%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150129063032+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150129063032+00'00') /Title (Crafting the Witch: Gendering Magic in Medieval and Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4039 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crafting the Witch: Gendering Magic in Medieval and Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval and early modern literature is full of magic. Invisibility rings, magicians, damsels with healing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potions, love potions and many more characters and devices add colour and glamour to the stories, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving the plots in interesting directions. There are also a growing number of recent studies that focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly on the role of magic in these literary works. Heidi Breuer?s approach is to focus on the gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of magic in medieval and early modern literature. Magic, in these texts, is done by both men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women but how, Breuer asks, does the presentation of men?s and women?s magic differ? She argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentations of magic and magicians tend towards moral extremes: ?magic-users are saviours or they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villains, saints or devils? \(p. 9\), so what, she asks, is the role of gender in this process of polarization? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, she argues that what can be seen in medieval and early modern literature is a gradual ?villainization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of feminine magic? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured chronologically. After the introduction, chapter two discusses the Arthurian literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 12th and 13th centuries, focusing on four writers in particular: Marie de France, Chrtien de Troyes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey of Monmouth and Layamon. Although these authors wrote in different languages and genres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer argues that they present magic in similar ways, drawing on the same biblical and classical sources. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these texts, villainous female magical practitioners are strikingly absent. The women of 12th- and 13th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heidi Breuer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415977616)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Rider)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7682 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century literature often use magic or medicine \(and the distinction between the two is often unclear in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source texts\) for positive purposes such as healing the heroes? wounds, although Breuer also discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thessala in Chrtien de Troyes? )] TJ ET BT 191.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cligs)] TJ ET BT 222.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who, rather more subversively, helps the heroine to preserve her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virginity in the face of an unwanted marriage and later to escape the marriage by faking her own death. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the story, however, Chrtien portrays both of these actions as good things. These women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer argues, reinforce existing male and female roles rather than threatening them. Women who heal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights enable them to continue fighting and win renown in the masculine world, and even Thessala?s magic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is non-confrontational, relying on secrecy and subterfuge rather than mounting an explicit challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men in the story. Breuer links this portrayal of women?s magic to the position of noblewomen in the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 13th centuries and argues that in a world where women had little real power, there was no need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonize powerful women. As might be expected in this situation, the source texts present male magical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings as more threatening and subversive. They take two very different forms. Giants represent the dangers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of male aggression gone too far. By contrast, Merlin is powerful because he is able to transcend gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions, displaying a mixture of masculine and feminine behaviours, and in Layamon?s text, also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixture of human and bestial ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three discusses a set of 14th- and 15th-century Middle English romances which deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of individuals. Female transformation is represented by the ?loathly lady? stories \(a woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cursed with ugliness is freed by a knight who agrees to marry her and to give her control over her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance\) and male transformation by the ?churlish knight? \(an ugly and unchivalrous knight is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by the hero?s unfailing courtesy\). In both of these kinds of tale, magic can deceive the senses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting in an appearance that does not reflect reality. Initially it is not clear how this relates to the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chapter two, as the loathly ladies and churlish knights are rather different magical beings from those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th-century romance. In most, although not all, cases, they are the victims of magic rather than the users of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. The link comes towards the end of the chapter: many of the romances blame the lady or knight?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation on a magic-wielding villain, often a woman and sometimes a wicked stepmother or mother-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-law. This, Breuer argues, reflects the growing economic opportunities open to women in this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially before marriage or in widowhood. The wicked women of these romances are women who are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers themselves, and they reflect the anxiety generated by the new economic possibilities for single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and widows. This is unlikely to be the only explanation for the emergence of wicked female magic-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wielders in these stories, but that is not what Breuer is claiming, and she is careful to note that many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors must be involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four takes the story to the 15th and 16th centuries, focusing on the works of Malory, Shakespeare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Spenser. In the works of these authors, Breuer argues, wicked female magical practitioners are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous and more dangerous than before. The magic of both men and women is more explicitly associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with illusion, deception and demons, reflecting the increasing tendency in intellectual culture to see all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic as demonic. Nevertheless, the women are portrayed as more villainous than the men. Breuer suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this reflects a backlash against women?s increased economic opportunities from the mid 15th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards, which is plausible, although again unlikely to be the only explanation. The individual analyses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literary works are interesting and persuasive, and in Malory?s case the results are particularly striking. