%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818100937+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818100937+01'00') /Title (Insanity, Institutions and Society, 1800-1914: A Social History of Madness in Comparative Perspective) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3620 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Insanity, Institutions and Society, 1800-1914: A Social History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Madness in Comparative Perspective)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The social history of madness is a vibrant area of intellectual enquiry which in the past 20 years has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated an impressive series of monographs and essay collections. This volume is a scholarly addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature. Although its origins lie i n a seminar series and a conference, both held at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter, the strong focus on institutions during the long nineteenth century provides a natural coherence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is sustained across the comparative perspective taking in British India and the Cape Colony as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales, Scotland and Ireland. This coherence is consolidated by a substantial introduction and careful editing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has encouraged the contributors to engage with each other over points of similarity and difference. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result i s a book which does justice to its ?main theme?: deciphering ?the institutional politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madness and the historical conditions under which asylums came to be defined as necessary to the welfare of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body politic itself.? \(p.23\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(83)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 September, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Melling)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Forsythe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415184410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Insanity-Institutions-and-Society-1800-1914-isbn9780415184410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Borsay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historiographical context for this brief is reviewed by Joseph Melling in the first chapter, paying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular attention to Michel Foucault and Andrew Scull. Whilst recognising the catalytic effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foucault?s Madness and Civilisation \(196 5\), Melling rightly criticises his lack of historical specificity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the neglect of class, kinship and political movements in shaping responses to insanity and the dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional life. In Museums of Madness \(1979\), conversely, Scull roo ted the rise of the asylum in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialising economy, stressing the disruption of family and community networks and the function of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois mad-doctors in policing deviance. Always controversial with psychiatrists, Scull?s thesis has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been ques tioned by historians. Melling flags three key areas of contention and illustrates them from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters which follow: the chronology of modernisation, the role of state medicine in the bid for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional power, and the agency and identity of the actors involved in ?the making of the institutionalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunatic? \(p.13\). This exercise serves as a useful cohesive device. However, it would be a mistake to see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume only in terms of its shared ground. Being rich in local detail and related to wider issue s, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is worthy of standing alone and warrants reading in its own right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the introductory assessment of new research in the social history of madness, the book is divided into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four principal parts addressing the English experience of county lunatic asylums, therapeutic regimes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, the English mo del at the Celtic peripheries, and the colonial vision. In the final chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Scull rethinks the history of asylumdom. The first part, containing four chapters, opens with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the mixed economy of care between 1808 \(when county justices were permitted but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to build asylums\) and 1845 \(when they were required to do so\). Leonard Smith argues that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of universal provision, the early county asylums competed with public subscription hospitals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private madhouses both for paying and for Poor Law patients. The consequence, he says, was an evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?contract culture? \(p.38\) in which differential rates were thrashed out with particular parishes or counties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and every effort was made to minimise costs. Peter Bartlett picks up on the pauper theme to argue on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of ?legal and administrative structures?[that] the county asylum?[was] a Poor Law institution, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of specialist medical professionals has been overplayed.? \(p.49\) The ?imagery? associated with t his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterisation was far from consistent; asylums were seen as catering for a social underclass and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable workers, whilst also being a challenge to the austere principle of 1834. Yet these contradictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled the institution to flourish b ecause it was ?attractive to advocates and opponents of the New Poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law, Whigs and Tories alike, and could easily be justified according to the evangelical, paternalistic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilitarian ideologies? \(p.52\) which infused debates about Victorian social wel fare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Whig/Tory alliance of local aristocrats was also active in establishing the Devon Pauper Lunatic Asylum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1845, although the magistrates most supportive of the hospital and its first medical superintendent were of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory persuasion. Their relationship with the Lunacy Commission is the concern of Bill Forsyth, Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melling and Richard Adair. Disputing the weak and passive view of central regulation, they argue that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission ?interacted effectively and subtly with local interest groups to secure its desired policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes? \(p.69\) from the limited powers and resources at its disposal. A major player in these negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the Poor Law Board. Furthermore, Poor Law officials were closely involved in the management of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pauper lunatics. As David W right shows in his study of the overlooked social process of discharge, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relieving officer who investigated the household situation when the medical superintendent and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visiting Committee decided that a patient was fit for release. Contrary t o the orthodoxy of permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confinement, this was not an infrequent occurrence, for ?