%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140921135719+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140921135719+01'00') /Title (The Hell-Fire Clubs: Sex, Satanism and Secret Societies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4511 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Hell-Fire Clubs: Sex, Satanism and Secret Societies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have needed a new book-length history of the so-called Hell-Fire Clubs of the 18th century for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some time. Histories of these groups, notably those by Geoffrey Ashe, Edwin Beresford Chancellor, Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark Jones, Daniel Mannix, and Donald McCormick which are those that historians most often cite, tend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall into two categories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.332 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.332 243.417 m 161.324 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.324 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the one hand, there are those authors who claim that their work debunks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular myths about Hell-Fire Clubs. In practice however, they rarely do more than gloss well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed sources. As a result, they tend to do little more than summarize the printed record, often failing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish social fact from literary fiction ? and more often than not fail to put either into a proper historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. On the other hand are those who offer unsubstantiated accounts of Hell-Fire Club activities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masquerading their work as competent research, these writers emphasize the fantastic and the controversial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sex and Satanism are central to their narratives. In )] TJ ET BT 279.296 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell-Fire Clubs: Sex, Satanism, and Secret Societies)] TJ ET BT 552.932 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn Lord attempts to go beyond these two approaches. Ambitious in its aims, Lord traces the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hell-Fire Clubs from their origins in the 17th century to their decline at the end of the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An historical synthesis of 18th-century libertine clubs is a difficult task, and it is admirable that the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents the outlines of a number of prominent groups in such a readable and succinct manner. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, however, the book does not add a significant stock of new knowledge to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Hell-Fire Clubs?. Nor does it engage seriously with recent academic discussions of libertinism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn Lord)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300116675)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(247pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jason Kelly)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.3317 243.7315 161.3237 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociability, the public sphere, or masculinity that should be central to an analysis of the groups she describes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a work of popular history ? a trade title ? written for a non-specialist audience, this is not entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising. But given the fact that it was published by a prominent university press, one would have expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bit more historiographical engagement, at least in the citations. While this review critiques the book from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perspective of a professional historian, readers of this review should keep in mind that the target )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience for )] TJ ET BT 96.656 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell-Fire Clubs)] TJ ET BT 193.988 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the non-specialist reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evelyn Lord outlines three preoccupations that guide her analysis. The first is ?an approximation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth? based on the available sources \(p. xxviii\). The second concerns the role of ?place? in the constitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hell-Fire Clubs. The third is the intersection of class, gender, and space as elements of socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions. She divides her book into nine chapters which follow a rough chronology beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th-century Damned Crew through the Mohocks and Hell-Fire Clubs to the Medmenham Friars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Demoniacs, and Beggar?s Benison. The author attempts to include examples that go beyond London, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while there is only one chapter that focuses on Scottish clubs, there are several examples of Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial American groups as well. Its attempt to look at Hell-Fire Clubs in the British context is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s virtues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As part of the author?s emphasis of objectivity, she takes issue with earlier writers that sensationalize stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 18th-century Hell-Fire Clubs. To do so however, Lord sometimes poses hyperbolic questions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtly sensationalized stories as a tool for breaking through myths. For example, she writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Do the fires of hell fuelled by the figures of naked demons flicker through these pages? Or is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this simply a story of wealthy men with too much time and licence on their hands, wanting to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert their masculinity \(p. xxvi\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the fact that it would be nearly impossible to discover evidence of Satanic worship in 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain or Ireland, the answer that she offers is ?boys will be boys? \(p. xxix\). At times, )] TJ ET BT 452.288 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell-Fire Clubs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not do enough to shine light on some of the more)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable associations and myths that one finds on the blogosphere. For example, in a short passage on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Toland, Lord links him to Deism, atheism, Rosicrucianism, alchemy, Druidism, and the Knights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jubiliation, which she terms a ?proto-Masonic organization? \(pp. 42?4\). While there is much to be said on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 18th-century interest in these organizations and belief systems, it is unclear to the reader what exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were their historical contexts. This is problematic in the case of non-specialist readers, because it is