%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063626+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063626+01'00') /Title (Sans-Culottes: An Eighteenth-Century Emblem in the French Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4222 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sans-Culottes: An Eighteenth-Century Emblem in the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1722 a German travel-writer and political economist named Ernst Ludwig Carl published a three-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trait de la richesse des princes et de leurs tats: et des moyens simples et naturels pour y parvenir)] TJ ET BT 513.296 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book revealed the ?secret? of charging high prices for fashionable goods at the beginning of a product cycle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of cutting prices as soon as new products replaced them as the height of fashion. The secret was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally French, being a major cause of the high living standards to be found in Holland and in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but was increasingly associated with France and the growth of French economic power, exemplified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lyon silk trade, but more generally associated with an ever-increasing list of )] TJ ET BT 404.948 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marchandises de Paris)] TJ ET BT 514.940 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy was seen to have derived from specialization within so much of French industry, not just in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of goods but also in their distribution. In the case of textiles, fashion dolls appeared everywhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once new styles had been determined upon. Although the resulting goods that arrived in Amsterdam, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, might have become the desires of yesteryear at Paris, they were nevertheless prized and purchased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherever they were newly introduced. The benefits of this economic process were extensive. Significantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were deemed as much moral and political as economic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fashion directly produced wealth. It lessened social concern about the negative consequences of goods for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury as opposed to the positive benefits of goods for necessity. At the end of each product cycle, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(827)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Sonenscher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691124988)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(508pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Whatmore)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8324 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former were transmuted into the latter as prices fell, spreading wealth to the lower orders in the process. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fashion linked the industrious of the nation together in interdependent productive networks. These networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relied upon civility and politeness in order to function successfully. In international markets, fashion created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar bonds of interest, and accordingly fostered peace and toleration between nations. In the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, the belief was widespread that the higher profits generated in the growing luxury-product sector of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economy led to greater expenditure on the necessities of life, increasing agricultural prices in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence and leading to the further development of the manufacturing sector that supported farms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming. The only danger perceptible to non-French observers was that France might use its increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources to become the dominant state in European politics. The warning was uttered that if France took an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial step it would ultimately be at the expense of its own economic success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 18th-century justification of a commercial society that was a product of the development of fashion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accompanying polite arts such as music, dance and poetry ? deemed the original and potentially most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pure bonds of human association ? is the starting point and central theme of Michael Sonenscher?s )] TJ ET BT 510.608 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culottes)] TJ ET BT 74.024 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The book is the richest and widest-ranging intellectual history undertaken of the early years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution. Sonenscher?s book is unlike all others on the subject, eschewing Albert Soboul on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(montagnards, for example. It is path-breaking in seeking to relate the ideas of the supporters of the )] TJ ET BT 510.260 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culottes)] TJ ET BT 71.348 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to 18th-century arguments about politics, political economy, religion and philosophy. Unlike almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every study to date, it seeks to refute those who perceive a necessary link between the )] TJ ET BT 448.916 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 511.580 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern democracy, statehood or nationalism. Rather, it situates the creation of the enduring republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emblem in arguments about the changing nature and likely future of France, and about the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between justice and politics in a world where public credit had altered the majority of political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. The peculiar fact, Sonenscher claims, is that the aim of restoring the ideals of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism that the )] TJ ET BT 143.672 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 206.336 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represented came about as a consequence of speculation about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics of public credit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first claim of the book is accordingly that in order to understand the meaning of the term )] TJ ET BT 483.284 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the French Revolution, we have to reconstruct the intellectual languages of the time, and eschew the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century philosophies of history that pigeonholed the )] TJ ET BT 312.332 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 374.996 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within a story of emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, in doing so misunderstanding the ideas that lay behind many of the most significant events of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s and beyond. The first response of any reader to this book has to be that every one of its various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments is complicated \(the latter term will be used several times in this review\), because Sonenscher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculates not only about the meaning of a text for its author, but also the very different uses to which texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and phrases were put by various interested political constituencies and commentators. The term ?sans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culottes? began as a salon joke: those without breeches were men of letters who had failed to be given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culottes)] TJ ET BT 71.348 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as an annual present on New Years Day by the society hostess Madame de Tencin during and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Regency. Many early )] TJ ET BT 157.652 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans-culottes)] TJ ET BT 220.316 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were cynics, and attacked the female-dominated salons as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of the dominion of a corrupt and useless court over all virtue and justice. During the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution they became republicans because of the belief that a just society could be created that was based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on merit and industry rather than privilege and property. Sonenscher?s book, like Gibbon?s )] TJ ET BT 475.616 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decline and Fall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, puts a premium on the operation of unintended consequences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some readers will be put off by a seeming lack of clarity. One review to date praises the fact that Sonenscher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knows ?how much of the moral and political thought of the period before 1789 was blotted out by the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French Revolution?, but comments critically that when Sonenscher uses the terms ?politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics?, ?he mostly means texts about those subjects, not political events and economic policies?