%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724021844+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724021844+01'00') /Title (Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4142 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the conclusion of her history of Marian devotion, )] TJ ET BT 287.984 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God,)] TJ ET BT 362.312 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Miri Rubin states, ?For in woman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to act as a generous host, to contain a body in her body, there is an act of tremendous hospitality? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 424\). In many ways, this statement encapsulates the focal point of both Rubin?s book and of the mystery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fascination that so many people have found in the person of the Virgin Mary. Mary represents at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level every woman?s ability to conceive and nurture human life, but in her, that ability has been exalted to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the Christian mystery of redemption through her willingness to welcome into her own body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the God made flesh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubin?s book seeks to explore the myriad expressions of interest in Mary by presenting a complete history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Marian beliefs and devotion from its early roots in the Biblical texts until the close of the 16th century. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such, it is a brave and ambitious work. Aside from the many more narrowly focused studies concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary that appear each year, perhaps the most daunting prospect in such a task is the fact that there is no area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christian life and thought, from at least the 2nd century on, that is not related in some way, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotionally or theologically to Mary. Because of this, Rubin?s sources necessarily come from a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum of materials, formal theological treatises, miracle stories and plays, sermons, music and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture and the visual arts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no one overarching thesis in Rubin?s book, and its length combined with the immense amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(820)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miri Rubin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300105001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(533pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donna Spivey Ellington)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7788 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual material included makes it difficult to do more than summarize the general structure of the book in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review. The first five chapters of the book explore the early development of devotion to Mary and largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern the Church in the eastern portion of the Roman Empire as the most fertile ground for producing new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth in Christian theological concepts of all kinds. Rubin also includes here a short discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions made by the Latin Doctors, St. Ambrose, St. Jerome and St. Augustine, as well as by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial North African writer, Tertullian. Rubin describes the growing importance of the Virgin Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a regal symbol of Constantinople, rising to prominence as the chief citadel of Roman power in the east. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Constantinople was the locus of concentrated power in the Christian Roman Empire, so Mary as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theotokos \(The God-Bearer\) was crucial to the history of salvation and had shown her favor to the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city through the presence of her relics in its churches and shrines. Also discussed in this first part of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the creation of early Jewish literature which sought to oppose the Christian narrative of Jesus? conception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and birth. Indeed the interplay between the lavish displays of Marian piety permeating Christian Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish resistance to Christian anti-Semitism and to absorption by that culture is a recurring theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most significant omission in this section of the book concerns Rubin?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions made by the first couple of centuries of Christian literature to the development of Marian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine and belief. Rubin rightly points out the fact that an early interest in Mary?s life resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of the apocryphal )] TJ ET BT 162.644 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protevangelium of James)] TJ ET BT 284.624 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but she concludes regarding more orthodox writers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mary drew little attention from the formative thinkers engaged in imaging and writing a Christian universe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 16\)?. While there is a brief mention of the early Christian apologist, St. Justin Martyr, and his defense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary?s virginity at the time of conceiving Christ, there is no discussion of his importance as the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian writer to articulate Mary?s role in salvation history as the Second Eve. In his )] TJ ET BT 451.964 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialog with Trypho)] TJ ET BT 546.644 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin argues that as the virgin Eve, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought death into the world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so the Virgin Mary conceived Christ through obedience to the word of the angel Gabriel. Even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising is the fact that Rubin omits the significance of St. Irenaeus altogether. Irenaeus, whose work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Against Heresies)] TJ ET BT 115.676 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, might be considered the Church?s first systematic theological treatise, took Justin?s brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Mary as Second Eve and made it an integral part of his doctrine of recapitulation. Based on St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul?s discussion of Jesus as the Second Adam, Irenaeus argues that all aspects of a fallen humanity have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been taken up, relived, and remade in Christ. This naturally led to a discussion of the ways in which Mary?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life had likewise recapitulated, in a positive manner, the experience of Eve. It is a far more involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the issue than that found in Justin Martyr, and Irenaeus didn?t hesitate to describe Mary as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having become the advocate of Eve through her obedience to the will of God. There are few titles accorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Mary with a greater theological significance than that of Second Eve. Cardinal Newman even suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this title already implied the notion of the Immaculate Conception since the original Eve, mother of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those living in the old creation, was created originally sinless by God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the more unusual chapters of the book, chapter six, ?Beyond the Greek World?, sees the new 7th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century religion of Islam and its ideas of Mary placed in a rather uneasy juxtaposition beside the cultivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Marian devotion by popes and clergy in the Western Roman Empire from its fall in the 6th century until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 8th century. Apart from chronology, the reason for combining these two topics in one chapter is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether clear, and the continuity between the period of the Latin Doctors of the 4th and early 5th centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the work of the later Latin bishops and theologians is broken in this arrangement. Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major theme that begins to take shape here is that the Virgin Mary is linked to the fact that, following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome?s collapse, bishops of Rome begin to emerge in Western Europe as powerful ecclesiastical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political figures and as guardians of orthodoxy. In this process, Mary is incorporated into the increase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papal power in much the same way as she had with imperial power in Constantinople. Successive bishops of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, beginning with Popes Celestine I and Sixtus III in the 5th century, build and dedicate churches to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary, who even acquires by the 7th century the title, )] TJ ET BT 290.636 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(salus populi Romani \(salvation of the Roman people\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because Rubin is a medievalist, and also because the Middle Ages witnessed the spectacular explosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotion to Mary, it is not surprising that most of the book?s remaining chapters deal with the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations of medieval Marian piety in all areas of life from cloistered monasticism to new expressions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7692 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christian lay devotion that emerged in the later Middle Ages. In chapter seven, Rubin begins to look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary in the context of the early Middle Ages. As one would expect, she opens with adiscussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial part played by the Carolingians in establishing Marian piety throughout the empire. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplished principally by promoting the celebration of Marian feast days and through the dedication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches in her honor. A fairly lengthy section follows dealing with the importance of Mary in early British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity. This is appropriate given the Celtic preservation of classical Christian civilization generally and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that English devotion to Mary would later become fervent enough to earn England a designation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mary?s Dower.? Rubin concludes the early medieval portion of the book by quickly moving forward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically to explain the situation of Marian devotion on the European continent by around the year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1000. Mary had now acquired an exalted position at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of power ?linking heaven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and earth? \(p. 116\). The supreme earthly representative of power was the king, whose connection to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triune God was assured by the patronage of Mary, Mother of God.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three parts of Rubin?s book, chapters 8?20, explore further developments in devotion to Mary in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the high and late Middle Ages. This section forms the core of the book and begins with a relatively lengthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look at the celebration of love for Mary in monastic art, liturgy and music, particularly as related to the feast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Assumption and the depiction of Mary?s coronation as Queen of Heaven. Included here is the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical and poetic legacy of St. Hildegard of Bingen and the ubiquitous influence of the Cistercian order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout Europe, an order dedicated specifically to Mary and popularized by one of Mary?s most devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirers, St. Bernard of Clairvaux. There is also a focus on the significance of Biblical commentary in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fostering theological reflection on Mary and in occasionally provoking polemical attacks on Judaism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially important for the development of insight into the multifaceted meaning of Mary is commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on )] TJ ET BT 49.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Song of Songs)] TJ ET BT 138.020 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which inspired a romantic approach to Mary that parallels the contemporary secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love poems of the troubadours, although Rubin does not deal with this similarity of theme in her work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubin also highlights the significance of the sermons of the new orders of friars, such as the Dominicans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franciscans, in spreading love for Mary beyond the walls of the cloister, beginning in the 13th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These orders engaged directly with the world in service and in preaching to the people in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular language. Their sermons were often illustrated by Marian miracle stories which circulated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular collections and which encouraged people to trust in Mary both to intercede with God on their behalf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to procure miraculous interventions from God in their own lives. These same sermons were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for helping to create among the people an understanding of the intimate connection between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of Mary at the cross and the suffering of her son, thus highlighting her involvement in the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of salvation. As the laity were brought to appreciate more fully the wealth of devotion to Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously experienced only by men and women of religious orders, they sought to incorporate this into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily lives in both public and private ways. This led to the growing popularity among the literate populace of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books of hours, and among all, to creation of meditative forms of prayer, including the Rosary. Lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confraternities devoted to Mary were also organized by both men and women. In this medieval portion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is one significant omission in Rubin?s discussion of the impact of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual developments on ideas concerning Mary. Rubin fails to discuss the importance of Aristotle?