime Minister, the Cabinet Office for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet. But the Lloyd George regime seemed, in the eyes of its critics, to become progressively more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presidential and authoritarian, and the Suburb was blamed for this development. It was, accordingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolished by Lloyd George?s successor, Bonar Law, when the Lloyd George government fell in 1922 ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although, as Naylor points out \(p. 130\), J. C. C. Davidson, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first Baldwin administration, from 1923 to 1924, performed much the same function for Baldwin as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suburb had for Lloyd George. Naylor quotes Baldwin?s biographers as saying that Davidson?s ?office at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duchy of Lancaster was very much Baldwin?s own Garden Suburb?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.936 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.936 386.163 m 379.928 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 379.928 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Baldwin preferred that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function be performed by a minister rather than by what would now be called special advisers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast with the Garden Suburb, the Cabinet Office proved to be a permanent innovation in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. But, because the two organisations were set up at the same time, and because the Garden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suburb had been avowedly established to strengthen the position of the Prime Minister, many assumed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cabinet Office was set up for the same reason. )] TJ ET BT 278.288 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution)] TJ ET BT 398.960 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that this view needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable qualification. The purpose of establishing the Cabinet Office was to strengthen Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, not primarily to strengthen the Prime Minister. Before the establishment of the Secretariat, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister had to secure the consent of the Prime Minister to bring a memorandum to cabinet. The only record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept of Cabinet proceedings was the letter written by the Prime Minister to the sovereign, after each Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting, but this letter was not normally seen by any other minister. Even the king did not feel properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed. George V told Hankey ?several times that until he received the Cabinet Minutes and papers ? he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had never been fully informed of what was going on? \(p. 19\). Bonar Law, when he joined the Asquith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition government in 1915, told the press magnate, Lord Riddell, ?that he was astonished at the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method, the absence of any agenda or minutes. He told Asquith this. The latter said that everyone who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined the Cabinet made the same observation, but speedily became reconciled to the method of doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business and saw its advantage for the special purposes? \(p. 11\). Frances Stevenson, Lloyd George?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary and mistress, wrote that, at the last Cabinet before Asquith?s resignation in 1916, ?There are three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different versions, so Ministers said, of what had been the decision upon a debate \(in the Cabinet\) on the Air )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry. And nothing was definitely decided? \(p. 320\). Naylor concludes that the Asquith Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?disintegrated, a victim of its own institutional malaise rather than a political conspiracy engineered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George? \(p. 13\). Not the least of the virtues of )] TJ ET BT 290.300 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution)] TJ ET BT 410.972 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is that it gives an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collapse of the Asquith government that has more credibility than crude accounts which see this collapse )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.9357 386.4775 379.9277 398.3575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7546 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being entirely the result of a plot on the part of Lloyd George.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From one point of view, then, the Cabinet Secretariat constitutionalised, as it were, the role of the Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister. Henceforth, memoranda came to the Cabinet via the Secretariat rather than the Prime Minister. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet conclusions were sent to departments by the Secretariat, not by the Prime Minister. To fulfil this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional role, the Secretariat had to be accepted as a neutral arbiter. Were it instead to appear to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projecting a view of its own, or the view of the Prime Minister, its neutrality would be compromised. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Secretariat, unlike the Garden Suburb, could not be seen as )] TJ ET BT 360.956 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(parti pris)] TJ ET BT 405.968 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, from the beginning, the Cabinet Secretariat had more than a secretarial and coordinating role. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Secretary rapidly became also an influential source of advice to the Prime Minister, perhaps even a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Permanent Secretary to the Prime Minister, helping to fill a hole at the centre of British government, the lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an institutional base for the head of the executive. The theory was that the Cabinet Secretary should serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Prime Minister only in his capacity as a member of the Cabinet, and not in his capacity as head of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. He was to serve the Prime Minister only in his capacity as chairman of a collective body. But a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction of this sort seems somewhat artificial, and it is difficult to see how one could erect a Chinese wall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the various capacities or roles of the Prime Minister. Certainly, neither Hankey nor his successors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever seem to have done so. There is no recorded instance of a Cabinet Secretary refusing to advise the Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister on any matter connected with his functions as head of the government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hankey himself was always far more than a ?recording machine?. He was an