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.964 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.964 160.323 m 537.956 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I?m not sure how it might be possible to envisage political events and economic policies without reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to texts, but the review goes on to state that focus upon ?thought? prevents Sonenscher from telling us ?what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced [the French Revolution] or why the revolution permanently recast the terms of such debates. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, the philosophies of history conceived in the French Revolution's wake remain invaluable?. In fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonenscher has done exactly the opposite. By bringing 18th-century ideas to the fore ? the ideas that inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events of the time ? he convincingly refutes interpretations that relate events to social class, social status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or presumed social antagonisms, purportedly timeless issues of liberty and justice, the logic of particular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9637 160.6375 537.9557 172.5175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutions in politics, or the necessary process of societal evolution. 18th-century thought fascinates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the categories employed are largely recognisable, while many of its authors questioned the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds of commerce and public credit that they faced, without any of the simplistic assumptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficial analysis that characterize so much of our own public sphere. Sonenscher restores the seriousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of French revolutionary argument, if in doing so he makes the Revolution difficult to define as a single event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or series of events of world-historic significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If )] TJ ET BT 45.008 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-Culottes)] TJ ET BT 111.680 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a book about the development and likely consequences of commercial society in the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the observant reader might ask whether we?ve not been here before? Only two years ago Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonenscher published the widely applauded )] TJ ET BT 247.652 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge: Public Debt, Inequality, and the Intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 193.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.340 654.771 m 210.332 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.332 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge)] TJ ET BT 300.644 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( detailed the range of controversies that resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crisis of 1789, and precisely delineated the intellectual world of the Abb Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded the French to embrace his version of national sovereignty rather than variants upon North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American federalism or British constitutionalism. Sonenscher also dealt in )] TJ ET BT 394.652 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge)] TJ ET BT 481.964 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of this vision of national sovereignty, after Sieyes ceased be responsible for it, for Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state system, and the complicated legacy of the global wars that raged almost uninterrupted, from 1792 until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815. In his version of the representative system Sieyes followed Hobbes and Rousseau in arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political constitutions had to be erected on the assumption of unsocial sociability: the worst men were devils, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most virtuous man behaved amorally in certain circumstances, and this perspective upon human nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to be basis of all politics. Nature was unlikely to be improved upon. Alternative schemes for progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entailing domestic reform and sometimes promising international peace, derived by contrast from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumption that humans could be moral, polite and sociable in particular circumstances, and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where certain cultural forces could be found. The argument of the protagonists in )] TJ ET BT 426.596 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge)] TJ ET BT 513.908 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sieyes himself and influential acolytes like Pierre-Louis Roederer, was that those who erected reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects upon strong forms of sociability were doomed to create the very evils they intended to avoid. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed their faith in the erection of a representative system based on graduated elections, which was possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France because of the bankruptcy faced by the existing absolute government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intellectual history sketched out in )] TJ ET BT 224.000 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-Culottes)] TJ ET BT 290.672 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is altogether different from )] TJ ET BT 426.308 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge)] TJ ET BT 513.620 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonenscher describes it as the reverse of the medal. If 1789 for actors like Sieyes was about creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution and society that was capable of dealing with the dark side of human nature, and of restoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French greatness in the process, different visions of reform had come to the fore by the time that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Assembly was persuaded to abolish titles, feudal dues, and tithes. Sieyes and his ilk were criticized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the grounds that it would take at least a decade to establish the tried and tested representatives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who were the product of a graduated electoral system. Sieyes? opponents in the Autumn of 1789 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared the view that the patriotism of the French people, in circumstances where debt-finance stimulated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and put an end to the financial crisis, was sufficient to found a new politics in France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonenscher is brilliant on the political thought of the Feuillants, led by Barnave, Duport and the Lameth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers, who were so successful in getting rid of feudalism, in preventing a royal veto, in nationalizing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property of the church, and in establishing a land-based paper currency. He is equally path-breaking in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal of Etienne Clavire?s attempts to use credit to create a moralized society, a project which lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the political thought of the Brissotins. In the fifth chapter of )] TJ ET BT 359.660 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-Culottes)] TJ ET BT 426.332 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sonenscher provides the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most convincing account of the nature of the ideological divisions of 1789?91, and reveals in the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how substantial but stark the options were for those who had accepted the