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malory died in 1471, long before the new stereotype of the devil-worshipping witch was leading to trials in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, but still he emphasizes the demonic nature of both male and female magic. The implications of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the way in which magic was perceived in 15th-century England are intriguing, suggesting that despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of trials, attitudes were changing. I wondered, however, if more could be made of the demonization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all forms of magic in these stories: male magicians may be on average less villainous than female ones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the anxiety that these literary works project about all forms of magic is significant. I was also less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced by some of the contextualization here. It seems odd, although not impossible, that the reaction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a narrowing of women?s economic opportunities in the second half of the 15th century should be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified version of the reaction to their earlier expansion \(as detailed in chapter three\): yet more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonization of childless women. Other forces at work may include the way that magical practitioners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived more generally in the 15th and 16th centuries. Here the pattern is in some ways similar to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer has found: the rise of the image of the devil-worshipping and usually female witch reflected anxieties )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8434 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about all forms of magic, but as in literature, learned male magical practitioners tended to receive less severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation than women accused of magic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five takes Breuer away from medieval and early modern literature and, she admits, out of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort zone, to ask why modern society is still fascinated by wicked witches. What is the attraction of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype for a culture that, mostly, no longer believes in magic? Again Breuer links this to women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic opportunities. Even though women in the 20th and 21st centuries have many more opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than their medieval counterparts, she argues that many modern stories about wicked witches still reinforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the message that women?s place is in the home and demonize women who step outside this role. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer argues persuasively for the relevance of medieval literary studies to modern gender history, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern-day witches lend themselves particularly well to her analysis: I was convinced by her argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the film version of )] TJ ET BT 126.008 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wizard of Oz )] TJ ET BT 213.344 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized domesticity as the ideal for women. Ideally it would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been nice to cast the net a bit wider. Witches are indeed everywhere in contemporary TV, film and literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it would be impossible to cover everything, but I thought it was a shame to restrict a discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered representations of witches on 1990s TV to )] TJ ET BT 287.300 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charmed)] TJ ET BT 331.964 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 338.300 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buffy the Vampire Slayer)] TJ ET BT 459.284 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s gay teenage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches don?t fit Breuer?s argument that ?good? witches are conventionally feminine as easily as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroines of )] TJ ET BT 90.668 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charmed )] TJ ET BT 138.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do, and it would have been interesting to see what she made of them, or of the hugely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular Harry Potter books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to recommend in this book. It is engagingly written, even when dealing with difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts, and the linking of medieval with modern representations of magic is fascinating, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because many students are first attracted to studying magic because of modern TV shows or novels. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the portrayal of magical women is influenced by women?s economic position, while not easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provable, provides much food for thought. Readers might also wish to add other parallels between medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and these literary depictions of magic: for example, Breuer?s argument that 12th-century versions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merlin gain power from transcending gender conventions made me think of the rise of clerical celibacy at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the same time and, earlier, the Gregorian Reform?s linking of celibacy with control of the sacred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer?s focus on gender is also useful, given how much historiography, especially of the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, has focused on the association between women and witchcraft. Occasionally she could add more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical context. There are other studies of magic in romance which touch on gender, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michelle Sweeney?s )] TJ ET BT 135.992 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magic in Medieval Romance)] TJ ET BT 274.292 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Helen Cooper?s )] TJ ET BT 360.272 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Romance in Time)] TJ ET BT 504.932 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolyne Larrington?s )] TJ ET BT 145.328 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Arthur?s Enchantresses )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.664 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.664 345.651 m 303.656 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.656 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it would have been interesting to see Breuer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with them. The survey of the prosecution of magical practitioners in chapter five seems to conflate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English and European evidence, as it is questionable how far the increase in the number of trials for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic in Europe as a whole in the 14th and 15th centuries had an impact on England. The recent work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Jones and Michael Zell on church court records suggests that into the 16th century magic cases were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not particularly common or harshly punished, a finding which compares interestingly with Breuer?s analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Malory, which suggests that attitudes may have been changing despite the absence of trials.