%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 32 0 R 54 0 R 69 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141225152905+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141225152905+00'00') /Title (The Cabinet Papers 1915-1978 Online) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4906 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cabinet Papers 1915-1978 Online)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In December 1916 the new British prime minister, David Lloyd George, sought to overcome the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waging the First World War through an unwieldy Cabinet by establishing a smaller, streamlined mechanism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War Cabinet. He also set up a secretariat, the cabinet office, which would be overseen by the cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary, Maurice Hankey, and his deputy, Tom Jones. On 9 December 1916 Jones took the notes for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first ever Cabinet minutes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 314.697 m 175.328 314.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.328 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thereafter, there would be typed \(and later printed\) agendas, minutes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings and memoranda for discussion at each Cabinet. Despite the resistance of other parts of Whitehall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sir Warren Fisher?s treasury in particular, the Cabinet Office survived the fall of Lloyd George from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in 1922 and continues to this day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cabinet is at the apex of the British governmental system ? argument continues about its position since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997. Its records offer a clear picture of the main lines of British government policy on both domestic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign affairs. All the great decisions came to cabinet: only rarely did the prime minister avoid bringing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic there. The minutes of these meetings provide vital indications of what issues reached the cabinet. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda circulated for discussion contain assessments of issues and policy proposals that tell us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something about government and departmental thinking. The frequency with which certain topics were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed and the length of such discussions are important measures of their significance. These records, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, have a clinical quality that does not, in general, convey the tone of the meetings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance attached to particular agenda items. Nor do they usually capture the play of debate, reverting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invariably to the formula that discussion ensued on a number of aspects of the topic. More valuable for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who want to track the views of individuals and the more precise points made in debate are the handwritten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of successive cabinet secretaries who then had to condense them into versions that became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed minutes. Even these records, however, can be terse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The National Archives \(TNA\) have made a massive contribution to scholars and citizens alike by making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(828)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The National Archives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Hopkins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 315.0115 175.3277 326.8915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8191 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these three sets of records available online in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.632 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cabinet Papers, 1915?1978)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.632 795.249 m 408.632 795.249 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 425.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office records only begin in December 1916, the first group of cabinet memoranda opens with a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers from January 1915 to December 1916 produced by the Committee of Imperial Defence \(a Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-committee, comprising the prime minister, defence ministers and the professional chiefs of the armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces, set up in 1902 to advise on defence policy\). It makes accessible documents that were previously only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available at Kew or through the microfilm collections held by certain libraries around the United Kingdom.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 48.008 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are complete runs of minutes and memoranda from December 1916 to December 1978. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduction of the notebooks is a wonderful boon to scholars. Alas, only a small portion of these records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are currently accessible. They ostensibly cover 1939?1955 but in fact are even less full than that, as there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap in the records from November 1943 to March 1945. The creators of the site wisely opted to reproduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exact replicas, in pdf form, of these documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a pity that another important category of Cabinet Office files was not included, namely CAB 21 ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Registered Files. These papers are not as orderly as the printed minutes and memoranda, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handwritten notebooks. Their various folders contain notes, letters, minutes, memoranda, draft telegrams and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript comments on texts. Although a little less easy to digitise, they could be included without too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much difficulty. They are, in essence, the working files of the Cabinet Office, and the cabinet secretary in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, with the prime minister. They offer valuable insights into the ways successive premiers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet secretaries handled issues and ran the cabinet. One case might serve to illustrate the point. After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of co-operation between the British, French and Americans with the Soviets in December 1947, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British foreign secretary, Ernest Bevin, produced a cabinet paper, ?The First Aim of Foreign Policy?, on 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1948. It argued for resistance to the Soviets by building a West European system with American aid. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It contained the phrase, ?the countries of western Europe . . . despise the spiritual values of America?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.572 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.572 483.699 m 542.564 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 542.564 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a note to the prime minister, the cabinet secretary, Sir Norman Brook advised, ?Can we be confident of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing American support for a policy which is based on overseas publicity designed to show that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of the British government represent a golden mean between the disastrous extremes of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism and American capitalism??. The phrase was omitted from the copy sent to Washington.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.284 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.284 426.675 m 530.276 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 530.276 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet registered files contain many other instances, which have been well exploited by Peter Hennessy in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of studies. Perhaps the TNA will be able to obtain the funding to add these documents to its site at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some future date.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another important class of files worthy of digitisation are the papers of the prime minister, given the TNA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification PREM. If the minutes, memoranda and notebooks capture the central decisions of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the general thinking behind them, the PREM papers allow the reader to trace the development of issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the debates about how to tackle them. The PREM files gather for the prime minister the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda and minutes, telegrams, records of conversations, letters and despatches between officials and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers; and, therefore, are invaluable in providing an understanding of how and why decisions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken. The PREM classification contains currently 21 separate categories of files. Ideally it would be best to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put all of these online. If a selection must be made, then the successive groupings of ?correspondence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers? should be digitised ? PREM 1 \(1916?1940\), PREM 4 \(1934?1946\), PREM 8 \(1945?1951\), PREM )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 \(1951?1964\), PREM 13 \(1964?1970\), PREM 15 \(1970?74\), PREM 16 \(1974?79\), PREM 19 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1979?1997\). They would be an admirable companion to the cabinet papers resource.