%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729093137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729093137+01'00') /Title (At the Limits of History. Essays on Theory and Practice) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4577 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History. Essays on Theory and Practice)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?We are most of us governed by epistemologies that we know to be wrong?: Gregory Bateson?s observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarizes what motivates Keith Jenkins?s latest book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.328 271.929 m 318.320 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.320 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this collection of essays written and published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last 15 years \(including not only a foreword by Hayden White and an afterword by Alun Munslow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also responses from Perez Zagorin and Michael C. Coleman repudiating the postmodernist thought-style\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?wrong epistemology? defines the cognitive routines and disciplinary practices that produce historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge. To anyone familiar with Jenkins?s books the import of these essays will not be surprising, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly since, both in brief comments helpfully contextualizing each essay and the particularly incisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, ?History limited?, he himself indicates their common synergy. Even so, precisely as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of occasional pieces evincing an unwavering conviction, )] TJ ET BT 358.952 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 471.632 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion to reflect on the dispute between the modernist, historicizing mentality and postmodernist strategies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of differentiation, and on what in this confrontation exactly is at stake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hegemony, the social and cultural dominance of the cognitive norms evinced in history-focussed behaviour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices producing historical knowledge; authority, the self-entitlement to credibility always already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically and culturally invested in the historian-function, in what it is to be a historian and to do history: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are consistently in )] TJ ET BT 152.000 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 264.680 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the targets of Jenkins?s critique. This critique is ?crucially? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebted to Nietzsche ? particularly to his insight that knowledge is inherently pragmatic, an expression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(834)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415472364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(334pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Davies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.3277 272.2435 318.3197 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will-to-power, and to Lyotard ? suggesting his findings that under postmodern conditions knowledge is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validated only in performative terms \(p. 169\). Given, as Ernest Gellner remarks, that ?norms of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a court of appeal for normative issues in other spheres?, so that ?what ethical, political, economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other norms are found to be acceptable, depends in the end on ? which cognitive norms are held to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling?, the epistemological critique of the hegemony and authority of historical norms cannot but turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.352 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.352 723.795 m 90.344 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This explains why in the 1994 essay, ?Marxism and historical knowledge?, Jenkins vindicates a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-historicizing conception of Marxism by stressing that society, being rather ?an incessantly mobile set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive \(and thus contingent\) relationships?, is hardly a ?stable object? underpinning ?accumulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(/lasting knowledge? \(p. 25\); why in the 2003 essay, ?On disobedient histories?, he rejects a ?credible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative or authoritarian historicized past that one has to defer to over one?s own personal history?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derogates from the ?currently stultifying academic/professional )] TJ ET BT 341.288 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doxa)] TJ ET BT 364.616 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, and would ?prise open the mental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strait-jacket of modernist historical thinking? \(p. 151\); why, too, in the 2004 essay, ?Modernist disavowals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and postmodern reminders of the condition of history today: On Jean-Franois Lyotard?, in order to counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the acceptance of conformity, a deadening of thought?, he endorses Lyotard?s conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernism should ??leave itself open to the unfamiliarity of whatever may occur to it, and make [up] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules in the absence of rules?? \(p. 173\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hegemony of history as a discipline, the authority inherent in the historian-function: these may well be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins?s targets; his critique may well expose them as instruments of political power, but it does not on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these grounds alone reveal why they are targetable. Addressing this issue, )] TJ ET BT 390.944 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 503.624 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveals a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further facet of Jenkins?s thinking: its deconstructive point. For the historian-function does not repudiate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either the hegemonic status of the discipline or its social and political authority: it just legitimizes both by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisting that they are predicated on truth, itself predicated on the past; it just denies that they are merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proxies for current political ideologies and their remorseless social and economic implementation, ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins observes in the 2008 essay, ??Nobody does it better?. Radical History and Hayden White?: ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s referent is ?nothing? but the product of their inferences based upon their existential \(personal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical, public, ideological ?