%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021052933+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021052933+01'00') /Title (Who Will Write Our History? Rediscovering a Hidden Archive from the Warsaw Ghetto) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5072 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Who Will Write Our History? Rediscovering a Hidden Archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(from the Warsaw Ghetto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(?Earth, earth, do not cover our blood and do not keep silent?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In December 1941, as the Nazis systematically and mercilessly liquidated the Riga ghetto, the pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian-Jewish historian Shimon Dubnow was fatally trapped. As around 30,000 Jews were rounded up for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaughter, legend has it that Dubnow was heard saying repeatedly, ?)] TJ ET BT 359.948 223.283 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yidn, shreibt un fershreibt)] TJ ET BT 485.960 223.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(!? [?Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write and record!?].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.972 209.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.972 207.633 m 142.964 207.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.964 209.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He did not know that just 350 miles away, one of many his disciples, Emanuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ringelblum, was doing precisely that amidst the hell of the Warsaw ghetto. Ringelblum, an historian who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had cut his teeth in the early years of the Polish Second Republic, was vital to the founding of the )] TJ ET BT 504.968 180.515 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.259 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shabes)] TJ ET BT 68.012 166.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the archive set up in 1940, which sought to document and record Polish Jewry?s daily trials of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endurance in the Warsaw ghetto.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.636 152.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.636 150.609 m 205.628 150.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.628 152.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 221.624 152.003 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Will Write Our History)] TJ ET BT 357.620 152.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Samuel D. Kassow relates a remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story, suffuse with determination, sorrow and anguish, whose focus resides beyond the interminable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufferings contained within the ghetto?s walls. For Ringelblum, the )] TJ ET BT 360.332 123.491 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes )] TJ ET BT 431.648 123.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not simply directed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscribing the history of the Warsaw ghetto, but that of Polish Jewry itself, in all its extraordinary diversity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and vivacity. He and his colleagues attempted, in total secrecy, to compile ?a record that told the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.723 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth?, in order to ensure that Polish Jews ?would be remembered as they were and not as the elegists? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future might prefer to see them \(p. 198\). Were it not for the )] TJ ET BT 321.620 66.467 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 389.936 66.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Ringelblum and his fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.211 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archivists were greatly anxious that ?posterity would [only] read the records of the killers, [and] forget the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(823)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saul Kassow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780141039688)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(522pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sam Johnson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.9717 207.9475 142.9637 219.8275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.6357 150.9235 205.6277 162.8035 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8065 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices of the victims? \(p. 333\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akin to Dubnow, Ringelblum was not driven by sentiment, nor even, in the earliest years of the )] TJ ET BT 495.968 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shabes)] TJ ET BT 68.012 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by a grim pessimism for Polish Jewry?s future. Born in Galicia, Austrian Poland, in 1900, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ringelblum carried a life-long commitment to Jewish history and Yiddish culture, and, in the intellectually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fecund years of the Second Republic, concentrated his studies on Jewish-gentile relations in Poland over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many centuries. Always practical and methodical in his research, Ringelblum?s work was ideologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced and shaped by his political outlook. A member of the Marxist Zionist group, )] TJ ET BT 457.316 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Left Poalei Tsiyon)] TJ ET BT 545.324 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was a secular Jew for whom the everyday was absolutely paramount. Whilst other Jewish historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated on examining the experiences of the so-called ?Sabbath Jew?, Ringelblum?s interests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated to the Jewish masses. In instigating the )] TJ ET BT 272.996 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 341.312 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the first few months of the ghetto?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence, Ringelblum therefore drew upon a wealth of knowledge, as well as considerable experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting material and organising projects, all with the goal of writing about the life of the ordinary Jew.