necessity of transforming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, had seen the patriotic king option fail, and now sought to create a bedrock for future politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the financial transformation of the state. In traditional histories the most important kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociability capable of generating patriotism is usually described as the direct involvement of the people in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. The vision of elected leaders of the people making laws before sovereign citizens, present )] TJ ET BT 509.588 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(en masse)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the galleries of the Legislative Assembly, was called democracy by contemporaries, and has remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral to any definition of the French Revolution. Sonenscher?s great achievement is to show that the turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to popular politics was forced upon the Brissotins, whose first ministry was known as the ?sans-culotte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministry?, by the collapse of tax revenues in the wake of emigration, the collapse of France?s colonial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.3397 655.0855 210.3317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, and the fall in the value of the )] TJ ET BT 219.980 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assignat)] TJ ET BT 259.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The unintended consequences of the politics of necessity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how radical republican and democratic ideas came to be dominant in a state that was derided as among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most autocratic in Europe, and which had attempted an explicitly anti-democratic revolution in 1789. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sheer scale of the problems faced, the extent of the clash of patriotic visions, and the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually being forced to find support for a new kind of state that had been so secure an absolute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, in turn explains why the predictions of Hobbes and his disciples, including Sieyes, proved to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so accurate: that a democratic state would quickly succumb to anarchy and civil war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simplistic histories have followed the view of those contemporaries who considered the French Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be an apocalyptic event, and considered it to have been inspired by the arch-enemy of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity and of Christian polities, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It is certainly the case that numerous major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and minor historians have identified the Jacobins and the Girondins as authentic Rousseauistes, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable grounds that they venerated the person, moral example and writings of Jean-Jacques. Sonenscher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that none of the historians who straightforwardly link Rousseau and revolution can have read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau?s writings, the general tenor of which was at odds both with what occurred in 1789 and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1792?93. Modern commentators have failed to understand in consequence that the republican cosmopolitans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early years of the French Revolution had a singularly complicated relationship with Rousseau. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic point, which was self-evident to intelligent 18th-century readers of Rousseau, was that the leaders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the popular turn of events in France self-consciously were seeking to refute and to move beyond Rousseau?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of Europe?s states, and his view of France more especially.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau made the claim, most famously in the )] TJ ET BT 266.336 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'ingalit parmi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les homes)] TJ ET BT 81.008 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that commercial society was an oxymoron. Elsewhere, but most baldly in )] TJ ET BT 441.968 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emile)] TJ ET BT 469.964 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he predicted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of the supposedly civilized but actually corrupt and despotic commercial societies of Europe. Led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by France but followed by Britain, the resulting deluge would cause the continent to experience anew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarian invasions from the east. The only reform strategy that had any likelihood of success was to turn the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great states of Europe into small patriotic republics, in which more basic forms of commerce might thrive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which, when confederated, would have the military prowess to throw back the imperial surges of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriental despots. Sonenscher claims that all of our histories to date have failed to reconstruct the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of the leaders of the revolution in 1792 and 1793, those who accepted Rousseau?s diagnosis of the ills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of states like France, but rejected in absolute terms his prognosis for the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonenscher is the kind of intellectual historian who believes that descriptions of the ideological context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political argument best reveal the intentions behind particular writings about politics. He is equally of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion that 21st-century categorization of the subjects of historical enquiry, by separating the political, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, the religious and the philosophical, serve to obscure our vision of 18th-century intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes. In the 18th century an argument about politics entailed, in order to convince, engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its likely consequences for devotion and the life to come, for morals, for wealth, and sometimes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happiness. Sonenscher?s remarkable achievement has been to reconstruct all of these arguments and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelationships. The aspiration is to construct an intelligible image of the late 18th-century French mind. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This has echoes of Paul Hazard?s )] TJ ET BT 197.972 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Crise de la conscience europenne)] TJ ET BT 380.936 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1935\), but Sonenscher?s notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context is infinitely thicker than Hazard?s. In many respects it is infinitely richer too. To get a sense of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is meant by this it is useful to give an example of Sonenscher?s style of writing and analysis. This brings us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to Ernst Ludwig Carl?s )] TJ ET BT 174.332 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trait de la richesse des princes)] TJ ET BT 329.984 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Sans-Culottes Sonenscher notes that Ernst Ludwig Carl had been inspired by the prominent contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators on the rise of French power Pierre de Boisguilbert and the abb de Saint-Pierre, both of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were protgs of Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle. Fontenelle was partly responsible for the widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartesianism of the age, in a form that dovetailed with Ciceronian moral philosophy. The message of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with respect to the passions was more optimistic than the contemporary Jansenist Augustinianism that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted much historical commentary. Pierre Nicole is often seen as the archetypal Augustinian, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important because of his portrayal of commercial society as being based on the most amoral passions, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were transmuted by self-love into forces for a defensible common interest. Sonenscher?s point is that Nicole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved towards Cartesianism late in life, and this signified a more generous assessment of the possibilities of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7051 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grace for all humanity, far greater optimism about the existence of morality in the modern world, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence about a commercial future for the states of Europe founded upon the passions associated with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the arts. This complicated claim is best put in Sonenscher?s own words, as they characterise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sweep and style of )] TJ ET BT 143.660 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-Culottes)] TJ ET BT 210.