%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919073120+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919073120+01'00') /Title (Living in Sin: Cohabiting as Husband and Wife in Nineteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4354 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Living in Sin: Cohabiting as Husband and Wife in Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most historians of sexuality, courtship, marriage and the family in Victorian and early 20th-century Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will already be familiar with the excellent social and cultural histories produced by Ginger Frost.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.944 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.944 250.545 m 512.936 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 512.936 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come as no surprise to them to learn that )] TJ ET BT 231.656 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living in Sin )] TJ ET BT 296.000 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a wonderful book that draws on a characteristically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of sources from the long 19th century. These include newspaper reports on bigamy, violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect and desertion cases in the areas surrounding London, Lancashire and Yorkshire as well as elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England and Wales, police records, assize and Old Bailey reports, the publications of middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers of the poor including Henry Mayhew and Charles Booth, law reports including the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissions on Marriage in 1848 and 1912, Foundling Hospital petitions, personal diaries, biographies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and letters together with Elizabeth Robert?s oral history interviews to describe the representation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of cohabitation in 19th-century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence in the book establishes beyond doubt that the 19th century was a period of energetic marital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-conformity amongst couples of all social classes. Couples and communities often resisted the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of marriage and divorce imposed upon them following the passage of Lord Hardwicke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marriage Act 1753 and the later Divorce Act 1857. In general, between 1760 and 1840 cohabitation seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more widespread than in the mid 19th century and after 1880 attitudes towards sexual non-conformity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 October, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ginger Frost)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanya Evans)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9437 250.8595 512.9357 262.7395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became freer once again. Widespread practice of cohabitation has only taken place since the 1970s in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but many couples, albeit only a minority, chose to participate in free unions for many hundreds of years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before then. Many men and women interpreted the law on marriage and divorce flexibly, fought to be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define it using their terms, and definitions of unions remained ambiguous throughout this period and beyond. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost argues that this ?problematised the whole notion of ?marriage? and ?family?, and the state?s role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these institutions? \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost is always sensitive to the differences in historical experience between different classes, regions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genders and uses the book to delineate the legal penalties involved with cohabitation as well as the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of the many different types of cohabiting couples she has researched. She has carefully accumulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the circumstances of approximately 1000 cohabiting couples, amongst the heterosexual middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and working classes in England and Wales, to detail her argument. She divides these unions into three major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups. The first is the largest and consisted of men and women who lived together because they could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry due to earlier marriages or because they were related to each other by blood. The second largest group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was couples who did not marry due to a variety of reasons including a lack of concern with social pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disinterest in marriage. The third group consisted of those men and women who positively chose not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry in reaction to the institution itself. Frost labels this group, with hesitance, ?radicals?. The numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within these groups varied according to class and location. In general, more working-class rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class couples cohabited and more so did so if they lived in urban rather than rural areas \(though Frost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that her evidence is weighted to urban rather than rural locations and suggests that further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research might reveal other variations\). Due to the sexual double standard men suffered far less social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination than women did as a result of these relationships. It was usually male partners, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female ones, who actively pursued cohabitation. Women were also more willing to tolerate adultery than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men. While it is clear that the double standard played an important part in how these relationships were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought about and experienced it is clear that many women were free to make their own choices with regards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their lovers. The interdependency of men and women formed within their relationships is made clear by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost. Women needed providers and men needed housewives. It is also important to realise that conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than care and support is more likely to leave its mark on the historical record. As historians we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more about the breakdown of relationships and its consequences than we will ever probably know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ?normal? relationships that endured the ebbs and flows, the vicissitudes, as well as the calms of life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Working-class unions were particularly vulnerable to economic crises and more likely to end as a result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pressures. Working-class cohabitees were also rather less able to escape social sanction than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle and upper class who could flee their homes and begin life afresh elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite not having any formal legal rights men and women understood cohabitation to involve financial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional commitments, especially if there were children involved, and the common law as well as criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts helped, most often women, to enforce these ?cohabitation contracts?. Relationships that came before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scrutiny of the courts were often cross-class, involving men who were of higher social class then women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and justices in the common law courts defended the rights of these women and their children and insisted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men?s duty to provide for their dependents. It is no doubt the case that this sympathy for ostensibly immoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unchaste women was mostly due to the need to ensure that she and her dependents were supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financially, to prevent rate payers becoming liable for their cost. Nonetheless, Frost demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although English criminal justice could be ?patriarchal, class-biased, and moralistic ...it was not invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so? \(p. 32\). Men who brutalised the women they