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, there was nothing ordinary about the circumstances in which the )] TJ ET BT 399.608 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes )] TJ ET BT 470.924 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded. In October 1940, less than a year after the Polish capital had succumbed to the Nazi onslaught, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imminent erection of the Warsaw ghetto was announced. It followed many months of special decrees aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at limiting Jewish life in Poland, including the compulsory wearing of arm-bands that identified one as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jew. By mid-November 1940, approximately almost 400,000 Jews, 30 per cent of the city?s population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded into an area representing just 2.4 per cent of its space \(p. 107\). Shortly thereafter the ghetto was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sealed and access to the ?Aryan? part of the city was forbidden. This presented enormous challenges to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of the ghetto, but most especially the already precarious situation regarding food. Legally limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by decree to just 184 calories per day, the ghetto?s inhabitants were forced to smuggle food from the outside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the outset, finding food was to be one of the greatest of all challenges for the Jews of the Warsaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ghetto.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ringelblum was bonded to various self-help stratagems that tried to feed the ghetto and organise other forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of relief, all of them aimed at structuring and regulating life amidst unbridled chaos, interference and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpredictability. As a member of )] TJ ET BT 195.992 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aleynhilf)] TJ ET BT 239.324 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the ghetto?s self-help organisation that operated a network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soup kitchens and the like, Ringelblum headed its so-called ?Public Sector?. It coordinated the activities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hundreds of ?house committees? in the ghetto, composed of small groups, often connected to a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing block. As a Kassow points out, the )] TJ ET BT 244.676 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aleynhilf)] TJ ET BT 288.008 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( functioned as a outlet for the remnant of Warsaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewry?s intellectuals, welfare workers and journalists, who, under its remit, collectively attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?maintain a sense of communal responsibility and social solidarity in the ghetto in the face of growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacles? \(p. 94\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Ringelblum the historian, his links to the )] TJ ET BT 252.368 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aleynhilf)] TJ ET BT 295.700 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its contributors were crucial, since it meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was tied to a network of collaborators who would prove invaluable in the compilation of the )] TJ ET BT 493.616 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shabes)] TJ ET BT 68.012 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These included two members of the )] TJ ET BT 248.648 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poalei Tsiyon)] TJ ET BT 314.984 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Eliyahu Gutkowski and Hersh Wasser, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted as the archive?s secretaries. Wasser and his wife Bluma were two of only three people connected to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive that managed, despite all odds, to survive the war. Others working for the archive included those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom Kassow has deemed ?protectors?, individuals who raised money and tried to keep leading members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archive alive; amongst them were the businessman Shmuel Winter, Shie Rabinowitz, a Bundist and Lipe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloch, a Zionist. Contributors and )] TJ ET BT 201.020 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamlers )] TJ ET BT 241.352 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?collectors?, who gathered material and documents\) included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rabbi Shimon Hubberband, who provided a link to the religious community in the ghetto, and Rachel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach, a Yiddish activist and contributor to literary journals in the Warsaw of the inter-war period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach also survived the war. There were many other contributors, some of them eternally without names, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but each representative of the political, social and religious diversity that was Polish Jewry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notwithstanding the struggles of daily survival, the hunger, the threat of death that pursued every Jew in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warsaw ghetto, Ringelblum and his colleagues were thorough and ambitious chroniclers. The remit of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, intensely planned and detailed, took in such diverse components of the ghetto as the vitally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary soup kitchen, regarded by Auerbach, as a ?microcosm of human relationships and human choices? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 137\), the changing role of women in a world where male functions had been rendered less significant, as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the activities of the greatly despised )] TJ ET BT 245.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judenrat)] TJ ET BT 288.644 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Nazi appointed Jewish committee that controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ghetto. Ringelblum and his colleagues were also incredibly skilful in the individual testimony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various, apparently ephemeral, items of material culture they collected. These ranged from publications from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the underground press \(in Warsaw and elsewhere\), drawings and sketches, sweet wrappers, tram tickets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ration cards, theatre posters, invitations to concerts and lectures \(all were held in the ghetto\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, of which 76 survived \(p. 213\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In late 1942, Ringelblum initiated the ?Two and a half-years project?, the guidelines for which are included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the appendix \(pp. 393?5\). The aim was, in Ringelblum?s own words, to provide ?a photograph of life. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature but science? \(p. 226\). Indeed, in modern historiographical terms, the guidelines for the project were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably methodological and included 81 separate headings for an analysis of the Warsaw ghetto alone. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassed studies of women, children, religious and intellectual life, corruption in the ghetto and German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish relations. The finer detail picked out such topics as bribery and theft in the ghetto, its physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure \(which altered during the years of its existence\), the collating of street songs and beggars? chants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the function and dysfunction of the ghetto economy, and )] TJ ET BT 308.648 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shtetl )] TJ ET BT 337.652 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony, which comprised the compilation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of memories and accounts of life in the towns outside Warsaw in the early days of the war. The ?Two and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-years project? also considered the future for Polish Jewry ? Ringelblum hung onto every shed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimism until way beyond the moment it became irrelevant ? and garnered diverse opinions on the topic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective of assorted forms of pessimism and optimism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, at the moment that Ringelblum was planning the ?Two and a half-years project? project, the tide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fate irrevocably altered the future for Poland?s Jews, as the Nazis set in motion the Final Solution. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest hints of the realities of the deportations East came to the Warsaw ghetto and the )] TJ ET BT 457.940 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes )] TJ ET BT 529.256 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those arriving from outside, who had often slipped loose from the Nazi net. In this regard, perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant testimony was provided by ?Szlamek? \(the rest of his name is unknown\), who miraculously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped from the death camp at Che?mno. Szlamek witnessed the gas vans of Che?mno in action, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been selected to dig the graves of the victims. The terrible events to which he bore witness were recorded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 119.996 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, each word a testament to the meticulous process by which the Nazis undertook to murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an entire people )] TJ ET BT 113.660 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(en masse)] TJ ET BT 157.316 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this stage, February 1942, the realisation that the Nazis intended to annihilate Polish Jewry altered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urgency of the )] TJ ET BT 106.328 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 174.644 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was now documenting genocide. It provided evidential material for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground press, both Jewish and Polish, which would, it was hoped, be able to smuggle it out of Poland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an unsuspecting outside world. Reports compiled by the )] TJ ET BT 318.668 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 386.984 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were received, for instance, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish government-in-exile, located in London. In June 1942, the archive members prepared a report entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?)] TJ ET BT 57.008 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gehenna)] TJ ET BT 100.328 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [hell] of Polish Jewry?, which found its way, via the assistance of various groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, to the BBC. On 2 June 1942, a BBC news broadcast reported that 700,000 Jews had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdered by the Nazis, a moment that was considered by Ringelblum as a vindication of the work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 102.332 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. According to his diary, the archive had ?performed a great historical mission? and he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus hopeful that Poland?s remaining Jews would be saved \(p. 299\). Subsequent events, however, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately to render Ringelblum?s optimism unfounded \(though he did not accept this\), as the )] TJ ET BT 498.320 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shabes )] TJ ET BT 71.012 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertook to tabulate the escalating deportations from the ghetto throughout 1942. It also counted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who were shot in the streets of the ghetto, and even when the Nazis sealed off part of the ghetto, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving its final members crammed into just a few streets, the archives ?still attempted to be systematic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counting the daily tally of death and deportation? \(p. 308\). There is somewhat of a grim irony here, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, given the Nazi propensity to documenting and recording their crimes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the members of the )] TJ ET BT 145.664 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 213.980 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were gradually picked off one-by-one by the Nazis, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation or execution on the ghetto?s streets, Ringelblum went into hiding in the ?Aryan? sector of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city, yet, despite the desperate conditions, the hunger and enveloping destruction, he continued to write and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record. It was in March 1944 that he and 40 others were betrayed. There are is no record of Ringelblum?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final fate, though it is likely that he and his family, from whom he refused to part, were shot in Warsaw?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pawiak prison.