[o]ver one-half of those admitted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckingham Asylum between 1853 and 1872 were discharged, the vast majority of them having stayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer than twelve months.? \(p.1 06\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the volume includes two chapters on therapeutic regimes. Using case records from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bethlem, Akihito Suzuki identifies a significant mid-century shift in how mental disease was represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which undermines the assertion that ?institutio nal psychiatry silenced the voice of the mad?. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bethlem was reformed in 1852, a charitable narrative ? constructed by relatives, friends or neighbours ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood madness in terms of traumatic events and experiences; after 1852 the diagnosis was fr amed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medical superintendent from his own observation and in collaboration with the patient who became ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate storyteller? with the capacity to discredit lay readings of his or her behaviour \(p.131\). In assessing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puerperal insanity, Hilary Ma rland also detects a change in the reporting conventions. Early in the century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cases were much more likely to be presented individually as narratives of fall, redemption and recovery.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As asylum admissions increased, however, the existence of a captive patient body allowed the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new form of medical knowledge in which the condition was broken down into ?typologies, causal factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prognosis? \(p.152\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The four chapters in Part Three turn to the fate of the ?English model? at the national peripheries of Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Ireland. Whilst appreciating the importance of the Welsh language and Nonconformity, Pamela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael and David Hirst are keen to s tress the other factors which affected the foundation and reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North Wales Asylum at Denbigh. The ?legitimisation? of institutional care for pauper lunatics is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed both to ?a successful coalition between a modernising local elite and ag ents of central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government? \(p.175\), and to the ability of that same elite to sell the asylum to impoverished rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities which had previously sustained the insane among their kin with financial support from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Law. Whereas Wales was covered b y English legislation, Scotland had its own system of voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief revolving around the kirk, and there was no statutory duty to provide institutional places for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insane until 1857. The outcome was a more dominant role for the eight charitable asylums set up between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1782 and 1839.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emphasising the centrality of the Dundee Royal Asylum for the civic, humanitarian image of the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class, Lorraine Walsh argues for the period up to 1850 that their lay control eclipsed medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, encouraging remedial moral treatment w hich departed sharply from the ?palliative function? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.188\) of the older town hospitals. Like the other nineteenth-century charitable asylums north of the border, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dundee received patients from all social classes. The gradual appearance of state asylums, however, led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expulsion of paupers. As Jonathan Andrews demonstrates, the Glasgow Royal Asylum and its physician-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superintendent were intent upon ?raising the social tone? so that repugnant social mixing would neither deter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paying clients from seekin g admission nor impede their treatment. By 1897, every pauper had gone. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privatisation did not free the Asylum of long-term, chronic patients, many of them female and/or elderly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, in addition, it had the effect of excluding Catholics, largely from the Irish immigrant community, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violation of the multi-denominationalism that before had been a source of pride.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Insanity also became entangled with religion and race in Ireland itself where, under yet another legislative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework, asylums were the responsibility of the Lord Lieutenant rather than the Poor Law but closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with criminality due to the D angerous Lunatics Act of 1838. At the Ballinasloe Asylum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(County Galway researched by Oonagh Walsh, the Board of Governors who implemented Dublin?s decrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were all Protestant members of the middle and upper classes, yet over ninety per cent of the inst itution?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population was Catholic. Moreover, by the imperialistic 1890?s, the symptoms of these patients were being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filtered through racial theories, as the asylum physician increasingly endorsed the belief that ?insanity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally inscribed itself upon t he body of the sufferer, and that the face and head, in particular, could be read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a text of abnormality, or excess, or mania.? \(p.235\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6656 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discourses which pronounced the Irish unfit for political independence were still more potent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire: the subject of the two chapters in Part Four. Writing of early-nineteenth-century British India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waltraud Ernst maintains that asylums were one of a series of institutions which symbolised the assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiority of British colonisation and its civilising mission. ?Things Indian, including the environment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were frequently pathologised as being implicated in mental breakdown.? And this ?ratio nale? served to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distract attention from the inequities and inequalities of the colonial regime and from insanitary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologically destructive features within the European expatriate community.? \(p.263\) Indian doctors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients, however, resisted t he imposition of British asylum-based psychiatry to give colonial medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous qualities. The growing acceptance of segregation as the ?progressive? solution to South Africa?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban and industrial problems produced a very different local context fo r the Valkenberg Mental Asylum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Though its conditions were to deteriorate due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcrowding and staffing difficulties, Valkenberg was closed to black patients for whom inferior facilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were availab le. This racial policy, designed to remove the stigma of mental illness for the white population, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on universal standards which ignored cultural variations and stripped black people of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. For Shula Marks, however, this universalism ? constrained the more blatant attempts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination?. The flaw was ?its precise application as an instrument of power in a colonial situation.