\) condition? \(p. 263\). The result is: the historian-function proves to be both self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceptive and duplicitous. It might style itself as a clerical vocation representing a theologically conceived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive Truth about an unseen, omnipotent Past, the transcendental Maker of the Present; it actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operates as a technical expert, a resources manager, a bureaucratic administrator, integral to the technocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lite and their institutions \(for example, the university\) that construct and affirm government policy \(as, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, the )] TJ ET BT 97.004 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Policy)] TJ ET BT 179.000 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( initiative, ?connecting historians, policy makers and the media?, confirms\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader of, for example, Derrida?s )] TJ ET BT 196.280 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De la grammatologie)] TJ ET BT 298.940 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Deleuze and Guattari?s )] TJ ET BT 437.228 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mille plateaux)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.888 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.888 341.139 m 523.880 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.880 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins is already aware that logocentrism discloses )] TJ ET BT 286.976 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(logos)] TJ ET BT 312.980 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?-ologies?, the metaphysical ?Word? that was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Beginning to be expressions of the dominant order, of the order domination, political and theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, imposes; that writing was ever allied to cognitive norms, bureaucratic administration, and state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation. Accordingly, what the historian-function consecrates as )] TJ ET BT 358.952 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 373.616 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( truth about )] TJ ET BT 431.948 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 446.612 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( past, what, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997 essay on the work of Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth, offers itself as ??)] TJ ET BT 371.600 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 386.264 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( metanarrative in Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse??, Jenkins reduces to cognitive and discursive conventions predicated on received behaviours, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constrictive disciplinary ?strategies that fold corrosive scepticism into scholarly caution and empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facticity? \(p. 43; pp. 57, 156\). So, to expose the political employment of history?s disciplinary hegemony, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses in the introduction on the ?politico-institutional locations and practices of historical cultures? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses their ?discursive practices and professional/ peer-approved standards which determine and regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what passes for proper civilising and identity providing histories ? ?roots?, ?traditions?, ?contexts?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?identities? of a predominantly liberal, bourgeois kind? \(p. 10\); he examines, in the 1997 essay ?Why bother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with history??, the system of public demands history generates, the fact that ?we demand that it gives us ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectories, meanings, legitimisations, ?practices? and ethics that we can learn from and so ?place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ourselves? in a past backed-up-present \(and future\)? \(p. 57\). Similarly, to expose the political-ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of the historian-function he insists, in the same essay, that the historians? injunction to ??learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lessons from the past / history?? boils down to coercing the recognition of historians themselves as ??moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides? [?] and as providers of and legitimators of our identities? \(p. 61\). But he then locates in the 2008 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay, ?Sande Cohen. On the verge of newness?, what is nothing but the affirmative function of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that, being ?understanding?, implicitly encourages acquiescence in the way things happen to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.3517 724.1095 90.3437 735.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.8877 341.4535 523.8797 353.3335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 10030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be: why, in view of the spectacle of desolation the world offers, historians ?cannot ? , as privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals, do something other than think backwards? \(p. 275\). So he stresses in the 2004 essay, ?Ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility and the historian. On the possible end of a history ?of a certain kind??, that ?the strictures so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded in the ?training? of historians and the profession?s ?maxims of prudence??, anaesthetizing any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of obligation to a ?committed intellectual position? \(exemplified here by Edward Said\), default to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit collusions with the prevailing regime \(pp. 99, 202, 205\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hegemony and authority of the historian-function: )] TJ ET BT 298.316 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 410.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( repudiates them, needless to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say, by a critique based on a close reading and detailed discussion of contemporary, mainly postmodern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinkers \(cf. pp. 16, 107, 148, 218, 234\). A short review, like this, cannot trace the )] TJ ET BT 431.624 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minutiae)] TJ ET BT 473.624 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of its arguments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it must examine why they have to be agonistic. Their combative character acknowledges a fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of modernist thinking behind postmodernist positions: the ?ideological shift? \(according to Gellner\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, with \(e.g.