%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818150114+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818150114+01'00') /Title (Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1799 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(831)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen O'Brien)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521774277)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(318pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosalind Carr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the Enlightenment can sometimes appear as a male narrative, dominated by canonical male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers, with women appearing only as subjects denied an equality of rationality and relegated to a feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity. This narrative has some validity but it is one-sided and has become increasingly outdated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of gender and the Enlightenment seek to re-write women into the narrative as historical agents ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants within, rather than only as subjects of, the Enlightenment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.652 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.652 726.051 m 384.644 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.644 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In doing so, old structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly divided public and private spheres, with women in the latter, have ceased to be useful as means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand and structure women?s pasts. As Karen O?Brien writes in )] TJ ET BT 370.280 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Enlightenment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 165.680 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Eighteenth-century writers? sense of the boundary between the domestic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social realms was generally fluid and informal? \(p. 11\). In what is an important, thought-provoking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderfully-written study of femininity, women and British Enlightenment discourse, O?Brien includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women as active members of the Republic of Letters and examines them in the context of a reassessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of gender within male Enlightenment philosophy. O?Brien?s aim is to highlight the limits of, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move beyond, the influential feminist assessment of the British Enlightenment, namely that the Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of the English Enlightenment was inherently anti-feminist. Instead, O?Brien argues, Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse, especially that pertaining to notions of social progress, acted to construct women as a discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category and created a vocabulary that was deployed by female writers to what can be defined as feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien rejects some previous feminist historiography on the Enlightenment but her analysis is a feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Feminism is defined in the introduction as the late 18th-century demand ?for equal civil and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights for women?\(p. 2\). However, this neat definition belies the complex feminist politics underlying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text and O?Brien?s nuanced contribution to the debate concerning what equals progress for women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether women had an Enlightenment. O?Brien does not seek to deny the anti-feminist discourse within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much Enlightenment ideology, but she also places emphasis upon those writers who presented the case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s enhanced social and political rights, and she demonstrates how non-feminist ideas could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted and employed within feminist discourses. In the end what we get is a more complicated picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gender and the British Enlightenment, in which there is more grey than black and white.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an analysis spanning the period from the late 17th to the early 19th centuries, O?Brien reinvestigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment texts from John Locke to Thomas Malthus to illustrate that Enlightenment ideologies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily inhospitable to notions of women?s rationality and moral agency. We learn for example how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaftesbury?s re-evaluation of domestic life meant that broader social importance could be placed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s actions within the home, and of Sir Walter Scott?s argument for the chivalric ideal as a means for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to achieve respect and cease to be the slaves of men?s pleasure \(an idea, O?Brien points out, that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected by thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Mary Wollstonecraft\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central to her investigation is an emphasis on the ways in which women writers from Catherine Cockburn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah More engaged with and influenced Enlightenment philosophy. Rather than being placed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery, in O?Brien?s text female intellectuals appear as central figures in the British Enlightenment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively engaged in intellectual exchange and influencing debate. The important place of women writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Enlightenment canon is demonstrated in chapters four and five where the work of Catherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft is, respectively, examined in detail. In this examination, O?Brien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employs a thoroughness of research, which is present throughout the whole work, to develop a new analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these women?s intellectual contributions. This analysis considers their work in a context in which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were uncharacteristic intellectuals but not women standing alone in a male universe. In assessing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to Enlightenment discourses of history and progress and to feminist ideas regarding women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and female rationality and moral agency, O?Brien examines Macaulay and Wollstonecraft?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with male and female intellectuals, and with each other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The in-depth studies of Macaulay and Wollstonecraft in this text sit amongst a very detailed, and dense, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of Enlightenment ideologies of gender, history and progress, in which major and minor writers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined. So in addition to well known figures such as Wollstonecraft many lesser known female writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are included. In this study, O?Brien demonstrates women?s active participation in the intellectual exchange )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6517 726.3655 384.6437 738.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7382 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in many respects defined the Republic of Letters. For example, women?s intellectual correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with male Enlightenment figures, such as that between Lord Kames and Elizabeth Montagu, is examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside their published texts. Correspondence, like publishing, provided a means for women to participate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Enlightenment public sphere and O?Brien?s examination of female participants in the Enlightenment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making their work accessible to a broader audience, is a welcome addition to the history of women and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long 18th century and to histories of the Enlightenment more generally. However, the focus on intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history at the expense of the social and cultural means that O?Brien?s arguments regarding the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Enlightenment upon women cannot necessarily be applied to all women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien?s examination of female writers is centred upon an analysis of the ways in which these women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?deployed and refashioned?\(p. 2\) Enlightenment concepts of gender, constructing a discourse that defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and defended female intellectual and moral agency, and in the longer-term enabled the development of 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century feminist discourse. This is a contentious argument, not all historians of gender and Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would agree that the Enlightenment?s impact upon women was in the long-run positive. However, O?Brien, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst tending towards a liberal feminist view of the importance of Enlightenment rights-based discourse to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later arguments for female equality, does not seek to construct a Whiggish narrative of female emancipation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, she emphasises that the emergence of women as a discursive category within Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse did not result in a contemporaneous emergence of arguments for women?s increased legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political status. This is illustrated in chapter two, which focuses on Scottish Enlightenment conjectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In their studies of the progress of society, literati such as John Millar made women a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of analysis ? advances in women?s social status, they asserted, indicated a society?s progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the stadialist \(Four Stages\) model, from primitiveness to commercial civilisation. In her examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Scottish conjectural history, O?Brien recognises women?s lack of agency within this framework of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress, stating that women are ?an incidental, illustrative feature of the Scottish Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the relationship between morality, history, economics and the law?