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.608 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.608 260.115 m 500.600 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 500.600 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to get everything right, however, especially when looking outside your own discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In places it would also have been useful to have greater precision. Breuer does not say what she means by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?witch?. In one sense, this lack of definition is fruitful. By asking the question ?Who has access to what kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of magic in these texts?? \(p. 15\) rather than starting with a preconceived idea of a magical practitioner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breuer is able to compare a wide range of magical beings, from healing damsels to giants to the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarnations of Merlin and Morgan Le Fay. However, it is sometimes difficult to tell exactly what she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking for. What does it mean to say that 12th- and 13th-century Arthurian literature only ?featured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional witch? \(p. 10\), or that Thessala is ?the witchiest of all Chrtien?s women? \(p. 25\)? What she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting is that there is nothing in these texts that resembles the later stereotype of the witch \(and the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is convincing\), but it would have helped to specify exactly which characteristics were at issue. I also wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far it is useful to use the term ?witchcraft? to cover these very different uses of magic ? for good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad purposes, done in different ways by very different practitioners. It is difficult to know whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern readers of these texts would have placed the damsels with healing potions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same category as giants and Merlin. Breuer demonstrates so convincingly that the magic-wielders of 12th-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.6637 345.9655 303.6557 357.8455 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.6077 260.4295 500.5997 272.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3185 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century literature were very different from their 16th-century descendents, that at some points it becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to use the term ?witch? for both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a stimulating and accessible contribution to a growing field, and has much to interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of medieval and early modern magic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author intends to respond to this review in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 680.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 649.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michelle Sweeney, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 649.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magic in Medieval Romance )] TJ ET BT 300.296 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 2000\); Helen Cooper, )] TJ ET BT 450.944 649.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Romance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 635.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Time: Transforming Motifs from Geoffrey of Monmouth to the Death of Shakespeare )] TJ ET BT 486.332 635.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\); Carolyne Larrington, )] TJ ET BT 202.664 621.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Arthur?s Enchantresses: Morgan and her Sisters in Arthurian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 607.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tradition )] TJ ET BT 112.364 607.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London and New York, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.332 607.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.332 605.763 m 318.320 605.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 592.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Jones and Michael Zell, ??The divels speciall instruments?': women and witchcraft before the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('great witch-hunt'?, )] TJ ET BT 158.648 578.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History )] TJ ET BT 230.648 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30, 1 \(2005\), 51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.640 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.640 577.251 m 364.628 577.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 552.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pgn/summary/v027/27.1.davidson.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 522.483 m 361.040 522.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 364.040 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 519.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 501.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 501.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/826)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 499.977 m 322.316 499.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3809)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pgn/summary/v027/27.1.davidson.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.3317 606.0775 318.3197 617.9575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.6397 577.5655 364.6277 589.4455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 522.7975 361.0397 534.6775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pgn/summary/v027/27.1.davidson.html) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 500.2915 322.3157 512.1715 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/826) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004748 00000 n 0000004857 00000 n 0000004967 00000 n 0000005076 00000 n 0000008637 00000 n 0000008765 00000 n 0000008849 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000016649 00000 n 0000016740 00000 n 0000025227 00000 n 0000025257 00000 n 0000025385 00000 n 0000025421 00000 n 0000025451 00000 n 0000025579 00000 n 0000025615 00000 n 0000025720 00000 n 0000028958 00000 n 0000029086 00000 n 0000029141 00000 n 0000029269 00000 n 0000029324 00000 n 0000029451 00000 n 0000029567 00000 n 0000029695 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29790 %%EOF