\) Descartes and Kant, makes ?the foundation stone of ? our world and identity, ? not some ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverence-inspiring object or being out there? in the world, but, instead, ?our cognitive equipment, ? our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criteria of sound knowledge?; ? which means that knowledge of the world is established ?no longer by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to the nature of things, but ? by an appeal to the inner necessities of our cognitive apparatus?; ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, since the world can be seen only ?)] TJ ET BT 233.636 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 263.648 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( knowledge?, since knowledge is no longer just ?one thing or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process amongst others within a wider world?, results in a ?historical situation? wherein ?we do )] TJ ET BT 497.276 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 512.612 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just which world we inhabit?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.336 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.336 540.723 m 190.328 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.328 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Its implications are summarized by Nietzsche?s observation, in )] TJ ET BT 499.616 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jenseits von )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gut und Bse)] TJ ET BT 99.344 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in )] TJ ET BT 135.008 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die frhliche Wissenschaft)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.332 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.332 526.467 m 281.324 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.324 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that, if one denied the world were pure appearance or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction, its truth would also disappear, since human beings discover truth only through appearance, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?picturing? it. Here lies the )] TJ ET BT 167.324 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aporia)] TJ ET BT 199.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to which Jenkins?s deconstructive critique keeps returning: does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical truth produce correct transcriptions and credible representations of )] TJ ET BT 404.264 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 418.928 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( past? Or does correct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcription \(as )] TJ ET BT 114.668 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(transcription)] TJ ET BT 177.344 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), credible representation \(as )] TJ ET BT 316.964 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(re-presentation)] TJ ET BT 390.956 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), produce what is called historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth? Either way, argues Richard Rorty whose thinking Jenkins here endorses, epistemologically it comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to ?choosing objects to be compelled by?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.656 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.656 440.931 m 278.648 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.648 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Decisive now is what constitutes knowledge, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informs a decision at a decisive moment: what makes factors compelling, what makes the decision they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(induce decisive. Thus in postmodernist thinking this ?radical )] TJ ET BT 329.000 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(decisionism?)] TJ ET BT 391.664 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, dispensing with ?transcendental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signifiers?, ?deferring for ever total/totalitarian closures? \(pp.1 54, 246, 249\), ensures its openness, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openness Jenkins here insists on and ? with good reason ? fully exploits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In confronting the hegemony and authority of history, )] TJ ET BT 295.652 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 408.332 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is anything but theoretical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather it is an agonistic work with a pragmatic ?)] TJ ET BT 266.984 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cutting edge)] TJ ET BT 325.976 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 19\), enacting the commitment that sustains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, performing the utility of its thinking. It needs to be:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(epistemologically speaking)] TJ ET BT 164.336 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, because with only knowledge positions available, what makes one position more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling than another becomes urgent. In arguing with others, with other readers, the author clarifies his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own arguments. Hence, \(for example\) the recourse to the first person \(?Now I had been moving towards this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position for several years ?? \(p. 16\)\), to characteristic self- correction \(?Obviously I could go on describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the characteristics of such a meta-narrative history for some time? \(p. 56\)\), to critical thinking as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation for both author and reader \(?And so let us think again. Let us begin again.? \(p.1 60, cf. pp. 152, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(159, 164\)\), to ensuring ? a typically Kantian imperative this ? that his thinking is correctly orientated \(?Now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this point ? I underwent something of an experience of my own ? And it took me a while to put my finger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on what was worrying me. Then, slowly, I began to get it.? \(p. 311\), and, \(e.g.