%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722193700+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722193700+01'00') /Title (Pope Gregory VII. 1073-1085) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2567 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Pope Gregory VII. 1073-1085)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the shape of modern Europe was determined by changes which took place in the time of Gregory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII, who as 'Hildebrand' was a powerful influence in the papacy from 1046 and was himself pope from 1073 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his death 1085. Because Gregory and his ideas played an important role in many of the changes, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of his pontificate is essential for understanding later European history, up to and including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(82)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. E. J. Cowdrey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198206460)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(122.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(760pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198206460.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Murray)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7069 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory has not lacked historians, from his own time onwards. Among the pregnant changes of his time was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a shift from speech towards writing as the principal means of government communication and record. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mainly as a result, Gregory's pontificate was covered by a burst of contemporary documentation. He left a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Register \(office copies of his outgoing official correspondence in the form of 360 letters\), which stands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vatican Archive as Registrum Vaticanum 2, - R.V. 1 being the register of John VIII \(872-82\) two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries before. Since Gregory VII's policies also sparked off widespread disputes conducted, to a degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none had been since the fourth century, by written appeals to literate opinion, we also possess thr ee printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes of polemical pamphlets \(or libelli\), while ordinary historiography was also on the increase in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, given extra stimulus by his ideas the reactions to them; so there was also a new spate of chronicles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This cache of documentation has fed a corpus of modern historiography, fired by an interest in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, which endure \(their endurance actually constitutes one of the permanent changes in our culture the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregorian movement brough t about\). The fifty years before the First World War gave birth to three Life-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-Times biographies, the shortest with two volumes, the longest with seven. Between the Wars Augustin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fliche added his three-volume La Rforme Grgorienne \(1926-37\) and H.-X. Arquillire his one-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay Saint Grgoire VII \(1934\), - to say nothing of the handy English introduction by A. J. Macdonald, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hildebrand \(1932\). All that time, and more copiously since, a stream of periodical and Festschrift articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has kept the scholarly world informed, augmented from 1947 by an irregularly appearing periodical entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to Gregory VII, Studi Gregoriani.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this continued historiography, since the 1930s there has been no major monograph to gather together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new knowledge and new points of view. The present volume fills that need. Its author, the Reverend H. E. J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey, is amon g the two or three living scholars mostly qualified to write it, his publications in the field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having begun thirty years ago and remained standard. In 1972 he edited the sixty or so Gregorian letters to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive outside the Vatican Register. In 1970 his The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform had explored one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important facet of Gregory's movement, and in 1983 he addressed another in The Age of Abbot Desiderius. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the same period he has contributed more than thirty articles on the Gregorian reform as it impinged on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular countries, groups, or contemporary ideas \(many of the articles now collected in volumes\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of his Gregory VII is therefore itself a historical event, likely to establish a canon for m any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ahead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its text of 627 pages takes the reader patiently through the primary evidence on Hildebrand's birth \(c. 1015\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and younger years, and then, in the ten central chapters, on Gregory VII's twelve years as pope. These ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters fall into two groups. One rehearses Gregory's dealings with successive territorial powers: Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(given a monster chapter of its own, of 200 pages\), Italy, France, and, more briefly, countries round the edge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Latin Europe, including Spain and Anglo-N orman England, these being followed in a separate chapter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eastern churches and Islam. A second group, of four chapters, then examines the pope's attitudes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive conceptual areas: the religious and moral foundations of his thought, his ide as on church order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the relation of priesthood and kingship, and on monasticism. Two very short chapters make a coda with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an account of Gregory's death, and a general assessment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prodigious industry embodied in a book of this rank normally demands a modicum of the same from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, and this one, true to the rule, makes a substantial read, at times reminiscent of the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going through file after file in an office. Indeed that is what much of it is. Gregory's 360-plus-60 known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters are scrutinized and compared with related sources, in relation to each event; and then, in many cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutinized and compared again in the later chapters with t heir relevant conceptual questions in mind. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drives the reader on is not only the intrinsic interest of the subject-matter but admiration for the book's all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but-perfect degree of organization \(my only cavils in that area are the meanness of the ind ex in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wealth of material hidden in the book, and the author's sectional system of cross-references - editor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendly, reader-unfriendly\). This thorough re-examination of the sources will leave even Gregory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aficionados abuzz with new ideas .