%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723112119+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723112119+01'00') /Title (Reinventing History. The Enlightenment Origins of Ancient History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4024 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reinventing History. The Enlightenment Origins of Ancient History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very interesting volume, which aims to bring together the variety of contexts and genres in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient history was employed and studied during the Enlightenment. The various articles included provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong argument for the need to reassess our historiographies, which tend to stress the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of 19th-century giants like Niebuhr, Grote and Mommsen, in order to incorporate the originality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and novelty of the Enlightenment contribution to the study of ancient history. Although the focus is on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, a number of articles also examine the connections between British and French scholarship as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider European debates of the time. The volume also features a very useful bibliography of works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient history published during the Renaissance and the 18th century \(pp. 291?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction, by James Moore and Ian Macgregor Morris \(pp. 3?29\), surveys the place and role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical antiquity in the scholarly world of the Enlightenment. It traces the variety of genres within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of ancient history was pursued, and the impact of different causes and ideas, like philhellenism, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which antiquity was perceived. It examines the connection between authors who dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity and their literary and scholarly backgrounds; finally, it charts changes over time in the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century, like the wider dissemination of archaeological materials and the easier access to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(818)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Moore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew J. Bayliss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978905165377)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre for Metropolitan History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kostas Vlassopoulos)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7772 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman lands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doohwan Ahn examines the place of Xenophon in 18th-century British political thought \(pp. 33?55\). Ahn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a strong case for the widespread influence of Xenophon?s work, while also showing that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence took a number of very different and not necessarily compatible forms. He shows how Xenophon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyrus served as a model of the ideal ruler in a number of works, most famous of which is Bolingbroke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Idea of a Patriot King)] TJ ET BT 140.024 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and makes the stimulating claim that this model of ruler was not necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompatible with republicanism. The emerging field of political economy was another area where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xenophon proved particularly influential. For 18th-century thinkers and politicians in the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing a genre that linked the state with economic activity, Xenophon?s pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 457.628 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ways and Means)] TJ ET BT 539.612 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which advised the Athenians how to deal with the fiscal and economic adversity of the middle of the 4th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century BC, was a powerful weapon and an important source of inspiration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Liddel examines one largely neglected work: William Young?s )] TJ ET BT 368.960 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spirit of Athens)] TJ ET BT 443.636 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, originally published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1777 and republished in 1786 and 1804 \(pp. 57?85\). This is a very interesting work, because it is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earliest works devoted specifically to Athens, in an 18th-century intellectual climate which was almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessed with Sparta. As the very title of the work suggests, and as Liddel carefully maintains, Young was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily influenced by Montesquieu?s )] TJ ET BT 216.656 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spirit of Laws)] TJ ET BT 284.012 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and it is an attempt to combine a narrative history with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis of the political, economic and social factors that influenced the shape of Athenian history. Liddel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines how Young adopted many of Montesquieu?s ideas, like the principle of the separation of powers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to analyse the structure of Athenian politics. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this work is how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young?s perspective of history seemed to move in a backward direction with each successive edition: from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attempt to write a philosophical history of Athens on Montesqueian principles in 1777 to a )] TJ ET BT 489.320 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magistra vitae)] TJ ET BT 103.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perspective in 1804. This certainly testifies to the complexity of historical attitudes during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Seed discusses Gibbon?s linking of early Christians with Puritans and Dissenters in his )] TJ ET BT 480.668 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fall)] TJ ET BT 54.020 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(87?112\). Seed shows how Hume?s depiction of Puritanism in his )] TJ ET BT 376.664 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of England)] TJ ET BT 468.668 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced the way Gibbon conceived early Christianity. Gibbon accepted Hume?s delineation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers of religious fanaticism as evidenced in modern Puritanism and Dissent; even more, as Seed shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the successive volumes of )] TJ ET BT 161.996 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and Fall)] TJ ET BT 243.320 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have to be read in the context of the attempts by Dissenters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last few decades of the 18th century to achieve the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts. The Gordon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riots convinced Gibbon that the danger of a repeat of the dominance of Christian religious fanatics in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity was imminent. Seed shows how the debate between Gibbon and the leading Dissenter Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priestley illuminates the conception of the later volumes of Gibbon?s magnum opus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carsten Lange examines the ancient accounts of the Battle of Actium and the reconstructions of the battle in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century scholarly literature \(pp. 115?36\). Already ancient sources present two opposing views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the battle: according to one, Cleopatra betrayed Antonius by abandoning the battlefield and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slave of passion? lost the battle and universal rule in deciding to follow her; but according to another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient source, the flight of Antonius and Cleopatra was part of a pre-arranged battle plan. Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars already engaged with source criticism and opted for one solution or the other based on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the sources, thus demonstrating that the scientific treatment of the sources was not unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Enlightenment. Modern scholarship has overwhelmingly opted for the second option; but as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lange shows, not only does this view have its predecessors in the Enlightenment, but there are also good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for which modern research should opt for an alternative solution, which was already being expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Moore examines how 18th-century thinkers thought about ancient mythology and its importance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment efforts to create a universal theory of religion \(pp. 137?67\). This is a particularly important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic, which has been unfortunately rather neglected, and Moore offers here a timely contribution. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses his article on the life and work of Baron D?Hancarville and the reception of his thought in late 18th- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 19th-century Britain and Europe. D?Hancarville?s efforts to understand the iconography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athenian vases and other ancient objects were informed by an analysis of the symbolism of myth. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D?Hancarvile?s sexual interpretation of myth had a rather limited reception, for various reasons that Moore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines; but the attempt to overcome the theory of the Biblical origins of religion in favour of a universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and natural form of religion was a widespread phenomenon in Enlightenment Europe and ancient myth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography played a significant role, as Moore reminds us, which deserves to be studied in more detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Wagstaff studies the works of Colonel Leake and his contribution to the historical geography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greece \(pp. 169-183\). Leake spent many years in Greece in a military-diplomatic capacity during the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades of the 19th century and he subsequently published his )] TJ ET BT 356.972 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travels)] TJ ET BT 392.972 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to various parts of the country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These works combine, as Wagstaff shows, a traditional concern with identifying the ancient ruins with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient settlements and sanctuaries preserved in classical texts, which Leake perfected to an extent which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still inspires admiration to modern scholars, with a novel interest in the contemporary 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and economic and political developments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Sampson examines the Roman historical tradition during the 18th century \(pp. 187?218\). Sampson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims to challenge the view that the scientific study of Roman history originated with Gibbon and Niebuhr; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the contrary, he shows the extent to which 19th-century Roman historiography was dependent to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance and in particular Enlightenment predecessors. He examines exhaustively the different genres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within which Enlightenment scholars studied Roman history and the key topics around which debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred. Around 1700 the scene was dominated by antiquarian works focusing on the methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of the reliability of early Roman history and the origins of Rome, or on specific aspects of Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, like the Roman magistracies. The second quarter of the century saw the emergence of the first large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale narratives of Roman history; as Sampson shows, the quality of these works diverged widely, but some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them, like the )] TJ ET BT 115.676 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roman History)] TJ ET BT 188.672 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Hooke, were pioneering in incorporating the insights of source criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained in the earlier methodological discussions into historical narrative. Finally, while already since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Machiavelli Roman history played an important role in early modern political thought, it was mainly around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle of the century that the great political works of Montesquieu, Mably and Rousseau put Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history at the centre of the political debates of the Enlightenment and the French and American Revolutions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexity of Enlightenment writing on Roman history emerges as an important conclusion of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Bayliss discusses the place of Macedonians in the historiography of the Enlightenment \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219?46\). His central argument is that the current purported marginalisation of Hellenistic history within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of ancient Greece is the result of the racial and political prejudices of 19th-century scholars, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niebuhr, Grote and Rawlinson singled out as the culprits: for them, Hellenistic history was not part of Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, the Macedonians were not Greeks, and the Hellenistic period had little worthy of historical interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the contrary, Bayliss argues, 18th-century historiography reserved a significant place for Hellenistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and Hellenistic authors; Enlightenment historians largely accepted Macedonians as Greeks but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Grecians? \(Bayliss makes an interesting distinction between ?Greeks? and ?Grecians? in Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlance\) and saw in the Hellenistic period a fascinating spectacle of the struggle to preserve freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Romans. These are very interesting claims, but they are somewhat marred by the recurrent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification of 19th-century historiography with Grote and Niebuhr; other influential 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, like Droysen, Beloch and Meyer \(not to mention Mahaffy\), had very different views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macedonians and the Hellenistic period, but they are never mentioned in the article, thus creating a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schematic distinction between 18th and 19th-century attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Ian Macgregor Morris re-examines the tradition of modern Histories of Greece from Tourreil to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grote \(pp. 247?90\). He argues persuasively that the modern construct of an 18th-century anti-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-Athenian approach exemplified by Gillies and Mitford and a 19th-century pro-democratic and pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athenian one exemplified by Grote is the result of a polemical rewriting of history by Grote and other liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers of the 19th century. By accepting Grote?s presentation of his 18th-century predecessors at face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value, modern scholarship has greatly misinterpreted the works of Enlightenment scholars and underrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their originality, while understating Grote?s dependence on them. To an important extent, the problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created by anachronistic application of concepts. As Macgregor Morris shows, during the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticising Athens was not tantamount to criticising democracy, as it would become in later times: in fact, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many 18th-century thinkers criticised Athens not for being a democracy, but for failing to be truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic in the way that they conceived of democracy. The portrayal of Gillies and Mitford as anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic Tories is thus highly anachronistic and ultimately misleading. And Grote?s defence of Athenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy was no less a defence of those aspects which were compatible with his vision of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy. The virtues that Grote identified in Athens are often the same virtues that 18th-century authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified in Sparta. This revision of Greek historiography is clearly very important, and despite some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerations, it will be required reading for any future reassessment of Greek historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The summaries of the various papers indicate clearly the breadth and value of the volume at hand. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first volume that is devoted to the role of ancient history and the classical tradition in 18th-century Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my view, the volume succeeds in raising three important issues. The first concerns the genres within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Enlightenment scholars pursued the study of the past. As the introduction argues, and the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers show, there was a variety of different genres, which often followed their own rules and were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated by different authors and catered for different clienteles. The authors discuss political pamphlets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tracts of political theory, works on political economy, antiquarian scholarship, travel literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological and mythological works, philosophical history and more traditional narrative history. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheer extent of works in different genres testifies to the widespread presence of antiquity in Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Related to the first issue is the volume?s emphasis on the connection between authors, literary and scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles and the public. Most of the 18th-century works produced in Britain which dealt with antiquity did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emanate from university circles: they were the product of amateur scholars who combined a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different roles and identities and mingled in a number of different circles. In a world where scholarly interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past was not identified with academic position, the various links between the circles in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors operated and their relationship to the reading public were of the utmost importance, as the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers demonstrate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But perhaps the most important contribution of the volume is its challenge of the anachronistic perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which later scholars have approached the works of the 18th century. There is a widespread tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard the great works of Niebuhr, Grote and Wolf as the beginnings of the scientific study of antiquity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to dismiss earlier scholarship as irrelevant, or at best as the mere ancestors of the truly scientific works of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century. As various papers in this volume show, this is clearly untenable. Much of what passed as novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and scientific in the 19th century was already accomplished in the 18th, and even some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important discoveries attributed to 19th-century scholars, like Niebuhr?s discovery of the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ager publicus)] TJ ET BT 99.680 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were already anticipated in the 18th century. Furthermore, there has also been a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to read 18th-century works in the light of later ideas and associations that distort rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate 18th-century approaches: to give only one example, Macgregor Morris shows eloquently why it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong to associate anti-Athenian with anti-democratic views in an 18th-century context. Finally, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the papers rightly stress that the historiographical production of the Enlightenment is not of mere antiquarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest. In fact, there are many aspects and approaches of these works which were later abandoned or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidestepped by 19th- or 20th-century scholarship and which still merit the attention of modern historians: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century penchant for comparative history emerges as one characteristic example among many.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me finish this review with a crucial question that this book raises and which future research should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to explore. While it is clear that the volume makes a strong case about the innovative character of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of ancient history during the 18th century, there seems to be no forthcoming explanation of why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent generations perceived a clear break with the works of German scholarship initiated by Wolf, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boeckh and Niebuhr. There is no doubt, as some contributors argue as well, that part of this distantiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the result of self-advertisement by 19th-century scholars and the difference between an 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British scholarly world centred on the amateur scholar and a 19th-century German and ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continental academic world centred on the University professor. But these explanations are not sufficient in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves; and if we accept this volume?s claim about the originality of 18th-century historiography, as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should, we still have to explain what was in fact original and novel in the 19th-century works of Grote or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niebuhr. One can see some glimpses of an answer in some of the papers: Sampson e.g. suggests that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of why contemporaries thought that Niebuhr had discovered the real nature of the )] TJ ET BT 487.256 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ager publicus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had less to do with earlier 18th-century scholarship, where the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 399.272 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ager publicus)] TJ ET BT 464.936 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised, and more to do with a spate of political pamphlets around the time of the French Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which consciously blurred the distinction between public and private land in Rome. In other words, we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pay much more attention to the contemporary settings and the reception of earlier works, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely indicating that earlier works had already anticipated an idea or applied a technique. But these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues we shall be debating for a long time, and this volume will be an important asset in this respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/818)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 322.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3801)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 322.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/818) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004733 00000 n 0000004842 00000 n 0000004952 00000 n 0000005061 00000 n 0000008622 00000 n 0000008750 00000 n 0000008834 00000 n 0000008899 00000 n 0000016724 00000 n 0000016789 00000 n 0000024391 00000 n 0000024456 00000 n 0000031967 00000 n 0000032051 00000 n 0000034006 00000 n 0000034134 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34229 %%EOF