authority, or regarded himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an authority, on defence matters. He had strong views of his own on the Great War, views shared on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole by Lloyd George. Both Hankey and Lloyd George were ?Easterners? believing that the war could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most easily be won, not by frontal assault, but by a flank attack so as to undermine what Churchill, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War, was to call ?the soft underbelly? of Germany. Indeed, it seems to have been Hankey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who first conceived the idea of the ill-fated Dardanelles expedition. He seems also to have been the first to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propose the convoy system. During the inter-war years, Hankey argued strongly against disarmament and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of strong imperial defence, with a particular emphasis on the role of the navy. In 1927, he went so far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to threaten to resign if ?freedom of the seas? became a reality, so ending the possibility of Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposing an economic blockade upon Germany, though Tom Jones told Baldwin that ?it seemed to me a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong conception of a Civil Servant?s function to threaten resignation on policy?. Hankey?s views, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, became widely known ? indeed he felt so strongly that he violated the then rule that the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary ?never communicates with the press in any shape or form? \(pp. 173?4, 177\), giving an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unattributable interview to a journalist on the)] TJ ET BT 250.664 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Times)] TJ ET BT 282.332 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which resulted in a favourable leader from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper. In 1937, Hankey, in conjunction with Sir Thomas Inskip, the Minister for the Co-ordination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defence, masterminded the switch from heavy bombers to fighters, a switch which was to save Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate days of 1940. Hankey, then, held strong views on policy, views, views which he did not hesitate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impress upon successive Prime Ministers. Indeed, he went even further in his role as policy adviser, treading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a path which his successors avoided, since he wrote speeches, not only for Lloyd George, but also, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion, for Lloyd George?s ministers, and, in particular, for the Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hankey?s deputy during the 1920s, Tom Jones, went further still, involving himself in electioneering as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as speech writing. He wrote speeches for Stanley Baldwin during the election campaign of 1923, fought on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue of Protection, even though Jones was himself a strong free trader, who had regularly voted Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Labour in general elections. His role as a speech writer for Baldwin in 1923 did not, however, prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him from being accepted by Ramsay MacDonald?s Labour government, which came to power in January )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1924, after Protection had been rejected in the general election. No other member of the Cabinet Secretariat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has ever involved himself in politics to this extent. But Cabinet Secretaries have continued to act as advisers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and confidants of prime ministers. Indeed, Sir Burke Trend, Cabinet Secretary from 1963 to 1973, used, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently, to refer to himself as ?in a sense, ?the prime minister?s permanent secretary?? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an implicit conflict between the two roles, the one, a secretarial and coordinating role, and the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an advisory role. The secretarial role strengthens the Cabinet as a collective body, the advisory role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthens the Prime Minister, perhaps at the expense of the Cabinet, and could, conceivably, undermine )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7483 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ability of the Cabinet Office to be accepted as a neutral co-ordinator and arbiter between departments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cabinet Office would then be in danger of becoming a rival to the departments, not a mere coordinator. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Can a powerful official, which the Cabinet Secretary always is bound to be, also remain a neutral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached civil servant with no strong views on policy? It seems somewhat doubtful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since 1983, beyond the period covered by )] TJ ET BT 239.312 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution)] TJ ET BT 359.984 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Cabinet Office has had a third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function, management of the civil service, and the Cabinet Secretary has also been head of the Home Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service. In addition, since 1997, the Cabinet Office has been given responsibilities for the delivery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy. Indeed, during his tenure of office, Sir Andrew Turnbull, Cabinet Secretary from 2002 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005, was seen as the chief deliverer of public service reform. The Cabinet Office now has units attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it whose functions are executive as well as coordinating. Perhaps Tony Blair tried to make the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office into a Prime Minister?s Department without calling it that. Jonathan Powell, his Chief of Staff, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the Cabinet Office ought to be ?the driver of government?. This means that it should ?not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some neutral body mediating differences between departments but an institution designed to drive through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policies of the Prime Minister and the wider centre of government \(including the Treasury\)?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.928 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.928 597.747 m 510.920 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.920 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of units holds with it the danger of duplicating the role of departments with a concomitant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion of responsibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The current edition of Whitaker?s Almanack lists ?three core functions? of the modern Cabinet Office. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are ?to support the prime minister in defining and delivering the government?s objectives; to support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet in ensuring the coherence, quality and delivery of policy and operations across departments; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthening the civil service?s capabilities in terms of organisation, leadership and skills?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.628 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.628 500.211 m 489.620 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.620 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 2006 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capability Review of the Cabinet Office also listed three ?core functions? ?supporting the Prime Minister ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to define and deliver the Government?s objectives; supporting the Cabinet ? and strengthening the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service?. Later, it describes the role as ?providing high quality direct support to the Prime Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(across the full range of his responsibilities)] TJ ET BT 238.700 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(emphasis added\). It also declares that ?Since the 1980s the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department has had an increased role in ensuring the effective delivery of public services?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.896 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.896 428.931 m 485.888 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since 1963, the Cabinet Office has been located in the Old Treasury Building in Whitehall, adjoining 10 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downing Street and adjoining the Prime Minister?s Office. There is now a permanent secretary to the Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister located in the Prime Minister?s office, an institutionalisation, as it were, of Lloyd George?s Garden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suburb. The relationship between him and the Cabinet Secretary is by no means clear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is of course a far cry from 1916. And it has led critics to argue that the Cabinet Office is overloaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suffers from ?institutional schizophrenia?. In the eyes of critics, this overloading serves to undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective Cabinet government rather than reinforce it. Therefore, so it is argued, the Cabinet Office should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be restricted to just one function, that of supporting the Cabinet ? the other two functions listed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitaker?s should be carried out elsewhere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.620 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.620 276.627 m 260.612 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.612 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps recent developments should be recognised by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit creation of a Prime Minister?s Department, on the lines of those in Australia and Canada. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have proved perfectly compatible with principles of Cabinet government as traditionally understood. But a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Office whose functions were merely those of recording and coordinating, without any executive or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisory responsibilities at all, would be a somewhat weakened department, and it might not carry much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight in Whitehall. The alternative is to continue to move surreptitiously towards a Prime Minister?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department without actually calling it that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Man and an Institution)] TJ ET BT 154.688 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that these modern dilemmas were inherent in the institution of the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretariat from its very inception. Perhaps they are incapable of being resolved. John Naylor does not seek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resolve them. That, indeed, is not part of his purpose. But he has written a fine study which casts as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on the problems of the present as it does on the history of the years between the wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 2009)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.9277 598.0615 510.9197 609.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.6277 500.5255 489.6197 512.4055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.8957 429.2455 485.8877 441.1255 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.6197 276.9415 260.6117 288.8215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 4418 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Roskill, )] TJ ET BT 146.360 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hankey: Man of Secrets)] TJ ET BT 261.992 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1970?74\); Maurice Hankey, )] TJ ET BT 450.284 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Supreme )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Command 1914?1918)] TJ ET BT 170.348 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1961\), and )] TJ ET BT 275.000 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Supreme Control at the Paris Peace Conference: A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentary)] TJ ET BT 126.008 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1963\). Naylor reviewed each of the three volumes of Stephen Roskill?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography in the )] TJ ET BT 145.676 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 234.680 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13, 4 \(1970\), 807?9; 16, 3 \(1973\), 650?2; and 18, 2 \(1975\), 443?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 686.787 m 118.004 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also, on the Crossman diaries, Hugo Young, )] TJ ET BT 299.660 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crossman Affair)] TJ ET BT 400.340 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.664 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.664 672.531 m 535.652 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Middlemas and John Barnes, )] TJ ET BT 236.000 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin)] TJ ET BT 276.008 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1969\), p. 172.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.332 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.332 658.275 m 447.320 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Written evidence to the )] TJ ET BT 179.324 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords Constitutional Committee Inquiry into The Cabinet Office and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Centre of Government)] TJ ET BT 188.996 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.996 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.996 629.763 m 275.984 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whitaker?s Almanack 2009)] TJ ET BT 196.664 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\), p. 185.)] TJ ET 0.000 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