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.285\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reviewing process begins in the book itself with Andrew Scull?s concluding chapter of reflections. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although a narrow chronological spread is initially implied and several areas of omission \(medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapeutics and the work of clinical-historians, psychiatry?s claims to professional expertise, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of patients and their families\) are listed, Scull retreats from these criticisms in acknowledging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?a comprehensive overview of the enormous territory the history of psychiatry has now be come would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily have courted the danger of superficiality? \(p.296\). More serious is his worry that the ?macro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social concerns? that inspired his own ?grand synthesis? are at risk of being lost in ?micro-researches? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fail to tie ?the history of madness to broader changes in English society?s political, economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, and?[to] the intellectual and cultural horizons of its people.? \(pp.297-9\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The resurgence of empiricism in a field so indebted to the sociological insights of both Scull and Foucault is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony to the strength of realism in British historiography. Few now concur with Lord Acton that ?[t]he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true historian takes the individua l for his centre? and ?[i]f he treats of mobs, or armies, or bodies of men, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invests this multitude with a kind of personality of its own'? None the less, the conservative reaction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of the post-war consensus has led to caution in applying the theoretical ideas of the discredited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and 1970s. Thus in this volume the party allegiances and political behaviour of the men who governed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums are meticulously traced, and the participation of the urban middling sort is singled out as pivota l to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish institutions. But there is no sustained discussion of how involvement in the care of the insane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted upon class development. The power of the poor is similarly handled, negotiation over admission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discharge being construed as evid ence of genuine autonomy. Yet how much room for manoeuvre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients and their families really had is contestable, given the economic and professional parameters that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fenced in their actions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship between agency and structure, individual and society, which energises the empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpicking of Foucault and Scull, is irrelevant to the postmodernist critiques which have penetrated history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1990s. Rejecting the rationality of the Enlightenment, postmodernism insists that historians deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in images or representations because their sources offer no direct access to the past. Though the moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativism inherent in this approach has provoked robust attack, even its staunc hest opponents concede that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more imaginative use of a wider range of historical materials has been encouraged, with the interrogation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3748 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of texts for their linguistic properties as well as their provenance. This collection gives the language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatr y relatively little consideration. As Joseph Melling comments in his introductory chapter, ?Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors replicate the contemporary usage of terms such as insanity, madness and lunacy without attempting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an authoritative discussion of the nosologies? which earlier authors have provided.? Instead, the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought ?to locate these terms within the context of the legal and practical transactions which secured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the lunatic from community to asylum and back again.? \(p.19\) The fluid definitions o f insanity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the way in which the classification of patients slid between madness and idiocy, undercuts any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between language and practice. Furthermore, the emphasis placed on the ?institutional process? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in forming the ?lunatic?s identity? \( p.23\) denies the individual the chance to influence his or her sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self through interacting, positively or negatively, with the asylum environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unbalanced identity of the patient is partly a product of relying on traditional documentary material. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementary mechanism for the retrieval of the inmate is the writing of mad men and women, dissected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Allan Ingram for the eighteenth cen tury. Others include the architecture and geography of asylums, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted for the Victorian period by Thomas Markus and Chris Philo. Mark Jackson has looked for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?victim? in the photography of mental deficiency, while Diana Gittins? oral history of t he twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Severalls Hospital in Essex has yielded compelling narratives from both patients and staff. Of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?history from below? has no monopoly of wisdom and must be tempered with finely-grained analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?official? records at which this volume excels. But when imprisonment for personality disorder without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal offence is on the political agenda, it is essential not to forget the abuses that accompanied earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of confinement. Searching out the mad themselves is perhaps the best historical reminder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 442.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 424.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 424.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/83)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 422.937 m 316.316 422.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 397.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 423.2515 316.3157 435.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/83) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000000693 00000 n 0000004365 00000 n 0000004474 00000 n 0000004584 00000 n 0000004693 00000 n 0000008254 00000 n 0000008382 00000 n 0000008466 00000 n 0000008531 00000 n 0000015295 00000 n 0000015360 00000 n 0000021736 00000 n 0000021801 00000 n 0000028510 00000 n 0000028594 00000 n 0000032395 00000 n 0000032523 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32617 %%EOF