\) in recommending Sande )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cohen?s work, to emotive inflections directly involving the reader \(?And I would urge readers ? not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succumb to feeling shy about being ? )] TJ ET BT 215.660 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enthusiastic)] TJ ET BT 272.996 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 290\)\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regarding history?s disciplinary hegemony)] TJ ET BT 241.004 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: because, since ?the past is utterly promiscuous ? and will go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with anybody? \(pp. 60, 216\), it will easily accommodate theory, appropriating it for its own affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designs \(cf. Actor Network Theory in social history\). As Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues, the pure thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining theory, deriving from the abstract principle of monetary equivalence sustaining commodity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange and configuring social relationships, )] TJ ET BT 259.976 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ipso)] TJ ET BT 282.980 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(facto)] TJ ET BT 306.980 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( endorses existing structures of political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic domination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.344 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.344 62.787 m 155.336 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.336 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So, where theory drifts towards complacent abstractions, or where, in representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past, historical texts aim ?to )] TJ ET BT 189.008 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(settle)] TJ ET BT 214.340 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to )] TJ ET BT 232.676 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(solve and resolve)] TJ ET BT 315.992 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and thus to )] TJ ET BT 374.660 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(control)] TJ ET BT 409.328 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that which is represented?, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.3357 541.0375 190.3277 552.9175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.3317 526.7815 281.3237 538.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.6557 441.2455 278.6477 453.1255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.3437 63.1015 155.3357 74.9815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 9663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close reading demands ?the performance of rupturing events out of all residual contexts and predictable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts-in-waiting? \(p. 156; p. 178\). Its deliberate intention is to do what historians ?all too rarely fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do?: i.e., ?)] TJ ET BT 83.672 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(damage)] TJ ET BT 121.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the present )] TJ ET BT 179.984 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(status quo)] TJ ET BT 228.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(pp. 15, 275\). So, where historical knowledge under its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inertia ??must somehow fit with what is already known?? \(p.7 9; cf.pp. 156?7\), deconstructive practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisages something different, a ?desedimentation? of discursive strata, a reductive ?hyperanalysis?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repetitive re-reading that generates something new.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.956 725.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.956 723.680 m 293.948 723.680 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.948 725.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politically speaking)] TJ ET BT 128.348 710.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: because, if history does help to ?strengthen the ties that can bind people to place and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past?, to ?cement the individual into a broader historical lineage?, Keith Jenkins would never have become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher of history!)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.008 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.008 680.883 m 158.000 680.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.000 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the candid, 2005 inaugural lecture ??Once upon a time?: On history? he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the effort it required to cut the ?ties? and shatter the ?cement? that would have confined him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest \(albeit ?idyllic?\) social and educational circumstances \(pp. 210?1\). )] TJ ET BT 395.612 653.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 508.292 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves topical now, when a parliamentary report has just confirmed Britain as ?one of the least socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobile countries in Europe?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.664 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.664 623.859 m 192.656 623.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.656 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Its agonistic attitude, its demonstration of the performatively constituted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject \(p. 221\), its disruption of the political-intellectual )] TJ ET BT 311.336 610.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(status quo)] TJ ET BT 360.344 610.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( confront historians who implicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourage social mobility with historicized thinking as its concrete impediment, as a constraining ligature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No wonder Jenkins advocates disobedience, sides with marginal intellectuals, and seizes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernism?s ?guarantee of perpetual, perspectival openness? \(pp. 155, cf. pp. 166, 203\);)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, centrally, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 541.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ethically speaking)] TJ ET BT 190.328 541.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: because informing these essays is a reflective ?principle of recalcitrance? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards established norms and disciplines, towards any kind of dogmatically academic or politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian pre-emption of thought or action \(p. 166\). Jenkins keeps returning to its textual location in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derrida and Badiou where cognition and action, self-realization and ethical commitment intersect, ? thus, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a postmodern culture of uncertainty, certainly orientating himself with reference to those articulating its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty. For once all transcendent signifiers \(like ?History?, ?Reason?, etc.\) prove to be human artifices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once the religious, political or literary text is no longer sacrosanct \(he argues\), received )] TJ ET BT 455.252 456.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a prioris)] TJ ET BT 496.928 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( vanish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing is decided: the subject finds itself in unprecedented circumstances. To produce meaning, it resorts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perpetual interrogation of the signs and texts it encounters, finding from its own cognitive resources in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decisions it enacts, decisions that always keep presenting themselves, the inventiveness they demand \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(152\). The objection that truth cannot be made up like this fails: as )] TJ ET BT 352.652 399.