%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721194017+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721194017+01'00') /Title (The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750-1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4127 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750-1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750?1950)] TJ ET BT 309.680 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ambitious attempt to write a comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of 200 years of Middle East history from a social history perspective. This well-written edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume brings together some of the most prominent historians of the Middle East and the result is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging read which addresses many issues and aspects of Middle Eastern history that are sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omitted or only superficially touched upon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Peter Sluglett points out in the introduction, the urban social history of the Middle East is a field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic enquiry which has been growing in strength and depth over the last decades as a result of increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to Islamic court records and Ottoman administrative archives. With these ?new? resources at hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have been able to fill in the gaps in periods for which historical knowledge was previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking. The present work thus studies a period of Middle Eastern history ? from the mid 18th century to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 20th century ? that traditionally has received relatively little academic attention. This is especially true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as regards the earlier part of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with an introductory chapter that contains a very useful historiographical overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field, written by Peter Sluglett and Edmund Burke III. The first half of this introduction, authored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sluglett, presents the rationale of the book and then moves on to a thorough discussion of the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on urban social history. This literature review is not only concerned with the Middle East, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(829)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Sluglett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780815631941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syracuse University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syracuse, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johan Franzn)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starts off with a discussion of European literature as well, before moving onto to French scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Eastern cities, especially the works of Andr Raymond and his disciples. This latter section is written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Burke, who continues with an overview of American research into North African cities. Sluglett then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwells lengthily on the pioneering work using Islamic court records carried out by Raymond and Abdul-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karim Rafeq \(one of the volume?s contributors\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, entitled ?Interdependent Spaces?, Sarah D. Shields covers the topic of city-countryside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations in the 19th century. As most historians of the Middle East will recognise, this is a fascinating topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as during this period a virtual revolution in production relations, technology, demography and the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makeup of the agricultural countryside took place in the region, which shaped much of what was to come in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century. The population of the region tripled during the 19th century, classes of wealthy landowners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to consolidate their wealth and with the Ottoman Land Law of 1858 finally obtained legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection of their holdings, and the region?s incorporation into an emerging capitalist world economy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfavourable terms meant a redirection of production practices towards raw materials, such as cotton, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than staple foods. Shields briefly discusses the disagreement that exists among Middle East historians over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of the Ottoman Land Law. The fault line runs between those who diminish its impact, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it merely cemented existing practices and those who claim that it revolutionised relations in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern countryside. All in all, Shield?s chapter provides a good introduction to the problem of landowning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the region and the dramatic capitalist transformations that occurred in the countryside during the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, Dina Rizk Khoury?s ?Political Relations Between City and State in the Middle East, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1700?1850?, starts with an important historiographical discussion concerning the very essence of Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. As Khoury points out, the urban social history of the Middle East forms part of the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debate concerning the wider Ottoman Empire as a whole. Traditionally nationalist Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have tended to read history backwards starting from the vantage point of modern Arab states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that ?Arab? cities in the Ottoman Empire were never fully integrated into the Ottoman ?system?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, they argued, these cities formed part of a local identity that was either defined as a ?nationalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity or as being constituted of an ?urban patriotism?. This trend has been particularly poignant with Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians studying peripheral cities such as Cairo and Baghdad or North African cities where Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control was the feeblest. These historians mostly relied on local sources and rarely or never utilised Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives. In addition, they were mostly not Ottoman historians in the sense that they lacked a firm grasp of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the overall history of the Ottoman Empire. Instead they focused on the Arab ?A?yan that acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middlemen with the Ottoman authorities, and the ways in which these local elites were able to expand their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence during the late Ottoman period and how they were transformed into ?national? elites with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Arab states in the wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Khoury shows, since the 1980s this trend has gradually been replaced by two new approaches. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, there has been a recognition of the importance of Ottoman rule among historians, resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the utilisation of both Ottoman and Arab sources. On the other hand, lately an Islamist approach has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged that has attempted to re-examine the Ottoman Empire to show it as a viable political model that due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to its Islamic character is a preferable choice to the national states that emerged in its void. In contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab nationalist historians, Ottomanists have tended to focus on areas where the Ottoman state was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly in control, such as urban areas in Western Anatolia and the Balkans, and have tended to speak of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Empire as a homogenous unit. But what is needed in Khoury?s view, and this reviewer tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agree, is a merging of these approaches. Historians studying the urban history of the Middle East must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well versed in both the local and the general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four moves away from the more generic discussions of previous chapters and delves into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particulars of the economic organisation of cities in Ottoman Syria. The chapter is written by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abovementioned Abdul-Karim Rafeq, the pioneer of Islamic court records perusal. Rafeq discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex interactions of economic relations that existed in an empire ostensibly ruled by Islamic law \(with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral prohibition of usury among other things\) but where Ottoman secular law increasingly made inroads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to the empire?s incorporation into the orbit of the capitalist world economy and because of mounting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7435 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures for legal exemptions for foreigners prescribed by the Capitulations. As Rafeq points out, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical level these contradictions were often pragmatically solved, as happened in Anatolia and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balkans where business practices were adapted to conform to pre-Islamic Turkic or pre-Ottoman Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices. Rafeq further discusses the setup of local guilds in Syrian cities, which constituted the backbone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional economy and the Syrian urban society during the Ottoman period. He also outlines various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business practices that existed at the time and ends with the inevitable discussion of the impact of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and financial encroachment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five is jointly authored by Leila Fawaz and Robert Ilbert and analyses political relations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities and the state in what they term the ?colonial? period. Like Khoury, Fawaz and Ilbert outline a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debate concerning Ottoman urban history where the Ottoman period has been derided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab and French historians alike. In general, these historians would contrast the Ottoman period with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined ?glorious? period under the \(Arab\) Ummayads and ?Abbasids, arguing that the Ottoman era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a period of urban decline, deterioration and social segregation. As Fawaz and Ilbert show, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical trend originates from distinct traditions. On one hand, French colonialists sought to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French rule in Maghreb and Mashreq as a major improvement on the Ottoman period, and on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab historians struggling for political independence from Ottoman, French or British control had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular interest in lauding Ottoman achievements. This historiographical quandary is only a logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of the region?s modern history and illustrates the intersections of politics and historical enquiry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fawaz?s and Ilbert?s chapter provides an interesting discussion of the ways in which cities provided scenes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political struggles between various social groups and the state in the period before ?complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence?, i.e. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, written by Bernard Hourcade, looks at the changing demography of cities and how ?urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space? expanded over the period under study. As Hourcade points out, from Napoleon?s 1798 Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition to the end of World War II in 1945, the urban population of the Middle East \(from Morocco in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West to Afghanistan in the east\) increased almost ten times, from 2.8 million to 26 million. Given such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic changes, the urban history of the Middle East during this period is a particularly fruitful area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination. Yet, as Hourcade cautions, Middle Eastern cities differ enormously between themselves. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is little point in comparison between cities as different as Casablanca, Isfahan or Riyadh ? all with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular history and socio-economic contexts. During the period in question, the Middle East was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by what Hourcade refers to as two ?megalopolises? ? Cairo and Istanbul. In fact, in 1800 Istanbul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the fourth largest city in the world and Cairo the eighth. Needless to say, these two giants are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable with minnows like Aleppo, Beirut or Tunis. Nevertheless, Hourcade argues that in general the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-modern Middle Eastern city fits the model of the ?oriental city? with its architecture, spatial organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?oriental? social setup. However, by the 1930s Middle Eastern cities had become more heterogeneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ?oriental city? model had been complemented by that of the ?dual city?, in which the traditional city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been juxtaposed with a new city, inhabited by Europeans or the new elites arising from the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national states in the 1920s. Hourcade?s chapter, which is a study of 50 ?great cities?, tracks the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these urban centres, discussing the impact of colonisation and modernisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The penultimate chapter is Gudrun Krmer?s ?Moving Out of Place?, which studies minorities in Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern urban societies in the ?long 19th century? \(1800?1914\). The role of minorities in the decline of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Empire in the 19th century is a well-known theme in Middle Eastern history and the notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they acted as ?agents of change? has become an almost universally accepted axiom. Thus, this study too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes this assumption as its starting point and seeks to establish the boundaries of urban space and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction of the period. It also tries to answer the question who the ?agents of change? actually were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether like categories such as ?tribes? and ?nations? minorities too were ?imagined communities?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much-debated issue of whether non-Muslim minorities were oppressed under Muslim rule, that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?second-class citizens? suffering the excesses of ?oriental despotism?, or whether they in fact were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionate beneficiaries of Muslim ?tolerance?, is quickly dismissed by Krmer as a non-starter. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, no such clear-cut appraisals hold true because Ottoman society was much more complex than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unambiguous dichotomy between Muslims and non-Muslims would allow for. Muslim treatment of non-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims has varied enormously over time and space. However, although there was rarely enforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation on the basis of religious sect, in general people tended to distinguish themselves ?voluntarily? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one from the other in dress and social norms and also in occupation and where they lived. Yet, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the 19th century these more or less well-established patterns of non-Muslim social existence began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to crumble under the impact of socio-economic, legal and cultural change. Above all, it was the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European influence on the Ottoman Empire, causing legal change during the Tanzimat period \(1839?76\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that altered the role \(and the perception\) of non-Muslim minorities as they were \(sometimes\) seen as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protgs of Western powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter is Sami Zubaida?s ?Urban Social Movements, 1750?1950?. Spanning two centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zubaida?s chapter naturally is general in its approach. He starts by outlining ?traditional? forms of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, carried out by those groups that were vested with political or military power, such as the janissaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mamluks, the elite ?ulama? and the generic category of ?urban notables?. Below them were the ra?ayah \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herd\), the vast urban populations subject to political rule and fiscal exactions. Zubaida then outlines material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions that set different groups in motion, such as food provisioning, revenue collection and so on. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to discuss the evolution from ?pre-modern? to modern forms of political mobilisation and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest that started to occur during the 19th century in many Arab cities. More in-depth analyses are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided for the emergence and evolution of urban social movements in Cairo and Egypt generally and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iran.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a whole, this is a remarkable book. Peter Sluglett has managed to bring together historians of the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East with unrivaled knowledge and expertise of the subject under study. Focusing its attention on the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history of the Middle East during the late pre-modern and early modern periods it provides essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses of a hitherto understudied era and field. )] TJ ET BT 270.296 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750?1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, despite its dry title, an engaging and evocative read. Overall, it is well written and the research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perusal of secondary literature is exceptional; the bibliography \(over 50 pages long!\) is an accomplishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in itself and should provide future students with a natural starting point when emerging on careers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on Middle East urban history. The book will definitely be required reading for any serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university course on the modern history of the Middle East.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, a few minor criticisms come to mind. Firstly, and most importantly, it is not quite clear exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who this book is aimed at. The organisation of the chapters, their titles and their contents, suggests that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a regular scholarly edited volume, bringing together experts in a field that have been given free rein to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write on topics of their own choosing. Yet, the title in itself and the fact that much of the discussion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is of a descriptive and narrative nature suggests that its aim is to be a student textbook. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors? writing style, the amount of historical detail and the abundance of specialist terms make it nigh on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible for anyone without a rigorous understanding of Middle East history and Arabic to make full use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book. Thus, if intended as a textbook, it will be more suited for a postgraduate audience and in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case it will not be possible to use as an introductory text. Secondly, the book would benefit a great deal ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly if intended as a textbook but also were it meant as a ?normal? scholarly piece ? if it had made use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of illustrations \(similar to the cover photo\). Not only does a wealth of photographs of the early 20th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist that could have been made use of, but older drawings and in particular city maps \(which seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially pertinent in a book about urban history\) abound.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, despite these drawbacks, the book is a welcome contribution to the growing literature on the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern history of the Middle East and should rightly take its place as one of the core texts of this field. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years to come, many new students of Middle East history will benefit from this volume and the efforts of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_social_history/summary/v044/44.1.quataert.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 79.299 m 461.684 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.684 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_middle_east_journal/summary/v064/64.3.fuccaro.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 50.787 m 454.340 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.340 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 79.6135 461.6837 91.4935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_social_history/summary/v044/44.1.quataert.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 51.1015 454.3397 62.9815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_middle_east_journal/summary/v064/64.3.fuccaro.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/829)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3812)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_social_history/summary/v044/44.1.quataert.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/the_middle_east_journal/summary/v064/64.3.fuccaro.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/829) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004825 00000 n 0000004934 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000005153 00000 n 0000008714 00000 n 0000008842 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000016406 00000 n 0000016471 00000 n 0000023959 00000 n 0000024050 00000 n 0000031275 00000 n 0000031400 00000 n 0000031538 00000 n 0000031663 00000 n 0000031798 00000 n 0000031882 00000 n 0000032746 00000 n 0000032874 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32969 %%EOF