\(pp. 78?9\). Highlighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the important difference between Scottish Enlightenment arguments concerning commercial society and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced status of femininity, and feminist arguments regarding women?s legal status, O?Brien offers as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example an interesting short illustration from the work of Francis Hutcheson. In his philosophy Hutcheson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejects natural law arguments which assert the right of the husband to command, and instead presents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of ideal marriage founded upon equality and reciprocity. However, in presenting these ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutcheson, O?Brien states, ?never explores the disparity between the equality which nature requires and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of affairs in his own times?\(p. 73\). O?Brien argues that the impact of Scottish Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy upon women was not black or white ? whilst its historiography did not correspond to a discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of female rights, it did create a vocabulary in which women were not destined to a fate determined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biology but were social agents, determined by historical circumstance; most importantly, within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse women had a history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien?s discussion of Scottish Enlightenment thinking is interesting and convincing. What it lacks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is an examination of the impact of the Enlightenment upon 18th-century Scottish women, and why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there appear to have been far more public English female intellectuals than Scottish ones. That these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions are overlooked is linked to a lack of full engagement with the concept of Britain and ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britishness within Enlightenment discourse. Although the exchange of ideas between England and Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is highlighted in the text, what makes the British Enlightenment British is not fully explored and nor are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between England and Scotland fully dealt with. This can make the text sometimes read as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English-centric, a tendency aggravated when the titles of monarchs are given only their English designation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(i.e. James II, rather than James II/VII. On a less niggly level, the glossing over of differences between 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England and Scotland means that the text?s fascinating engagement with religion, Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gender is weakened.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This text makes a very important contribution to the history of the Enlightenment by placing Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of progress and femininity in their religious context, particularly Latitudinarian Anglicanism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien argues that the Latitudinarian English Enlightenment provided a space for women writers to assert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the deep interconnection between private ethical conduct and the well being of church and state?\(p. 36\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6221 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien?s discussion of the importance of Latitudinarianism centres upon its impact on the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female intellectuals including Catherine Cockburn, the bluestockings Elizabeth Carter and Catherine Talbot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and later Catherine Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft. By highlighting the importance of Latitudinarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology to these women?s respective works, and their impact upon it, O?Brien is able to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive links between female intellectuals of the late 17th century and those of the late 18th. Whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not ignoring the differences between their sometimes oppositional ideas, O?Brien shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latitudinarian theology united these women under the banner of religious toleration, a notion of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of benevolence and a belief in female rationality and women?s free will.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst interesting and important to the study of gender and the English Enlightenment, in a book about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain O?Brien?s insightful discussion of Latitudinarian Anglicanism makes the lack of a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Scottish Presbyterianism very apparent. Presbyterianism is included but only briefly and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really in a gendered manner. Presbyterian theology played an important role in the Scottish Enlightenment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with many of the literati being clergy in the Church of Scotland. Also the religious differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Scotland had a major impact upon 18th-century British politics, possibly affecting the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of female participation in the Scottish Enlightenment as compared to England. Certainly in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully understand gender and the British Enlightenment, Presbyterianism must be given more consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Britishness is not explored in O?Brien?s text may be because there is already so much important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material and analysis included, and to be fair ethnicity is not left unexplored. In chapter three O?Brien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a fascinating and informed account of the impact of historical interest in women upon the ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness emerging in Britain, discussing the ways in which constructs of women from the past, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roman matron or Gothic tribeswoman, provided a means to ?anchor modern manners in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginatively accessible, culturally serviceable past?\(pp. 111?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a book which aims for, and successfully achieves, a great deal. O?Brien has brought a wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of information regarding the place of women within Enlightenment ideology and about British female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals of the long 18th century to our attention, and offered this information within an informed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insightful analysis. It is a welcome and important addition to historiography on the British Enlightenment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and will be of particular value to historians of women and gender. O?Brien has not only offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the debate on the impact of the Enlightenment upon women, she has helped to move it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example essays in )] TJ ET BT 190.988 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Gender and Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 362.960 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Sarah Knott and Barbara Taylor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 280.131 m 217.664 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 225.363 m 154.700 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/521/964.short)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 196.851 m 320.336 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 323.336 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/831)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 322.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3814)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century_studies/v045/45.3.mack.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/521/964.short)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6757 280.4455 217.6637 292.3255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 225.6775 154.6997 237.5575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/eighteenth-century_studies/v045/45.3.mack.html) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 197.1655 320.3357 209.0455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/521/964.short) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 322.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/831) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000002489 00000 n 0000002598 00000 n 0000002708 00000 n 0000002817 00000 n 0000006378 00000 n 0000006506 00000 n 0000006590 00000 n 0000006674 00000 n 0000014231 00000 n 0000014261 00000 n 0000014389 00000 n 0000014425 00000 n 0000014490 00000 n 0000021925 00000 n 0000022030 00000 n 0000028304 00000 n 0000028432 00000 n 0000028487 00000 n 0000028614 00000 n 0000028772 00000 n 0000028899 00000 n 0000029008 00000 n 0000029136 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29231 %%EOF