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Pierre Nicole, towards the end of his life, had abandoned some of his earlier Augustinianism, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly because he began to have doubts about whether the concept of ?efficacious grace? that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loomed so large in Jansenist soteriology could be reconciled with any idea of human choice and, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by extension, with any coherent view of divine justice unless it was matched by some )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of the human capacity to follow the laws of nature by finding something motivating )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in what was right and good. Humans, Nicole pointed out \(in his )] TJ ET BT 371.996 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trait de la grace gnrale)] TJ ET BT 503.312 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1715\), have the physical power to cast out their own eyes or cut off their own noses, but almost )] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never actually do so. Something, therefore, had to explain why they used their physical powers )] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ways that they found attractive or pleasing. Without an explanation of this more than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward physical ability, it was difficult either to explain the justice of divine retribution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for human sinfulness or to avoid the conclusion that ?efficacious grace? worked in purely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrary ways. Nicole, accordingly, began to move nearer to the kind of aesthetic motivation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in both Ciceronian and Cartesian moral theory, describing what he took to be the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal human capacity to find something pleasing in what was right and good as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?universal? or ?general grace? made available by God to all humans. Its existence \(exemplified, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicole argued, by the kind of imperceptible thoughts that occur when one is reading a work of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative fiction\) made it easier to see why it was not always necessary to know, in any )] TJ ET BT 64.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong sense, in order to love. This, in turn, made it possible to explain why humans were able to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observe natural laws without having any fully formed concepts of what they might be, and why )] TJ ET BT 64.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their failure to do so was all the more rightly imputable \(inversely, however, the idea of general )] TJ ET BT 64.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grace seemed to imply that humans were not, naturally, sociable, a view that, according to his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrified Jansenist critics, made Nicole?s revised position look alarmingly like Hobbes, while )] TJ ET BT 64.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stronger emphasis upon human choice involved in the idea of general grace meant, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the same opponents, that he has also, inadvertently, opened a door to the heresy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pelagianism\) \(pp. 96?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This paragraph illustrates the extent to which Sonenscher wants to return his audience to what mattered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century authors, steeped as they were in theology, when they discussed whether commercial society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was stable, whether it could be morally justified, what its impact was upon morals and morality, politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism, whether it was a force for peace, what its necessary relationship was with the public credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that so often appeared to sustain politics in commercial states, and whether it was compatible with Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine? In providing an overview of such studies Sonenscher shows what has been missed by historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Revolution, encompassing, as he puts it, ?Ciceronian decorum, Cynic moralism, Rousseau?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and political criticism, Fnelon?s vision of a flourishing society, Ogilvie?s property theory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonnet?s and Lavater?s vitalism, Edward Young?s enthusiasm, John Brown?s civilization theory, [John] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law?s and Leibniz?s intellectual legacies [and] Mably?s disabused moral and political realism.? To this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be added the politics of army reform and the ideas of a thousand important but neglected political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists and actors, from Gorsas to Garat: a guide to all of whose varied writings can be found in )] TJ ET BT 505.268 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culottes)] TJ ET BT 74.024 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful to Richard Whatmore for his fine review, and would like to refer readers to his H-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.668 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reply)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.668 122.067 m 94.328 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 97.328 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 111.320 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to his reviewers there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 57.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynn Hunt, ?All talkers and no trousers??, )] TJ ET BT 270.980 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 388.976 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 February 2009 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.064 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.064 56.547 m 538.052 56.547 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6677 122.3815 94.3277 134.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-france.net/forum/forumvol4/SonenscherResponse5.pdf) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.0637 56.8615 538.0517 68.7415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 2168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Sonenscher, )] TJ ET BT 167.660 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before the Deluge: Public Debt, Inequality, and the Intellectual Origins of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 153.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.988 780.819 m 316.976 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/198.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 309.008 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.008 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 154.700 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/827)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3810)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-france.net/forum/forumvol4/SonenscherResponse5.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 606.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/198.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.571 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/french_studies_a_quarterly_review/v063/63.4.ousselin02.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.9877 781.1335 316.9757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 309.0077 738.2455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/512/198.full) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 154.6997 709.7335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/french_studies_a_quarterly_review/v063/63.4.ousselin02.html) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj 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