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cabinet Papers website is bright and clear in layout. However, its existence is not immediately obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to someone going to the TNA home site, though the route to the documents is easy enough. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buttons across the top of the page is ?search the archives? whose drop-down menu contains the option )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cabinet papers?. The menu also has ?Documents Online?, which contains Cabinet Papers as one of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options. The Cabinet Papers home page offers three ways of finding the records, though at first glance only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of them are visible. On the left of the home page there is a search facility that allows the viewer to enter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a word or words and a date. This is a very effective search engine, as it brings up precise details of cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings with both original Cabinet Office and TNA references. In addition, in the case of cabinet meetings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it tells you who attended the meeting and the main agenda items. But it does not bring up the document. You )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must note the reference and go elsewhere to locate the document. The second means of searching is at the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6317 807.8743 252.6317 807.8743 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6317 795.3895 408.6317 807.2695 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/) >> endobj 23 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 48.0077 721.7335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.5717 484.0135 542.5637 495.8935 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.2837 426.9895 530.2757 438.8695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 9304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of the screen ? a browse by theme option. It has three main sections. The first themed heading is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom and the world. It has sub-sections on total war; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited war, conflict and the politics of )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.320 780.819 m 535.304 780.819 l S BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 71.324 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 88.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, commonwealth and de-colonisation)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.652 766.563 m 305.288 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.288 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 322.280 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.944 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy and foreign relations)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.944 766.563 m 501.920 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.920 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 518.912 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second heading is the economy, business and resources. This has two sub-divisions: )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.976 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, agriculture and )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.976 752.307 m 560.624 752.307 l S BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 738.051 m 83.996 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.996 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 100.988 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure, energy and natural resources)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.652 738.051 m 335.912 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.912 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 352.904 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The third heading addresses society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the welfare state. Its sub-headings are )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.628 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, liberty and society)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.628 723.795 m 329.612 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.612 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 346.604 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.940 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare, social security and self-help)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.940 723.795 m 529.220 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 532.220 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 546.212 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 54.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 54.344 709.539 m 101.000 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.000 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 123.992 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Each of these sections has further sub-divisions, which contain brief outlines of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics. Many of them include a list of documents which can be viewed by clicking on their title. Some, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, contain only an outline of the theme, as, for example, is the case for ?Rearmament plans?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be found at UK and the world/limited war, conflict and the politics of defence/defence policy 1933?39.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third route to the documents is the best means of searching these sources for historians but it is not well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signposted. On the right hand side of the home page there are four sections in a column; one of them is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet and Government under which there is the entry ?meetings and papers?. Clicking on this item brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up the main documentary categories on the site: CAB 23, 24, 65, 66, 67, 68, 128, 129, and 195. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into First World War, interwar, Second World War and postwar minutes, and the same for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda. Under these headings are the separate files, which can be opening in manageable size pdf files, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though downloading speed varies according to the power of one?s computer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other three sections on the right hand side of the home page are aimed at a wider audience than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics. There is a section for A level studies. Another is called the writing frame which is a mechanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for exploring topics as projects. Each of these sections offers summaries of key topics, short guides to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading and \(for the writing frame\) questions, as well as links to selected documents. The featured topics are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trade union movement, the welfare state, the general strike and the National Health Service. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this facility allows the viewer to explore a wider range of topics. So, for example at trade union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement/1920s industrial relations there is an option to the right ? ?the ten-year rule and disarmament?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clicking on it brings up a summary of the rule that based defence planning on the assumption that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not be a major war for a least a decade. But it offers no links to documents. To find these one must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look to the right hand menu and click on the first option ?defence policy 1919?1932? \(one discovers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the ten-year rule and disarmament? is the second option in this menu\). At this page there are links to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected documents on the ten-year rule, disarmament, imperial defence, and inter-service rivalry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another tool is ?maps in time? which brings up a map of the world with a range of dates along the top ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900, 1914, 1918, 1939, 1945, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000. Clicking on a date brings up a map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the borders for the period from that year to the next in sequence ? 1900-1914, 1914-1918 and so on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The letter ?i? \(for information appears at certain places, offering such insights as ?after Italy?s defeat in 1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([sic], Italian colonies are taken over?. The maps are functional but rather basic in their information and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially attractive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final facility on the right hand side of the home page is Cabinet and Government, under which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?meetings and papers?, the best means of locating documents. This section provides brief outlines of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet works, how records were kept, the main cabinet posts, and the composition of different governments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some useful short bibliographies. By going to Cabinet and Government/cabinet government/how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet works one discovers that the site contains another set of documents ? the precedent books. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short documents, which provide advice about correct practice on various matters from composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet to collective responsibility to the scope of cabinet activities to the prime minister-monarch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. These documents have no TNA classification and are not on any list of documents on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(website. They are the kind of materials that appear regularly in the CAB 21 files.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using the minutes, memoranda and notebooks is straightforward. When one opts for a particular group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(files, there is an introductory section that explains any complications. So, for example, the prelude to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War minutes explains how there were the regular War Cabinet meetings but that there were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A and X series of meetings; and that the Imperial War Cabinet was a separate body. It would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful to explain that this body brought together senior figures across the Empire, people such as General )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.3197 781.1335 535.3037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/limited-war.htm) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 71.3237 778.7575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/limited-war.htm) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.6517 766.8775 305.2877 778.7575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/empire-commonwealth.htm) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.9437 766.8775 501.9197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/diplomacy.htm) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.9757 752.6215 560.6237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/industry-agriculture-commerce.htm) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 83.9957 750.2455 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/industry-agriculture-commerce.htm) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6517 738.3655 335.9117 750.2455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/infrastructure-energy-resources.htm) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.6277 724.1095 329.6117 735.9895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/law-liberty-society.htm) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.9397 724.1095 529.2197 735.9895 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/welfare-social-security.htm) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 54.3437 709.8535 100.9997 721.7335 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/education.htm) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smuts of South Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is easy to use all three classes of documents in conjunction with one another. The notebooks follow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same notation as the printed minutes. Thus, the notes on CM 50\(50\) of 25 July 1950 in CAB 195/8 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspond with the minutes at CAB 128/18. The cabinet minutes identify memoranda under discussion. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 25 July cabinet considered CP \(50\) 176, which can be located at CAB 129/2 by turning to the list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoranda for the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the frequent sparseness of the minutes, these records often surprise with revealing comments. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example at random is the handling of President Roosevelt?s peace initiative in January 1938. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ambassador in Washington, Sir Ronald Lindsay, had welcomed the proposal when put to him confidentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he had urged British acceptance. But the Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, felt ?there was a risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his proposal cutting across our efforts?. In a statement to the cabinet \(included in an addendum to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutes\) to explain his outlook, Chamberlain talked of ?this rather preposterous proposal?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.300 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.300 614.259 m 484.292 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These resources appear at a time of change for TNA. A notice on the website indicates some radical shifts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a greater stress on developing online resources, which is most welcome. Less pleasing is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible closure of TNA to researchers on Mondays. Statistics about usage need to be scrutinised very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully. Take the claim that for every one document examined on site there are 170 downloaded online. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Someone using an online document might return to it several times and each return to the document would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count as a further download, whereas someone looking at the file at TNA would order the item and work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through it. The same research task would yield a ratio of perhaps 6:1 in favour of online usage. Surely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best way forward is to maximise the value of both the research rooms and the online facilities. The Library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Congress provides a useful precedent. During a recent research trip it was possible to work on private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers in the manuscripts room, order books for the reading room and use the free wi-fi internet connexion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use online resources from websites such as TNA?s, as well as those available only to those working in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library of Congress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, this excellent website is to be warmly commended. It offers a wonderful resource. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings are small scale and can be rectified fairly easily. Presumably each January a new set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minutes and memoranda will be added. One hopes that more of the notebooks will become available and be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digitised; and that serious consideration be given to the inclusion of CAB 21. And that does not take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration the vast array of cabinet committees. Perhaps a selection of the more important ones, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foreign policy committee in the late 1930s, those on atomic energy in the Attlee years and the defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committee and \(after 1963\) the defence and overseas policy committee, might be placed online.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 255.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CAB 23/1, War Cabinet 1, 9 December 1916.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.316 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.316 253.875 m 337.304 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Public Record Office, the TNA?s predecessor, catalogued the minutes and memoranda for 1916-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939 as CAB 23 and CAB 24; the 1939?1945 minutes as CAB 65 and the memoranda as CAB 66, 67 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 68; and assigned CAB 128 for the minutes and CAB 129 for the memoranda in the period since )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945. The Cabinet Office had its own filing system: WC for First World War Cabinets, CC for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwar minutes, WM for Second World War minutes, and for post-1945 minutes practice varied )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between CM and CC. The Cabinet Secretary?s Notebooks? classification is CAB 195.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.632 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.632 168.339 m 531.620 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CAB 129/23, CP \(48\) 6, 4 January 1948.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.012 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.012 154.083 m 314.000 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CAB 21/2244, Note by Sir N. Brook to the Prime Minister, 7 January 1948. For the expurgated text )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to the Americans, see )] TJ ET BT 199.988 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Relations of the United States)] TJ ET BT 384.320 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(FRUS\) 1948 III, 4?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.640 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.640 125.571 m 547.628 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CAB 23/92, CC 1\(38\), 24 January 1938. For the American perspective, see FRUS 1938 I, 115?7 and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sumner Welles,)] TJ ET BT 140.672 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Seven Decisions That Shaped History)] TJ ET BT 324.320 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1951\), 30?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.972 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.972 97.059 m 494.960 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 53.215 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.2997 614.5735 484.2917 626.4535 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.3157 254.1895 337.3037 266.0695 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 61 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