never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite clear how these topics relate to each other and what the significance is for the larger discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hell-Fire Clubs. By conflating these topics the text adds to popular confusion over the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of associational life, hermeticism, and natural philosophy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers will have to search the book for a single definition of what constitutes a ?Hell-Fire Club?, but Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests what these groups? primary characteristics might have been. They were elite organizations in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hedonism ruled in a mix of sociability and rampant sexuality that led to excess? \(p. xxii\). The ?real hell-fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clubs were born? in the 1720s, and the author suggests that this was because they were increasingly private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 44\). While Lord suggests that these clubs mocked religion, this cannot be proven for any of the clubs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she describes. That said, some contemporary critics suggested that these groups were irreligious or anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious. There was a difference between club practices and the printed descriptions, gossip, and rumour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding them during the 18th century. With more emphasis on the relationship between club activities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular perceptions, and print culture, Lord could have traced the ambiguity between privacy and publicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was central to the function of the semi-private clubs and societies of the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first club that Lord describes as a Hell-Fire Club was not actually a club \(p. 44\). It was an invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the press in response to a royal proclamation on 28 April 1721 stating:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6249 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His Majesty have received Information, which gives great Reason to suspect that there have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lately been and still are, in and about the Cities of London and Westminster, certain scandalous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clubs or Societies of young Persons who meet together, and in the most impious and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemous Manner, insult the most sacred Principles of Holy Religion, affront Almighty God )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, and corrupt the Minds and Morals of one another \(p. 45\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within days, papers supporting High Church positions expounded upon the context of the proclamation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Identifying participants in the groups that the proclamation mentions as ?Hell-Fire Club men?, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained that a number of London clubs were meeting in support of heterodoxy and atheism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals accused them of challenging fundamental beliefs, especially the Thirty-Nine Articles. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, these groups were nurseries for Arianism. In effect, the ?birth? of Hell-Fire Clubs was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention of the press as a way to defame organizations that tended towards latitudinarianism. In the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the South Sea Bubble debacle, which Lord describes, the Hell-Fire scare of 1721 also became a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge Whig politicians. Linking the Whigs with nonconformity and atheism was a way to show their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to the state ? a counter-narrative of sorts to a rhetoric linking Tories with Jacobitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the Hell-Fire clubs first described by the press in the 1720s were groups discussing the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious practice and belief. They were the product of a long-term process that began in the 17th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a more general debate over toleration, nonconformity, latitudinarianism, and Arianism. Existing at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nexus of religion and politics, they were a powerful symbol that could be used by High Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicans and Tories alike. Therefore, the Hell-Fire Clubs of the 1720s fit the mold of Calves?-Head Clubs; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were fictional \(or fictionalized\) constructs meant to produce political or religious action against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived threats to church and state. As Roger D. Lund has argued, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there emerged a consensus on the part of the defenders of Anglican orthodoxy that infidels and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deists were incapable of fomenting discord individually and were dependent upon the support of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their associations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.008 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.008 395.187 m 164.000 395.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For critics, the club could be a potent signifier of threats to stability. Even the Kit-Cat Club came under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack as an organization committed to blasphemy and revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.312 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.312 342.675 m 364.304 342.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear that the Hell-Fire Club ?scare? of the 1720s is the product of a High Church discourse linked to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct historical moment. The discourse itself was the result of religious and political debates that reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the 17th century. To call clubs that tended to excesses in drink, sexuality, or violence ?Hell-Fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clubs? has less to do with the associations of the 1720s and more to do with a Victorian historical tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that tended to classify all libertine clubs as ?Hell-Fire Clubs?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the themes that characterizes Lord?s analysis is its emphasis on dichotomies. We read that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?youths of the lower classes might make havoc in the streets ... they lacked the organization of the [elite] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hell-fire clubs? \(p. xxii\). The same opposition defines the relationship between the aristocracy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middling sorts: with the outset of the Napoleonic wars:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[t]he bucolic roistering aristocracy began to transform into sober and responsible leaders of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, while the respectable God-fearing middle classes, professionals, mill-owners, businessmen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and entrepreneurs helped to change the moral economy and social attitudes of the ruling )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes? \(p. 211\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical research into the complexities of the Georgian social framework contradicts any such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorization.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.996 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.996 56.835 m 118.988 56.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 118.988 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even Lord?s own analysis reveals numerous middling families who wished to partake in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.0077 395.5015 163.9997 407.3815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.3117 342.9895 364.3037 354.8695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.9957 57.1495 118.9877 69.0295 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lifestyle of the Hellfire Clubs. Again, this simplification is probably the result of the needs of a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. However, in a work that claims to engage with issues of class, one would expect a somewhat more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced approach. If nothing else, it would have been preferable to have the footnotes reflect some sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent historiographical trends. This lack of engagement with the historical literature is evident in the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics that Lord investigates, notably space and gender. For example, in the author?s discussion of ?Hell-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fire Clubs and Dirty Books,? she never mentions the standard work in the field, Karen Harvey?s )] TJ ET BT 501.272 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 177.332 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.332 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.332 709.539 m 194.324 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise, the chapters on the Grand Tour and the Monks of Medmenham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbey do not engage with the significant amount of historical literature published over the last decade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I want to remind the reader again that the criticisms above judge the work for its importance to specialists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field of 18th-century British history. It will, no doubt, be a popular work with the broader public. )] TJ ET BT 519.968 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hell-Fire Clubs)] TJ ET BT 110.348 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for its shortcomings, is in fact an enjoyable, approachable introduction to libertine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations in 18th-century Britain and Ireland. It outlines several major associations and individuals, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a fine introduction for researchers beginning their investigations on associated topics. However,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars should not treat it as a definitive work on the topic. In addition to the excellent work that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been completed on the topic of libertinism and sociability \(much of which is not in the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes or bibliography\), there is much more research to be done and archives to be examined. We look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward to a number of pieces that are in production, notably Newton?s Key?s research on early 18th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century aristocrats and John Sainsbury?s survey of 18th-century British libertinism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is due to respond to this review in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 438.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Ashe, )] TJ ET BT 140.984 438.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Do What You Will: A History of Anti-Morality)] TJ ET BT 363.320 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1974\); Edwin Beresford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancellor, )] TJ ET BT 122.672 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lives of the Rakes: Vol.4, The Hell Fire Club)] TJ ET BT 360.992 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1925\); Louis C. Jones, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Clubs of the Georgian Rakes)] TJ ET BT 223.676 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1942\); Daniel Pratt Mannix, )] TJ ET BT 448.640 409.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hellfire Club)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1959\); Donald McCormick, )] TJ ET BT 284.312 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hell-Fire Club: The Story of the Amorous Knights )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Wycombe)] TJ ET BT 122.996 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1958\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.320 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.320 379.923 m 258.308 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger D. Lund, ?Guilt by association: the atheist cabal and the rise of the public sphere in Augustan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?, )] TJ ET BT 115.340 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies)] TJ ET BT 405.008 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 34, 3 \(2002\), 411.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.000 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.000 351.411 m 547.988 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lund, ?Guilt by Association?, 407.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.340 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.340 337.155 m 286.328 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, the work of Henry French, most notably )] TJ ET BT 346.964 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middle Sort of People in Provincial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England 1600-1750)] TJ ET BT 159.680 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.328 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.328 308.643 m 292.316 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 137.648 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 323.960 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.280 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.280 294.387 m 475.268 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/fictionreviews/3562028/Review-The-Hell-Fire-Clubs-Sex-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 239.619 m 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http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/fictionreviews/3562028/Review-The-Hell-Fire-Clubs-Sex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satanism-and-Secret-Societies-by-Evelyn-Lord.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/sep/28/history)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3317 709.8535 194.3237 721.7335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.3197 380.2375 258.3077 392.1175 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.9997 351.7255 547.9877 363.6055 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype 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