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aficionados will also, naturally, spot omissions and points of difference. One challenge of historical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing is that the number of omissions in a book will be proportional to its length \(for the same reason that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(big empire has a long frontier to defend\). Thus Cowdrey's absorption in the documents is such that he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not reflect more than fleetingly on the nature of his principal document, namely the Register, and what that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells us about the character of papal government. Nor is Cowdrey any partisan for the soci-economic school. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He touches lightly on the Roman Jew Baric \(? c. 1016\), who became a Christian and sired the Purlin dynasty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its two popes; but too lightly to get us speculating on what a wealthy Jew was doing in Rome then: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether his presence, that is, had anything to do with an incipient Roman commercial revolution, of the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that more generally lay behind the spread of simony \(the commercialization of church office\), the reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal enem y, as it transformed the relationship between towns and their bishops \(as indeed between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations and their kings\). Again, when Philip I of France was accused by Gregory of 'robbing' Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants \(who no doubt told the tale to Gregory\), Cowdrey repea ts the charge without pausing to ask if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this incident was not just an explosive announcement of the arrival en scne of the Champagne fairs and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Capetians' felicitous discovery of the device of charging tolls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a measure of vacuum, then, on economic matters. On social, it can be no coincidence that two of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least convincing of Cowdrey's judgements touch this area. One is Hildebrand's birth. In the past, much has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made of an e xpression used by a friendly ecclesiastic, that God had chosen Hildebrand 'de plebe sua'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But that only meant Hildebrand was like King David \(cf. Ps. 88:20\), not that he was of what we might call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('plebeian' birth; a conclusion rendered even less likely by young Hildebrand's having an avunculus \(mother's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother\) as abbot of Rome's most prestigious monastery. A second questionable area touches that central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of moral reform: clerical celibacy. Cowdrey, like Gregory, reads clerical celibacy a s church rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncontestable age and authority, approved \(Cowdrey writes\) by 'almost everyone who, in the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eleventh century, was concerned with the condition of the church.' Literally hundreds of German and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian clergy would have contested that. One consequence of that simple equation is any priest who thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself respectably married St Peter Damian's father, for instance\) becomes simply a 'fornicator', a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated by Cowdrey, as by Gregory, as if neither psychology nor law ever admitted honest doubt. However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much we may back the reformer's stand on celibacy we do not have to make that mistake. \(One of the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes of Gregory's life is that the apostle from he drew his authority, St Peter, had been a married m an.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aficionados will therefore find points to pick at if they want. Prudent ones, however, will not want to; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they will see that they might, by doing so, risk walking past the value of the book as a whole. It is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact, a pe arl of great price. What the reader gets for his modicum of industry is a picture of finer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolution than any other available, or indeed that could be available without Cowdrey's patient method and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquaintance with secondary scholarship. The outcome i s like a magnified scientific photograph, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals at a glance the lineaments of an otherwise mysterious and invisible natural process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summary cannot do justice to that picture, but can sketch its outline. Gregory must have had a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy, we imagine, otherwise he could not have shaken the world. Cowdrey's shows this to be wrong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and proves, rather, Greg ory's remarkable degree of flexibility, at times even uncertainty. We may protest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what about the lofty certainties of the so-called Dictatus papae \(a series of 27 propositions, exalting papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, found in Gregory's Register between two lett ers dated in March 1075\)? Cowdrey shows they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of little or no account. Whatever the origin of the list, Gregory subsequently ignored it, and it can represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no more than a record of one stage in Gregory's private thinking as his crisis developed. Again, we may ask, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what about the Donation of Constantine \(an eight-century forgery purporting to convey from that Emperor to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bishop of Rome ex officio, imperial authority over Rome and other ill-defined 'parts of the West'\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory ignored that too. At least, he never quoted it or referred to it, and built up his claims on other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds. Even Gregory's often-mentioned claims to hold suzerainty of certain kingdoms by 'feudal' right are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed, through a careful array of all related utt erances, as too awash with inconsistencies to qualify as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent political legal doctrine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The one thing demonstrably consistent in Gregory, to put over against that flexibility, was religious faith: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith fed \(to follow the testimony of Guido of Ferrara, otherwise a strong critic\) by constant prayer, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the Bi ble \(which Gregory knew well and often quoted, Jeremiah and the Pauline epistles being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent\), and daily Mass, celebrated \(Guido wrote\) 'with tears in his eyes'. Like the faith of Gregory VII's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7363 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model, Gregory the Great, this was a faith diffusivum sui, self-diffusing. Not only was the pope generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with time and care for people with problems \('No one ever went empty away who approached him for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearing', according to the same Guido\). Where Gregory the Great had diffused his faith largely by p reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dispatching missionaries, Gregory VII sought to reactivate the church as a structure, which he saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently sunk into near-identity with secular society. The salt had lost its savour. Central to this restoration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project was Christ's commis sion to St Peter, whose duty and authority to 'feed my sheep' Gregory VII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood as passing to all bishops of Rome. \(As a Roman, we may add, Gregory would have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ever attached to St Peter because of the age-old bond which held every Itali an city to its saintly patron\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory believed he was the vicar of St Peter on earth, if not yet, quite, in any official writings at least, vicar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly of Christ \(a papal title only permanently established from Innocent III's time\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faith, in that form, was what was fixed in Gregory's thought. Everything else was accessory, and open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification. Cowdrey's file-by-file analysis demonstrates this first in respect of the articles of church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. Take lay invest iture \(the practice by which a layman formally appointed someone to church office\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which proved the most contentious. Lay investiture was general when Gregory became pope and it is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known that Gregory only came to tackle it only by steps. But how many steps? More that we thought. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey explains how Gregory was not persuaded to cross the Rubicon of lay investiture by its long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing critic, the radical Humbert of Silva Candida. Rather it was an incident in 1074, when one of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops King He nry IV was then investing, the canonically-minded Anselm II of Lucca, took an isolated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand against the procedure. Anselm's stand precipitated Gregory's, and it was Anselm, probably, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to Gregory's attention the canon which underpinned this pos ition - a canon, paradoxically, from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council whose authority Gregory would not have recognized had he not been under the illusion that Pope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hadrian II had presided, namely the fourth council of Constantinople, in 869-70. The 22nd canon of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council had banned any lay participation whatever in the appointment of bishops, unless - it added - it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the churchmen's invitation and in some way they thought appropriate. That canon, from what we think of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Caesaropapist Byzantium, not only toughened t he Gregory's stance against lay investiture but helped him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipate the provision in which following generations would find a compromise: that a layman could invest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bishop with his temporalities, though not his ecclesiastical office. We associ ate that provision with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canonist Ivo of Chartres, c. 1100, but Cowdrey shows it was employed already in 1078, in the appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a bishop of Augsburg.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory's pragmatism in other aspects of the lay-clerical relationship is well known, but not its extent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism is shown here by an abundance of example - of Gregory's exhortations to lay congregations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boycott the Masses of incelibate priests; and to princes, to coerce lazy bishops. Anyone doubting Gregory's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity for tactical somersaults in the matter of clerical and secular spheres of activity can turn to a letter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1074, suggesting that Gregory, as pope, lead an army to rescue Byzantium from the Turks, and the king is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look after the Roman church while the pope is away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A pope so reliant on allies had no choice but such ideological gymnastics; nor should it need saying - though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it does, and Cowdrey again says it with a new degree of authority - that Gregory was not the only one to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift his positions. Again and again we see a bishop, abbot, prince, or king, shifting a position in response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own shifting configuration of interests and beliefs, several bishops, for instance, travelling to Rome to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see Gregory and being won over, or \(though less oft en\) repelled, by Gregory's personality. Some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churchmen had or acquired a vision of their own, similar or all but identical to Gregory's. That indeed is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what made the reform movement possible. Examples are the formidable legate Hugh of Lyon, or Wi lliam of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hirsau \(a convert to Gregory's viewpoint\), and a whole phalanx of Augustinian canons whose pens and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tongues laboured for the reform movement in southern Germany \(one of them Paul Bernried, Gregory's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographer\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of men of vision whose vision jarred with Gregory's, the most important was of course Henry IV. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey's book is not about Henry, the king is inevitably portrayed in it and portrayed, like Gregory, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man dominated by a powe rful central idea, which gained articulation by stages and was expressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic policy-shifts. \(His appearance as a penitent at Canossa may have been one\). This unexpected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symmetry between Henry and Gregory makes the book?s most impressive single le sson. While their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asymmetries have always been many and obvious, their positions mirrored each other in this, that in each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pair, in the course of their decade-long confrontation, a single dominant intuition came to isolate itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shape and reshape all other policies round it. On Gregory's side, I have mentioned his gradual hardening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject of lay investiture, but could have mentioned, as if in recompense, his corresponding softening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on clerical celibacy, as the embattled pope s aw that the entire reform movement might founder on an issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so contentious among many clergy \(not to mention their wives\). Not least - though chronologically last, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, from the moment when the pope's traditional protector had become his most menacing enemy - Gregory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to find arguments to justify Christian bishops' engagement in war - another canonistic task on which his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal partisan, Anselm II of Lucca, proved useful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corresponding shifts on Henry's side, equally pregnant for the future, included tactical concessions Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to political heavyweights whose help he needed. There were royal crowns, on suitable terms, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers of Bohemia and Hu ngary, while the most pregnant of all such concessions were privileges to towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Germany but also, more pregnantly still, in Italy, whoseindependent communes dated their rise from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investiture contest. Tactical concessions apart, deeper shif ts can be found in Henry's policy. The first in time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was