cohabited with, even if those women were by definition not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectable, were often punished by the courts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reactions to these illegal unions could vary. Marian Evans was rejected by her family after settling down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with George Lewes and other women?s families were wary of the scorn that could follow irregular unions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle?class women willing to take the risk were often independently wealthy and many had lost their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers. Others needed more protection and we have to remember that adulterous women were always at risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of losing their children during this period. Responses differed by class, gender and age but couples were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely ostracised by their communities, families, kin, judges or magistrates even if those people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappy about the existence of these unions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.984 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.984 60.531 m 262.976 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.976 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( People made exceptions to their understandings of what was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.9837 60.8455 262.9757 72.7255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7669 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral and correct behaviour dependent upon particular circumstances. Respectable members of the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and middle class were no doubt more discreet than others, the very poor, the ?criminal? classes, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demimonde, about the status of their relationships. Nonetheless, most families supported the unconventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships in their midst even if they were occasionally incestuous \(usually between in-laws\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because marriages between men and their dead wives? sisters were often seen as the best way for families, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adults and children, to remain intact in situations where single sisters often took on housekeeping and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childcare roles. It is clear also, that the state together with friends and family, implicitly, if not explicitly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported these cohabitational unions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many couples were also willing to risk the law by living bigamously. The )] TJ ET BT 391.328 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Judicial Statistics of England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wales )] TJ ET BT 66.344 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded 5,327 bigamy trials between 1857 and 1904 which averaged out at 95 per annum which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost suggests made up about 1 in 5 of the proportion of bigamous relationships that probably existed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judges and juries judged these unions as flexibly as communities and thought long and hard about particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances before passing sentence. Most bigamists were treated leniently by the courts. In the later 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century a minority spent over a year in prison while many, 25 per cent in the 1860s rising to 37 per cent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1890s, served less than a month?s sentence. Women sometimes left their first husbands because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were violent or because they needed to find somebody to support them and their children. Many individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traded legality for happiness without losing sight of the concept or ritual of marriage and while continuing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use the labels ?husband? and ?wife?. Subsequent unions were sometimes, but not always, more successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and happier than the first.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most cohabitees, however, did not participate in an illegal marriage ceremony in order to formalise their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union. They merely rationalised it by arguing that they had to escape an unhappy first union, due to mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and physical illness, incompatibility, infidelity, due to domestic violence, incapacity to provide along with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplicity of other reasons, in order to find happiness in a subsequent union ? albeit one not recognised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law. The legal implications of unions had significant economic, social and cultural ramifications for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals involved in them ? men, women and children. This was particularly the case for the children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born as a result of ?illegitimate? unions who were defined as filius nullius ? the ?children of nobody? even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their parents went on to marry \(until the passage of the Legitimacy Act 1959\). Many men and women lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without regard for the law but some had no recourse but to turn to the law when relationships went awry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broke apart. Even Mary Wollstonecraft was vulnerable to economic ruin and left holding the baby when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert Imlay abandoned her in 1795. Destitute common-law wives and their children frequently fell upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Poor Law when their men left them. Very few men could afford to support two families, formed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different women, and the economic and legal costs for women and children were often dire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.572 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.572 329.139 m 488.564 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.564 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the case when the majority of cross-class cohabitational relationships involved poor women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting up home with wealthier men. But the power relationships involved within these unions were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated than at first sight they seemed. Women might have suffered more than men as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of such relationships but the construction and maintenance of cohabitational unions were complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and abandoned working-class women rarely merely ?victims?. Some women were adept at using their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality for their own ends and others found themselves falling in love with men whom society was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to match them with. Nonetheless, the realities of women?s economic dependence upon men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s biological role as the physical bearers of children meant that the consequences of these unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often negative for women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost?s book ends with a discussion of the circumstances of radical couples who flagrantly defied the system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by publicly refusing to marry in order to challenge the convention itself because it was inescapable, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the role of the state and the church within it and because of the inequality of women at its heart. Radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards marriage were firmly rooted within the Owenite and Unitarian movements. After 1850 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were two major phases of marital radicalism. Between 1850 and 1880 this was a theoretical phase and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1880 and 1914 the socialist, anarchist and feminist movements were crucial in bringing about legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. But even the women involved in radical partnerships, like Marian Evans or Harriet Taylor, were at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk of economic and social ruin as a result of those relationships. Moreover the radical intent of these unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often lost on women after giving birth to successive children within them and as they become )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.5717 329.4535 