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in reshaping scholastic thought about women and their role in reproduction. A theologian or preacher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who adopted Aristotelian biology was likely to portray Mary as passive in her conception of Christ, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who accepted the theories of Galen tended to see her role as more active. Even more important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotle?s belief that a woman?s menstrual blood was used to form the body of the child in the womb, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his corresponding belief that breast milk was likewise produced by transforming the mother?s blood into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food for the child created a rich source of inspiration for a host of medieval reflections on Mary?s bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to Jesus. This resulted in an emphasis on Mary?s blood that had formed Jesus? body and fed him at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her breast, and included Aristotelian explorations of Mary?s intimate connection to the body and blood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ received in the Eucharist. While Mary?s association with the Eucharist had been recognized at least as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early as St. Ephrem in the fourth century, it received a new source of significance with acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotle?s distinctive biological concepts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final three chapters of )] TJ ET BT 163.640 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God )] TJ ET BT 237.968 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapters 21?3\) are centered on the challenges and opportunities )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6814 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to traditional Catholic devotion in the 16th century. The religious upheaval created by the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to all devotion to the saints, Mary included, meant that Catholics would have to respond. As they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so, even Catholic devotion to Mary would not remain totally unchanged. There were also new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of Marian piety in lands conquered or evangelized by European powers in Asia, and North and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South America. The cultural links between Europe and the new world in the Early Modern period and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which these diverse cultures interacted and influenced each other has been a major inspiration for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research over the last few years, and Rubin has much to draw on to enrich her picture of Marian devotion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European colonies. Finally, Rubin returns to Europe exclusively and provides a picture of the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Virgin Mary toward the end of the 16th century, as European Christians began to adapt themselves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their religious lives to the situation of a religiously divided Christendom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the scope of Rubin?s book and the consequent necessity of synthesizing so much historical material, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one is hesitant to offer many general criticisms, however the fact that there is no overall interpretive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework for the book does mean that at times it might be difficult for the reader to grasp the persistence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central themes in Marian devotion over time and fully to understand their significance. This is also most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely the reason for a certain degree of repetitiveness in dealing with some of the material. One example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be the incorporation of devotion to Mary into private family life. This appears in three places in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, all of them dealing essentially with the medieval period: ?Mary in Parish and Home, \(pp. 217?20\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mary of Parish Practice and Family Life? \(pp. 313?31\), and ?Mary of Hearth and Home? \(pp. 358?60\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is true that the last of these sections falls in chapter 21, which introduces the way in which Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was dealt with by reformers in the 16th century, the material discussed generally dates from the late 15th or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very early 16th century, prior to either the Protestant or Catholic Reformations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of this, it would be wrong to give the impression that Rubin?s book is anything but a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement. One of the more obvious benefits of her work is that she introduces scholars to a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent research concerning Mary?s place in Christian thought and practice. With this in mind, a bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been a valuable addition. Rubin also offers the general reader many insights into the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Marian devotion has shaped the growth and development of Christianity throughout the world, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in the Eastern Church or Western Europe. Finally, the book is especially important for familiarizing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader reading public with the fact that Mary has often been used polemically to oppose Jewish rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, something usually omitted in works designed specifically for Christian readers. Miri Rubin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God )] TJ ET BT 108.344 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a significant addition to the ongoing exploration of the Virgin Mary in Christian history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/4699156/Mother-of-God-a-History-of-the-Virgin-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 302.883 m 542.936 302.883 l S BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary-by-Miri-Rubin-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 288.627 m 196.328 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.328 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse 1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.4.carr.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 260.115 m 541.004 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 544.004 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse 2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v096/96.3.heal.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 231.603 m 333.692 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.692 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 228.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 210.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 210.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/820)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 209.097 m 322.316 209.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 184.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3803)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/4699156/Mother-of-God-a-History-of-the-)] TJ ET BT 524.600 155.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary-by-Miri-Rubin-review.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.4.carr.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.264 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v096/96.3.heal.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 303.1975 542.9357 315.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/4699156/Mother-of-God-a-History-of-the-Virgin-Mary-by-Miri-Rubin-review.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 288.9415 196.3277 300.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/4699156/Mother-of-God-a-History-of-the-Virgin-Mary-by-Miri-Rubin-review.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 260.4295 541.0037 272.3095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.4.carr.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 231.9175 333.6917 243.7975 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/cat/summary/v096/96.3.heal.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 209.4115 322.3157 221.2915 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/820) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004822 00000 n 0000004931 00000 n 0000005041 00000 n 0000005150 00000 n 0000008711 00000 n 0000008839 00000 n 0000008923 00000 n 0000008988 00000 n 0000016829 00000 n 0000016894 00000 n 0000024639 00000 n 0000024751 00000 n 0000031618 00000 n 0000031745 00000 n 0000031926 00000 n 0000032053 00000 n 0000032234 00000 n 0000032361 00000 n 0000032512 00000 n 0000032639 00000 n 0000032751 00000 n 0000032879 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32974 %%EOF