his sharp awakening to the predicament he had put himself in by encouraging irregularities in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German church. In 1073, German political geometry had been quite different from what it became: then , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey points out, it had not been the pope but the bishops who had attacked the king as unfit to govern; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even to the extent of blaming Gregory for being too friendly to Henry. That all changed, as Henry opened his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes to where his true challen ge lay and regretted having surrendered themoral high ground to the papalists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1075 the game was up for those German careerists who had bought their way into bishoprics and helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance royal government by doing so, as a wiser Henry embraced r eform, hammering at simony, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granting church privileges as pious any of his forbears' - for instance, to the Hirsau monastic family - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on the payment of tithes to bishops. Given Gregory's ideological twists and turns, Henry even found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chanc es to go into the attack as when, late in the pontificate, he told the world Gregory was corrupting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity by justifying the church's involvement in war. The most consequential Henrician shift was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to this: the formulation, for the first tim e, of an articulate imperialist doctrine, put out in polemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets to match and outface the canonists, and anticipating the imperialist theory destined, in the 1150s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bring into being Barbarossa's 'Holy' Roman Empire, its authority direct from God rather than via the pope.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On both sides, therefore, tactics and the doctrine moved in the course of the dispute, the shifts on one side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly set off by shifts on the other in continuous ricochet - if a ricochet barely perceptible in any picture less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finely re solved than this one. The more emphasis the Henricians put on the sacral self-sufficiency of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, the more we find an answering change in Gregory's thought. Following Mller-Mertens, Cowdrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out a change in Gregory's phraseology about Henry's kingdom, traceable from 1074, on the basis of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression known in imperial Italy from c. 1056. As pope, Gregory more and more chose to refer to Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his kingdom as 'king[dom] of the Germans', as distinct from saying anything about an Empire. Gregory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted Germany to be just another kingdom like others, in direct antithesis to the imperialist doctrines now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being formulated on the other side. Gregory wanted Germany locked into his preferred world-scheme, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which kings had str ong authority, inheriting their kingdom undivided \(he urged the king of Norway not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide his kingdom between sons\), forming a political matrix for the church, but - the big 'but' in Henry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case - not directly involved in its government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All Gregory demanded of his kings was that they stand up for justitia, which included church autonomy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Henry IV had failed on this point, yet remained prima facie the most powerful European monarch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory had to outmanoeuvre him and hence adjust the outlying parts of his own ideology, including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure, in this one case of Germany, from his usual support for the hereditary principle. Surely without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreseeing the lasting results of what he did, Gregory encour aged the opposite, elective principle in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German royal constitution. Granted the centrifugal forces already present in Germany - between Saxony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Rhineland, North and South - this intervention tilted the German constitution decisively in a federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory died in 'exile', in Salerno \(Cowdrey argues he was not, as usually supposed, bitter about it, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground that it was a kind of blessed martyrdom\), while Henry campaigned on, his antipope Clement installed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 3244 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Rome. Despite the papalists' increasing use of the expression regnum Teutonicorum, the Henrician idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire was far from dead; and when it did finally die, in the reign of Henry's great-great-grandson Frederick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II, that would be after a struggle which hurt the papacy almost as much. So Gregory does not look like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winner. In two important respects it was nevertheless Gregory's vision which found vindication by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent history. He had forcefully differentiated ecclesiastical from secular power. On one hand that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that canon lawyers, though they rarely quoted Gregory as an authority \(as Cowdrey points out\) could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the twelfth century crowd into the curia to build on his bequest, armed after 1130 with an increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal corpus of law, in Gratian' s Decretum, which made the pope rather than any rex Teutonicorum the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor of to the classical Roman Emperor, as supreme appellate authority. Meanwhile, by denying this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role to the secular Emperor the post-Gregorian papacy directed western Christendom towards Gregory's, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry's, ideal political structure: not, that is, as in the in so many other parts of world, the unified structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of single Empire with direct divine authority, but the fragmented one of states politically independe nt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other, while sharing the core of a common religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory's challenge to Henry and the status quo was compared by a contemporary to an earthquake. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey's fine-resolution picture - a moving picture, registering subtleties of change - allows the observer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watch the geological processes behind that earthquake, as the elusive tectonic plates creaked into their new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions, in those critical twelve years, to form the foundations of subsequent European politics and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/82)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 316.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 316.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/82) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000544 00000 n 0000000626 00000 n 0000003245 00000 n 0000003354 00000 n 0000003464 00000 n 0000003573 00000 n 0000007134 00000 n 0000007262 00000 n 0000007346 00000 n 0000007411 00000 n 0000014533 00000 n 0000014598 00000 n 0000022216 00000 n 0000022281 00000 n 0000029697 00000 n 0000029762 00000 n 0000037261 00000 n 0000037345 00000 n 0000040642 00000 n 0000040770 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40864 %%EOF