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just a little over two years after Ringelblum?s murder, a team of investigators excavated the rubble of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was once the Warsaw ghetto. Amongst them were Hersh Wasser and Rachel Auerbach. They were searching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the )] TJ ET BT 68.672 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 136.988 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which had been hidden in three caches, in tin boxes and milk cans, below various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets in the ghetto. In 1946, they were to find just one cache, which had suffered some devastating water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damage. Four years later, Polish builders uncovered the milk cans, which, since they had been welded shut, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave up their contents more or less intact. The third cache was almost completely destroyed. These humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containers carried not only Ringelblum?s ambitions and achievements, but an astonishing source of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the life of Warsaw Jewry. Here was Polish Jewry as it truly was, recorded by its own hand, not simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a memory conjured up by others. In May 1942, Abraham Lewin, a contributor to the )] TJ ET BT 442.616 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oyneg Shabes)] TJ ET BT 510.932 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urged the earth not ?to keep silent? \(p. 172\). As the earth beneath the ghetto yielded up the archive, it indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave voice to those who had been lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is impossible to gainsay the significance of this book and there is very little to criticise in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, synthesis, context and content. \(Although, as an historian of Central and Eastern Europe, I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat puzzled and occasionally irritated by the inconsistent use of Polish orthography; I would happily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concede that this is a minor quibble, but, in the wider aspect, I do feel it is about time that publishers became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better acquainted with Slavonic diacriticals and alphabets.\) Kassow has utilised an array of sources in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to relay his narrative, providing a crucial contextualisation in the early part of the book, which gives some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the vibrancy of Polish Jewry in the inter-war years, especially in the intellectual and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arenas. So much that has been written about the Holocaust dwells on the mechanics of murder, the struggles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ghettos, which, whilst essential, sometimes obscures or underwrites the broader picture and experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of European Jewry. For Kassow, to know about Ringelblum and his life before 1939 is just as significant as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what followed. In this aspect, this book is as much about the life of Warsaw Jewry as its death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful for a very thoughtful review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This story may, of course, be apocryphal, though it has been repeated by various biographers. Some )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim Dubnow?s word were: ?People, do not forget, people, tell the story, people, write it down!?, see: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. E. Kel?ner, )] TJ ET BT 135.992 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Missioner istorii. Zhizn? i trudyi Semena Markovicha Dubnova )] TJ ET BT 443.648 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([?Missionary of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History. The Life and Work of Semen Markovich Dubnow?] \(St. Petersburg, 2008\), p. 652.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.612 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.612 337.155 m 557.600 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ognes Shabbes - )] TJ ET BT 147.668 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Joy of the Sabbath?, the archive?s code name; its members often met on a Saturday )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afternoon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.000 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.000 308.643 m 166.988 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Books in History \(audio interview\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/01/30/samuel-kassow-who-will-write-our-history-emanuel-ringelblum-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 253.875 m 550.976 253.875 l S BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-warsaw-ghetto-and-the-oyneg-shabes-archive/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 239.619 m 275.264 239.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.264 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 236.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 218.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 218.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/823)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 217.113 m 322.316 217.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3806)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/01/30/samuel-kassow-who-will-write-our-history-emanuel-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ringelblum-the-warsaw-ghetto-and-the-oyneg-shabes-archive/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.6117 337.4695 557.5997 349.3495 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.9997 308.9575 166.9877 320.8375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 254.1895 550.9757 266.0695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/01/30/samuel-kassow-who-will-write-our-history-emanuel-ringelblum-the-warsaw-ghetto-and-the-oyneg-shabes-archive/) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 239.9335 275.2637 251.8135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://newbooksinhistory.com/2009/01/30/samuel-kassow-who-will-write-our-history-emanuel-ringelblum-the-warsaw-ghetto-and-the-oyneg-shabes-archive/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 217.4275 322.3157 229.3075 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/823) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000005804 00000 n 0000005913 00000 n 0000006023 00000 n 0000006132 00000 n 0000009693 00000 n 0000009821 00000 n 0000009905 00000 n 0000009934 00000 n 0000010062 00000 n 0000010098 00000 n 0000010127 00000 n 0000010255 00000 n 0000010291 00000 n 0000010356 00000 n 0000018474 00000 n 0000018539 00000 n 0000026693 00000 n 0000026805 00000 n 0000033155 00000 n 0000033283 00000 n 0000033338 00000 n 0000033466 00000 n 0000033521 00000 n 0000033648 00000 n 0000033847 00000 n 0000033974 00000 n 0000034173 00000 n 0000034301 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34396 %%EOF