488.5637 341.3335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmed by domestic minutiae. The sexual limits of these relationships were castigated by feminists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the 19th century, as the tragedy of the life and death of Eleanor Marx amply demonstrated, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many chose celibacy over sexual experimentation. The plight and vulnerability of women, of all classes, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not go ignored and evidence of their experience was used by a clamour of voices which gathered towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the 19th century and demanded reform of the marriage, divorce and legitimacy laws. Frost argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this ?pressure from below? was particularly significant in the reform of the law on marriage. The existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these varied illicit unions and their consequences fuelled the campaigns of early 20th-century reformers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law eager to challenge the double standard and the lack of equality for men and women, rich as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor, within the existing marriage law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the evidence of happy, successful as well as unsuccessful cohabitational unions, the attachment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage remained strong for most Victorians. Even if they were not married, many couples insisted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were and called themselves ?husband? and ?wife?. Others accepted these self-designations too, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle as well as working classes, even if many were not entirely happy about doing so. Some couples even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed the ritual of the wedding ceremony despite it being illegal in their circumstances. ?Husbands? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expected to provide for their ?wives? and children, and ?wives? were expected to perform domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour and to support their men in their endeavours. Despite the unconventionality of these relationships it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that both men and women expected their roles to remain the same, as husbands and wives, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of vows and legal status. Many cohabitees enjoyed their privacy from church and state intervention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saving the cost of the marriage ceremony as well as the freedom gained from not being joined by law in spite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the negative consequences for many of them, particularly women because of their economic disadvantage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Frost suggests, these people on the margins of society can tell us much about the ?norm?. They remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a minority throughout the Victorian period but their existence disrupts many of our assumptions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, marriage, sexuality and gender in the past, as well as the strict demarcations between the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?respectable? and ?unrespectable? poor. British people?s experiences of marriage and intimate relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past were often at odds with prescription. )] TJ ET BT 265.316 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living in Sin )] TJ ET BT 329.660 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is well-written and kept this reader, albeit one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an unhealthy fascination with ?illegitimate unions?, gripped on a lengthy plane journey between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sydney and London. This is a systematic study from which much detail and scholarship, it is made clear by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author, was cut dramatically to please the publishers in order to make the text more manageable. I?m )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming, and hoping, that we can look forward to seeing this material published elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and sees no need to respond further)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ginger Frost, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Promises Broken: Courtship, Class, and Gender in Victorian England )] TJ ET BT 471.344 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Charlottesville, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VA, 1995\); ?Bigamy and cohabitation in Victorian England?, )] TJ ET BT 362.648 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Family History )] TJ ET BT 491.312 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22 \(1997\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286?306; ??The Black Lamb of the Black Sheep?: illegitimacy in the English working class, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850?1939?, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET BT 250.340 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 37 \(2003\), 293?322; ??She is but a woman?: Kitty Byron and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English Edwardian criminal justice system?, )] TJ ET BT 298.328 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 394.316 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 16 \(2004\), 538?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.636 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.636 235.107 m 542.624 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For similar reactions in the 18th century see Tanya Evans, )] TJ ET BT 346.304 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunate Objects: Lone Mothers in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century London)] TJ ET BT 198.344 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2005\) and in the 20th century see Tanya Evans and Pat )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thane, )] TJ ET BT 100.004 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unmarried Motherhood in Twentieth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 364.664 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.640 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.640 192.339 m 532.628 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also Tanya Evans, ?Is it futile to get non-resident fathers to maintain their children??, October )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006, <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.784 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.784 163.827 m 154.772 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v052/52.3.gorham.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 109.059 m 418.364 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.364 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 80.547 m 270.668 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 77.215 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 59.435 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 59.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/830)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 58.041 m 322.316 58.041 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.6357 235.4215 542.6237 247.3015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.6397 192.6535 532.6277 204.5335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.7837 164.1415 154.7717 176.0215 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 109.3735 418.3637 121.2535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v052/52.3.gorham.html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 80.8615 270.6677 92.7415 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=406907) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 58.3555 322.3157 70.2355 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/830) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 463 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3813)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v052/52.3.gorham.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.154 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=406907)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000005080 00000 n 0000005189 00000 n 0000005299 00000 n 0000005408 00000 n 0000008969 00000 n 0000009097 00000 n 0000009181 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000009338 00000 n 0000009374 00000 n 0000009458 00000 n 0000017171 00000 n 0000017201 00000 n 0000017327 00000 n 0000017363 00000 n 0000017447 00000 n 0000025169 00000 n 0000025199 00000 n 0000025327 00000 n 0000025363 00000 n 0000025482 00000 n 0000033633 00000 n 0000033761 00000 n 0000033816 00000 n 0000033944 00000 n 0000033999 00000 n 0000034127 00000 n 0000034182 00000 n 0000034309 00000 n 0000034437 00000 n 0000034562 00000 n 0000034678 00000 n 0000034804 00000 n 0000034899 00000 n 0000034964 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35479 %%EOF