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 396.992 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Kant, Fichte, Schopenhauer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feuerbach, and Nietzsche demonstrate truth has only ever been made up like this. Hence, in the 2007 essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The end of the affair. The irretrievable breakdown of history and ethics?, Jenkins argues \(with Badiou\) that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as instances of disorientation, designating catalysts that void usual situations and affinities, \(historical\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events demand ethical deliberation, create, without excuses or alibis, opportunities for truth: to rely instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on custom, precedent, tradition, or duty ? in other words, to invoke the lessons of history, history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magistra vitae)] TJ ET BT 103.016 313.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? would be, if not an intellectually lazy compromise with received ethical values, at least a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derogation from personal responsibility, the very avoidance of ethical concern \(pp .250?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What then )] TJ ET BT 86.672 273.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 94.676 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at stake in )] TJ ET BT 149.336 273.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 262.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Nothing less than history?s validity. That history could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ?authentic science, ? the primary epistemological basis of human knowledge?, that it had replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy as the queen of the sciences, the Neo-Kantian thinker Karl Leonhard Reinhold proposed in 1790. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This move was already a sophistical trick, since history still needed philosophy for its coherence, even if that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first had to recover from the trauma Kant had inflicted on it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.628 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.628 214.947 m 342.620 214.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.620 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the meantime, history was a stand-in for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainty, what Jenkins aptly calls an ?infinite fix?, such as ?Human Nature?, ?Market Forces?, Reason?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imaginaries all bearing down upon us with the insignia of Truth? \(p.37\). As Jenkins demonstrates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist strategies expose their factitiousness, ? much as Kant?s critical philosophy shattered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surreptitious axioms of rationalist metaphysics: a deep-seated instinct in human cognition seems periodically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to require its complete overhaul and re-orientation to pre-empt self-delusion, to ensure its vital, ?novelty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.676 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.676 129.411 m 117.668 129.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.668 130.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether history can thereafter mutate into some postmodernist variant, as Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally maintains, does seem dubious \(cf. pp. 15, 166\). If the postmodern condition is ineluctable, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has already re-functioned history: its proliferating sub-disciplines and sub-, sub-disciplinary variants, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concomitant generation of micro-spheres of fact and value, both irreducible to a common denominator and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unassimilable to a grand narrative, produce precisely the postmodernist relativism historians oppose. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorsed by, and endorsing, prevailing political and economic regimes, history flourishes in the same old )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.9557 723.9943 293.9477 735.8743 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.0077 681.1975 157.9997 693.0775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.6637 624.1735 192.6557 636.0535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.6277 215.2615 342.6197 227.1415 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6757 129.7255 117.6677 141.6055 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 10510 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, except that, in these postmodern circumstances, its persuasive force grows in inverse proportion to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cognitive potential. Hence, as Jenkins confirms \(p. 236\), it persists not as an epistemologically-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline. Instead, it functions as a socialized management-technology, an integral part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive technocratic-bureaucratic system governing current existence \(cf. p. 202\). The technocrat-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians maintaining it with ?scholarly expertise?, doubling as gate-keepers ever ready to discredit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?qualifications? of their critics \(p. 110\), evince a typical professional conceit: claiming to be the ?best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified?, the ?best placed?, to speak for the public outside the discipline, they )] TJ ET BT 417.956 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ipso facto)] TJ ET BT 464.960 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( block external, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public back-chat or any view in which they are ?unable to recognize themselves? \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.240 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13 \))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.240 695.283 m 484.232 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.232 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( History thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirms the expert-culture which, if unquestioned, buttresses the present-day risk-society: as Jenkins insists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?it is not the laid-back relativist who one ought to be afraid of but people, or institutions ? who claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know the truth of things at the actually irreducible level of interpretation? \(p.241\). Confronting thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desolation of affirmative historical culture on thoughtful ethical grounds, )] TJ ET BT 387.308 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 499.988 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evinces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual resilience and conveys an urgent immediacy ? what in the struggle for social hope Ernst Bloch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls the ?actual experience of being on philosophy?s front-line?