%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416073629+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416073629+01'00') /Title (Domestic Affairs: Intimacy, Eroticism, and Violence Between Servants and Masters in Eighteenth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2842 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Domestic Affairs: Intimacy, Eroticism, and Violence Between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Servants and Masters in Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a literary study of the servant problem, a problem that endlessly bothered employers and moralists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and has recently emerged in a rather different sense to worry scholars too. Virginia Woolf observed that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would understand great lives far better if we remembered domestic struggles, the scrubbing, carrying and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labours of one maid to hold back cold and dirt. While speaking the class prejudices of 1931, Woolf was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescient. )] TJ ET BT 83.336 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Affairs )] TJ ET BT 167.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joins other attempts to reinstate the servant after a long absence from literary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and economic histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(814)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 30 September, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristina Straub)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801890499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Lloyd)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7483 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub investigates relations between servants, masters and mistresses in a \(short\) 18th century, running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Daniel Defoe to William Godwin. Alert to questions of gender, sexuality and identity, she argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaints about servants intensified during the period; their insubordination, disloyalty, independence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to corrupt the household became the focus of new anxieties, with far-reaching effects. Novels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct literature struggled to contain or resolve a series of paradoxes that were created by servants? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing economic and social autonomy. Mobility, agency and maturity, giving notice, getting money and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having sex, came up against older models of service as an uncomplicated state of childlike, emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence. What was it to live in a family? Who was the servant? How could employers be sure of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestics? toil and affection?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The servant problem, Straub suggests, was as much about intimacy as about class. In the making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern family, servants \(or rather, literary versions of them\) were fundamental to the working out of ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about desire, domesticity and gender. And because they were servants, inequality and difference came along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too. The passions that drew Mr B? to Pamela or led Caleb Williams to spy on Mr Falkland fall into place as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural responses to seismic shifts in the political and economic landscape of 18th-century Britain. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mrs Brownrigg beat an apprenticed child to death in 1767, popular accounts resorted to the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sadomasochism not household economy. Conflicts over labour thus shaped modern understandings of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gender identities; an erotics of power infused domestic negotiations and toil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What we have here, therefore, is not a discussion of servants? economic roles or their experiences, but an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the cultural work done by representations of them. Straub follows in the steps of Bruce Robbins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in arguing that far from being the disembodied scene-setters who made beds, brought tea and laid fires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparative to the main drama, servants were constitutive of social order and integral to broader historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments from which their contribution has been subsequently lost. Spliced into this is a more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on identity, including Dror Wahrman?s proposition that a fixed, essential ?modern self? emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the late eighteenth century. Wahrman \(not Wahlman as he is consistently called in the book\) enables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub to relate domestic service to earlier concepts of identity as fluid and malleable, not class-bound, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see relations between masters and servants shaping new ideas about family, gender and sexuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The six chapters are arranged chronologically. The first introduces the argument and its place in literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. Michael McKeon?s )] TJ ET BT 179.324 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secret History of Domesticity)] TJ ET BT 320.972 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is central; historical moorings are chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by Bridget Hill and J. Jean Hecht. Chapter two relates changes in the organisation of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service to published advice directed at servants and masters. Service had long been a life stage, entered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years and left behind upon social and economic maturity. Even when this pattern no longer held, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still thought of servants occupying a position in the household analogous to children, with both groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to the authority of a master and requiring instruction and moral guidance. According to Straub, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant problem developed when the model assumed \(and propagated\) by the likes of Defoe at the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the century or Sarah Trimmer in later decades, encountered a new breed of decidedly adult domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants, motivated by pay and perks, and in the occupation for life. Conduct literature, itself the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding urban markets for print, increasingly exhorted servants to give up economic independence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior charms of affectionate relations with their middle-class employers and the prospect of participating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unequally\) in their cultural values. Contented dependence supplanted older stories of financial reward and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social mobility. As paternalism crashed into contractual relations, those troubling paradoxes around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant?s place in the family condensed into fears of sexuality. Female domestics attracted sexual attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or, worse, exploited it; predatory and anarchic male domestics threatened family order above and below )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stairs. Male servants, however, shared an assertive heterosexual masculinity with their masters, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women came to be seen as victims of their inescapable sexuality. The servant problem became a problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordering work, sex, childhood and emotion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three turns to case studies: Samuel Richardson?s )] TJ ET BT 311.312 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 347.972 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1740\) and the disappearance in 1753 of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Canning, an 18-year old London servant. Richardson, Straub argues, constructed an alternative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the female servant as either greedy whore or seduced innocent. Pamela is financially prudent and morally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomous. She struggles to preserve herself \(and her property\) from the sexual advances of a master who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8203 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to appreciate her qualities through reading her letters; he marries her. Pamela is ?both an object of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire and a loving intimate? \(p. 48\). Richardson?s solution to the servant problem resonated with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergent middle-class family and its ideology of domestic femininity. Literacy and sensibility dissolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions around class and sexuality; they promised social order, erotic connection and ethical responsibility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a radical ?third way?, as novels and plays written in response to )] TJ ET BT 388.952 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 425.612 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrated. The female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant?s agency, her ability to share her employers? moral universe and the possibility of crossing social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions, were sticking points that made it difficult to leave the binary stereotype behind. Anti-)] TJ ET BT 492.644 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature presented the servant whose sexuality was in thrall to material self-interest, whose lust was amoral, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whose literacy was not the means to display a developed moral sense, but a sign of duplicity. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Canning reappeared after an absence of two months, the same issues transformed an essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humdrum affair into the focus of intense legal and public interest. It was an opportunity seized by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphleteers to revisit questions about the character of the servant. Was she a truthful victim or a crafty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemer, who concealed the signs of venereal disease and illegitimate pregnancy; was she a child-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocent or sexual operator? The truth of Canning, unlike Pamela, proved impossible to determine, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because fiction negotiated class and household relations in ways that a London domestic could not. The lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both women, however, confirmed the centrality of sexuality to eighteenth-century thinking about servants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The servant problem had merged into broader questions about female power and desire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By now the themes of )] TJ ET BT 142.340 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Affairs)] TJ ET BT 223.340 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are well-established. Affectionate intimacy between servant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master appeared to resolve the servant problem, but it did so by transmuting social and economic tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a \(hetero\)sexual charge. The fourth chapter pairs Defoe?s novel )] TJ ET BT 364.244 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roxana)] TJ ET BT 400.904 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1724\) with Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brownrigg to probe relations between mistress and servant. Again intimacy promised to smooth over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, drawing the female servant into the family under the moral guidance of the mistress, but again it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had distinctly troubling implications. Some of these recycled old complaints about maids who sowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disharmony and colluded in conjugal infidelity, but others had a much more contemporary economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. In )] TJ ET BT 88.340 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roxana)] TJ ET BT 125.000 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Defoe depicted a transgressive relationship between mistress and servant who disregard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all social obligations in their relentless pursuit of material gain. Straub reads the central relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two women as a tale of emotional excess and interdependence in which violence against children ensures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic efficiency. Cruelty is the link to Brownrigg who took on young female apprentices for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premiums paid by parish and charity officials, and was hanged for the murder of one of them. For Straub, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brownrigg and her victims made visible the suffering inherent in systems of poor relief and charity which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalised the economic exploitation of the children of the poor; they revealed the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social problems of poverty and family were re-cast ? and disguised ? in terms of sexuality. Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination transformed the struggles of lower middle-class existence, the desperate enforcement of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference in cramped households and the impossibility of reconciling models of domestic management with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of labour, into stories of individual sexual perversion and gender transgression. In this sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brownrigg was a scapegoat for Britain?s economic transformation, while representations of her case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded the connections between sexual pleasures, however deviant, and domestic service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining chapters deal with men. If )] TJ ET BT 235.304 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 271.964 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( suggested a third way of thinking about the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant?s sexuality, cross-class eroticism had rather different implications for the male domestic: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosociality, not homosexuality, emerges as key to this aspect of the servant problem. In chapter five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub moves up the social scale and returns to a subject she has investigated before, the theatre. Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four featured the economically vulnerable households of the lower middle classes; chapter five is the domain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of liveried servants in the larger, differentiated establishments of the metropolis in the early to mid century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub juxtaposes the disruptive presence of footmen in the London theatre against representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants on stage. At the same time that their rights to a place in the audience were curtailed, she argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatists dealt with the sexuality of their fictional counterparts. The theatre presented new forms of lower-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class masculinity ? an ideal of conjugal heterosexuality that all Englishmen, even servants, could enjoy or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosocial bond between master and man; it also depicted a very different version of degraded, vicious life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below stairs. As footmen rioted in the gallery, a culture war erupted over rights both to public space and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the story about domestic service. These developments were not restricted to Drury Lane, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulated broader struggles over aristocratic privilege, labour and loyalty, which were evident in a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8261 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaneous campaign against ?vails?, or the practice of tipping servants. A prerequisite that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestics regarded as a customary right, opponents took as evidence of male servants? insolence and greed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Straub, in exchange for conflict, economic agency and self-assertion, servants were offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalised form of manliness which they could perform through affectionate, loyal ? and deferential ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service: Jonas Hanway was unsubtle in naming his ideal servant Thomas Trueman. The footman was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticated through sharing the cultural values of the middle-class family. But in common with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolutions of the servant problem, it generated loose ends: was the servant?s emotional allegiance to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own family or his employer?s; was affection or heterosex the male domestic?s dominant passion; how was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage to be accommodated within a lifetime of service?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six develops these themes through Fielding?s )] TJ ET BT 295.664 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Andrews)] TJ ET BT 373.988 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1740\), )] TJ ET BT 414.980 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adventures of a Valet)] TJ ET BT 518.636 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1752\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smollett?s )] TJ ET BT 87.692 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humphry Clinker)] TJ ET BT 172.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1767\) and Godwin?s )] TJ ET BT 281.996 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Caleb Williams)] TJ ET BT 356.336 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1794\). Each novel negotiated the male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic?s problematic sexuality and the forces of connection and difference, aggression and affection that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped relations of service. Joseph Andrews transcends emasculating dependence by exchanging the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footman for that of husband. As a ?natural? quality, heterosexual masculinity and authority over women is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that all men can share. The anonymous author of )] TJ ET BT 324.308 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adventures of a Valet)] TJ ET BT 427.964 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( depicted an irredeemable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of sexual predation, escape from which led to not to marriage, but chaste retirement in a household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on sibling affection. Smollett imagined a situation in which the levelling tendencies of virility were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained by Clinker?s affectionate loyalty for his master. In Godwin, Straub finds an author who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized the tensions and contradictions for what they were: a structural outcrop that required political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not personal, remedies. At the same time, Godwin anatomised the intensity and violence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master/servant relationship, how inequality, intimacy and emotion eroticized power relations. He stripped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away others? attempts to resolve the servant problem through heterosexual masculinity to address a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for male bonding that went beyond social obligations into deep, and troubling psychic processes. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of any alternative social resources or relationships, Caleb Williams is destroyed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub concludes with John MacDonald?s )] TJ ET BT 238.988 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs)] TJ ET BT 281.648 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1790\) which were published ostensibly as the work of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate footman. Whatever the text?s provenance, it runs through the stereotypes of 18th-century male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants: their materialism, self-interest and robust sexuality. MacDonald?s sexual adventures, like those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his fictional predecessors, created a bond with his masters; he too exchanged service for marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. But MacDonald?s self-fashioning, his strong sense of autonomy and his ability to cross class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were possible, Straub suggests, because of cultural developments earlier in the century. Imagining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity and femininity as universal human traits smoothed over class divisions, but thinking about this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of labour and household relations also meant dealing with the effects of levelling in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchical establishments. Intimacy was both a solution and a problem; so was social distance. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through these dynamics modern sexual and gender identities were deeply impressed with the conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century service, inequality and non-biological families.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I?ve summarised the chapters at some length, partly because Straub?s argument requires detail to pin down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of love, intimacy, eroticism and homosociality. The book is strongest in drawing out tensions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes in representations of the master/servant relationship, the dynamics that suffused 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct literature with warnings about sloth, dirtiness and tale-bearing, and tied their authors into knots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when considering whether servants? duties of deference, humility and obedience outweighed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations to god. In tracking social problems across several registers, Straub does more than suggest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions with which novelists worked. The book reminds us that whatever law or sociology suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic service and household were suffused with emotion. It confirms the violence embedded in social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. )] TJ ET BT 81.344 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Affairs)] TJ ET BT 162.344 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gives an account of how people imagined the early-modern family and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers they found when confronting its apparent crises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In focus, therefore, the book complements research into everyday experience, but I wonder whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of literary argument is quite carried by the historical material. Although Straub goes further than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robbins who thought historical accounts not ?pertinent to the larger issue of how literary functionality is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to society itself? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.676 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.676 62.787 m 162.668 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, her study still feels rather thin. Historians can?t quite help noticing a disjunction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between very sophisticated textual interpretations and rather less sophisticated historiography. It is almost as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6757 63.1015 162.6677 74.9815 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8830 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if canonical literary texts ? the )] TJ ET BT 182.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 219.308 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s or )] TJ ET BT 239.972 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Andrews)] TJ ET BT 318.296 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? command a matching series of canonical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. Thus we get Hecht and Hill predominating as points of reference over Tim Meldrum?s much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive \(and recent\) study of domestic service in metropolitan households. Refer to Laura Gowing?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a slightly earlier period, and suddenly the significance of touch or corporeality leaps out from 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century thinking about domestic servants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.332 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.332 738.051 m 248.324 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub?s narrative is built around the concept of middle-class domesticity and orientated towards Nancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armstrong, notwithstanding McKeon?s criticism of her model of public and private spheres. Straub makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no claims for the historical accuracy of eighteenth-century representations and does not study the reception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of texts, but even so the balance is not quite right. When close textual reading is set in generalised contexts ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social transition, contractual relations, poor law and charitable relief ? historical complexities get lost. To my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, a correspondingly detailed sense of the texture of past lives is needed: Amanda Vickery, not Nancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armstrong. Vickery?s study of genteel women also found that awkward combination of sentimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment and firm hierarchy, the unequal power relations, and mistresses baffled and infuriated by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants? decisions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.332 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.332 597.747 m 143.324 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The worlds of literature and quotidian household management, of Pamela and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Shackleton, collided. Whether or not they read \(and many did\), employers and servants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar with patterns of domestic service and hiring that don?t quite get into this 21st-century analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Affairs)] TJ ET BT 115.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes much of a shift from life-cycle to life-time service, but overlooks the legion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who came by the day to do laundry or other occasional tasks. It was not just the employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract that mattered, but its specific terms \(and here it is a shame that comparisons with slavery are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed\). Masters and servants had a keen understanding of differences between employment for the year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which earned a poor law settlement, or for shorter periods. As Meldrum?s research makes plain, the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of domestic service varied according to household size and activities; London had distinctive social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics. What fiction represented or was silent over had precise meanings and implications that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub could take much further and be more explicit about. It is surely significant that she discusses women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a wider range of households than men, who figure as valets and footmen in larger establishments. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical contexts also wobble over poverty and charity. Interest in educating poor children expanded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 18th century, not later \(pp. 27?9\): is this oversight a hint that older historical narratives about economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation are driving the argument? General ideas about poverty infused commentary on servants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish apprenticeship and sexuality. Jonas Hanway, creator of Thomas Trueman, also attempted to order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower-class masculinity and femininity through his charitable endeavours. The Foundling Hospital?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings with Mrs Brownrigg were not simply the product of its distinctive circumstances, but emerged from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broader philanthropic landscape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolyn Steedman?s account of Phoebe Beatson, pregnant in 1802, who gave birth to and raised her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimate daughter without marrying the child?s father and while working as a clergyman?s servant, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bucked the pressures of poor relief, conduct literature and religious instruction, suggests the permeability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures that in Straub?s world seem so adamantine in their troubling, inescapable paradoxes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.944 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.944 272.115 m 503.936 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.936 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency and the tendency of ideas to jump registers to become something else, have the potential to talk back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to literary discourse. Steedman too has epic historical change ? E. P. Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 429.296 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Class )] TJ ET BT 108.020 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and the literary canon ? )] TJ ET BT 231.980 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wuthering)] TJ ET BT 282.644 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Heights)] TJ ET BT 322.976 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but is able to do much more with them by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading between the lines and writing through historical and textual detail. By contrast,)] TJ ET BT 451.964 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Domestic Affairs)] TJ ET BT 535.964 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed from the materiality urged by Woolf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Straub?s choice of sources is conservative. Apart from the )] TJ ET BT 316.616 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Adventures of a Valet)] TJ ET BT 420.272 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the literary texts are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canonical. The historical examples ? Canning, Brownrigg and MacDonald ? are useful, but the selection is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not self-evident and at times stretches chronological bounds \(over 40 years separate )] TJ ET BT 438.596 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roxana)] TJ ET BT 475.256 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brownrigg\). How would the argument look if paired with published cases from the Old Bailey or Doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons, or with newspaper reports and jokes, which also informed their readers about domestic life? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When parish officials interrogated unmarried but pregnant domestic servants, the households they described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually less dramatic than those in novels or the Brownrigg material.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.632 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.632 89.043 m 404.624 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.624 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A majority of fathers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male servants or labourers, but about 10% were middling-sort. Another group ? lodgers ? also turn up in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed literature on adultery; their appearance in the settlement examinations point to the social )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.3317 738.3655 248.3237 750.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3317 598.0615 143.3237 609.9415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.9437 272.4295 503.9357 284.3095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.6317 89.3575 404.6237 101.2375 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 6114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of the household-family.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.668 795.075 m 230.660 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 230.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Much could be done, therefore, with evidence of plebeian sexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or questions about the occupation and uses of space, the delineation of personal, social and physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries. On the literary side too, the net could be cast wider. )] TJ ET BT 343.628 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 380.288 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( inspired paintings and waxworks, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as plays. Clues to the master/servant relationship are not restricted to main plots, but can be glimpsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all around. How about )] TJ ET BT 144.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Shandy,)] TJ ET BT 227.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where the actions of maidservant and manservant around a sash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(window threaten for a moment to castrate the gentleman? And I would love to see Elizabeth Hands or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another plebeian poet put into the argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 68.012 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franchise Affair)] TJ ET BT 147.680 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1948\), Josephine Tey retold the Canning case as a tale of post-war class politics; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Waters? latest novel revisits Tey in the genre of ghost story. Straub?s literary analysis makes her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers think about servants. Her focus on gender and sexuality is welcome, but, for this historian, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of the servant problem still await exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Robbins, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Servant?s Hand)] TJ ET BT 239.672 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1986\), p. xi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.316 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.316 574.995 m 415.304 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Meldrum, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Domestic Service and Gender 1660?1750: Life and Work in the London Household )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harlow, 2000\); Laura Gowing, )] TJ ET BT 219.980 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common Bodies: Women, Touch, and Power in Seventeenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.652 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.652 532.227 m 259.640 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman's Daughter: Women's Lives in Georgian England )] TJ ET BT 468.764 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 503.715 m 149.000 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolyn Steedman, )] TJ ET BT 159.008 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Master and Servant: )] TJ ET BT 260.660 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love and Labour in the English Industrial Age)] TJ ET BT 485.000 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 475.203 m 149.000 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chelsea)] TJ ET BT 102.680 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733?1766)] TJ ET BT 352.004 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,ed. T. Hitchcock and J. Black \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 446.691 m 149.000 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naomi Tadmor, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family and Friends in Eighteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 392.660 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.980 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.980 432.435 m 543.968 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780801895111)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 377.667 m 240.032 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.032 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/814)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 322.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3797)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780801895111)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 216.6677 795.3895 230.6597 807.2695 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.3157 575.3095 415.3037 587.1895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.6517 532.5415 259.6397 544.4215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 504.0295 148.9997 515.9095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 475.5175 148.9997 487.3975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 447.0055 148.9997 458.8855 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.9797 432.7495 543.9677 444.6295 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 377.9815 240.0317 389.8615 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780801895111) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 322.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/814) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000000709 00000 n 0000003603 00000 n 0000003712 00000 n 0000003822 00000 n 0000003931 00000 n 0000007492 00000 n 0000007620 00000 n 0000007704 00000 n 0000007769 00000 n 0000015305 00000 n 0000015370 00000 n 0000023626 00000 n 0000023710 00000 n 0000032024 00000 n 0000032054 00000 n 0000032180 00000 n 0000032216 00000 n 0000032321 00000 n 0000041204 00000 n 0000041234 00000 n 0000041362 00000 n 0000041398 00000 n 0000041428 00000 n 0000041556 00000 n 0000041592 00000 n 0000041622 00000 n 0000041750 00000 n 0000041786 00000 n 0000041816 00000 n 0000041943 00000 n 0000041979 00000 n 0000042119 00000 n 0000048286 00000 n 0000048316 00000 n 0000048444 00000 n 0000048480 00000 n 0000048608 00000 n 0000048663 00000 n 0000048791 00000 n 0000048846 00000 n 0000048973 00000 n 0000049028 00000 n 0000049155 00000 n 0000049210 00000 n 0000049337 00000 n 0000049392 00000 n 0000049520 00000 n 0000049575 00000 n 0000049702 00000 n 0000049793 00000 n 0000049921 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50016 %%EOF