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.280 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.280 609.747 m 366.272 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jenkins is happy to accept Martin Davies' incisive and generous review and does not wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment - except to say thanks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory Bateson, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Steps to an Ecology of Mind)] TJ ET BT 287.324 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago & London, 2000\), p. 493.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.980 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.980 503.715 m 513.968 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernest Gellner, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legitimation of Belief)] TJ ET BT 244.340 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1979\), p. 30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.660 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.660 489.459 m 425.648 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques Derrida, )] TJ ET BT 146.984 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De la grammatologie)] TJ ET BT 249.644 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1967\); Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, )] TJ ET BT 488.276 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capitalisme et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(schizophrenie. Vol. 2, Mille plateaux)] TJ ET BT 241.004 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.996 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.996 460.947 m 362.984 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellner, )] TJ ET BT 106.004 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legitimation of Belief)] TJ ET BT 210.680 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 28?9, 44; \(cf. )] TJ ET BT 301.664 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(At the Limits of History)] TJ ET BT 414.344 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 256\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.340 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.340 446.691 m 511.328 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedrich Nietzsche, )] TJ ET BT 164.324 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jenseits von Gut und Bse)] TJ ET BT 290.972 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 34; )] TJ ET BT 321.308 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die frhliche Wissenschaft)] TJ ET BT 450.632 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 112.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.632 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.632 432.435 m 537.620 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Rorty, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature)] TJ ET BT 316.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1983\), p.160.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.664 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.664 418.179 m 481.652 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Sohn-Rethel, )] TJ ET BT 164.336 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warenform und Denkform. Mit zwei Anhngen)] TJ ET BT 389.648 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Frankfurt am Main, 1978\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(96?7, 127 ff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.336 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.336 389.667 m 179.324 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques Derrida & Antoine Spire, )] TJ ET BT 229.316 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Au-del des apparences)] TJ ET BT 344.624 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Latresne, 2002\), pp. 18, 20, 22, 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.932 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.932 375.411 m 559.928 375.411 l S BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 361.155 m 78.008 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Hunt, ?Feeling a bit dislocated??, )] TJ ET BT 271.988 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBC History Magazine)] TJ ET BT 383.984 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7, 7 \(2006\), 27; and ?How does )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television enhance history?? in )] TJ ET BT 215.324 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and the Media)] TJ ET BT 323.648 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David Cannadine, \(Basingstoke, 2004\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.97.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.016 318.387 m 142.004 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Wintour, ?Britain?s closed shop?, )] TJ ET BT 266.324 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 333.992 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22 July 2009, p.4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.996 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.996 304.131 m 485.984 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl Leonhard Reinhold, )] TJ ET BT 186.668 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Briefe ber die Kantische Philosophie: Band I)] TJ ET BT 409.316 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leipzig, 1790\), pp. 14, 29, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 275.619 m 150.332 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred North Whitehead, )] TJ ET BT 187.316 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modes of Thought)] TJ ET BT 274.652 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1968\), p.28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.960 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.960 261.363 m 455.948 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Tosh, )] TJ ET BT 119.684 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why History Matters )] TJ ET BT 223.340 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2008\), pp. 97, 110, 131, 143.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.000 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.000 247.107 m 490.988 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernst Bloch, )] TJ ET BT 127.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophische Aufstze zur objektiven Phantasie)] TJ ET BT 365.672 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Frankfurt am Main, 1985\), p.147.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 218.595 m 124.004 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 193.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 174.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 156.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 156.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/834)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 155.577 m 322.316 155.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 130.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3817)] TJ ET BT 34.016 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