%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417064442+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417064442+01'00') /Title (Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4097 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This important and stimulating study of the rural credit market in later medieval England, which originated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a Cambridge PhD thesis, is a carefully and thematically structured book with six chapters, each containing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between four and six subchapters in addition to the conclusion and two extensive and useful appendices. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid the analysis the text is peppered with a total of 35 well presented and integrated maps, figures and tables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing a painstakingly accumulated array of data relating to the credit market of the manors under study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix one provides some useful examples of debt entries from manorial courts with translations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix two contains a comprehensive discussion of the research methodology, including the methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to identify and correlate the information related to individual creditors and debtors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs sets out to explore the credit market comparatively in five different manors, namely Balsham, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Littleport and Willingham in Cambridgeshire, in the hands of the bishop of Ely, and Oakington, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also located in Cambridgeshire. Oakington?s jurisdiction extended beyond that of a single manor, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassed the business of the manors of Cottenham and Dry Drayton. These were all held by Crowland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbey. The final manor was Great Horwood in Buckinghamshire which was held by the Cluniac Priory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sources used were manorial court records, which have been utilised successfully for some time by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(835)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Briggs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780197264416)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship Monograph / Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780197264416.do#.Ui3Jy8akpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miriam Mller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to gain invaluable insights into various aspects of the daily lives of the medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry. In this case they were used to offer insights into village credit markets by examining and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing in detail the various private lawsuits concerning debts brought by peasants into the manorial court. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While revealing a wealth of information and data, as Briggs points out, the use of these sources are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without their problems. Unfortunately manorial courts are only able to offer a limited insight into the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individual debts recorded. The deeper and perhaps long standing relationship between the debtor and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creditor often remain hidden from view. Similarly generally the total sum of money borrowed remains, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with the motive for borrowing, often unknown. Another problem with court records is that by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very nature, they tend to record cases where something has gone wrong, and business which ends up in court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by definition reaches the court due to a problem. This, according to Briggs, makes it impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruct the credit market of individual villages in their entirety \(p. 15\) .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless despite their limitations and problems manor court records do offer unparalleled insights into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how peasants dealt with debt and credit in their communities. Chris Briggs? approach to the problem of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village credit market is essentially twofold. On the one hand his aim is to help fill a gap in our knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and understanding of the medieval rural credit market, and on the other he sets out to challenge some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional, negative views of the role of credit in the medieval village. In the past the use of credit was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen to be indicative of peasant poverty or, at the very least, more or less short term economic difficulties, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line of thinking epitomised by those historical writings which cited the first half of the 14th century in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular as a period of crisis, as outlined by Postan \(p. 8\). Similarly Briggs wanted to test the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that credit functioned to reinforce social and economic differences between peasants; especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the small clique of the wealthy peasant kulaks, who are often seen as a key creditors out to exploit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of the local peasantry, and the poorer sections of the peasant community left at their mercy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim to re-investigate such views by means of a wide-ranging and detailed study is admirable and Briggs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds in painting a much more positive picture of the role of credit in medieval villages. Briggs? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistic conclusions regarding the role and durability of the nature of the credit market in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English villages are refreshing and thought provoking. He does not see the credit market simply as symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of economic crisis, instability or dearth. Instead he reveals a very resilient and flexible credit market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptable to local circumstances and not easily disrupted due to the particular nature in which credit was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handled in the village communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs credits the peasants of his study with agency, intelligence and flexibility in their lives. They are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpless exploited victims at the whims of the vagaries of either the weather or the local lord or indeed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominating local peasant elite. A key factor here is the discovery that credit relationships generally extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizontally, that is debtors and creditors appear to have been more or less equal in wealth, and often pretty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much everybody in individual villages was involved in the local credit market. Therefore while some local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in the extent to which villagers were involved in credit arrangements, can be observed, generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lending and borrowing were very widespread. However, while Briggs accordingly notes the relative absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the stereotypical rich kulak in such credit arrangements, he nevertheless points out that not everybody was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in the credit market to the same degree.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a study of this type one always comes up against the frustrating limitation of the available sources. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of litigation give little or no insight into the wider context of the history surrounding the litigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including cases of debt. This complicates the examination of such interesting question as the lengths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit arrangements and the nature of the loan term or the duration of credit agreements, as discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter three.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs only managed to unearth 13 cases which provide information on the date when credit was extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as a date upon which payment fell due \(p. 71\). In these cases the loan terms ranged from one day to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one year. This is interesting in itself, but at times I would have liked to have read more about the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases involved. Most of the debt cases listed in table 3.1 \(p. 72\) regarding loan terms at the village of West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halton concern grain or malt \(nine out of 11\), and it would have been interesting to find out more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what types of debts these might have been. Some appear to have been monies owed from sales, like 16s. for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two quarters of barley, but this is not made fully clear. Might it be possible that the grain was loaned and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cash value attached to it for the benefit of the court? It is also interesting to note that six of those loans listed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originated in periods of poor harvests, one in 1311, one in 1315 and one in 1318, another three in 1332?3, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when both wheat and barley harvests were affected. While the role of famine and death are discussed at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later stage in the book, a discussion of these factors at this point would have been very interesting, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as there seems to be no correlation between the lengths of the terms of the loans and their date of origin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due to laws against usury, cases involving interest charges, where they might have existed are unfortunately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven off the records and Briggs found only two cases of allegations of usury across the examined court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records. Briggs rightly warns the reader not to conclude from this absence of evidence, evidence of absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 75\). Few would have wanted to risk being denounced as usurers in the courts and lending for interest was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably an activity which went on, but well outside the radar of the manorial court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs is cautious of the suggestion made by Mark Bailey that it is possible that payments which fell due )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the court?s deliberation for damages, payable in compensation for outstanding debts, may well have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted as a form of payment for the lender \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.948 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.948 585.747 m 283.940 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.940 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead he points out that there is little direct correlation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the size of the debt and the level of compensation raised. More important however is the revelation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in many cases creditors did not apparently demand or exact the damages awarded to them by the court. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As ever, the court records in such cases can only hint at what was going on between the parties outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal arena of the manor court, when much of the negotiations between the parties involved would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken place. While Briggs asserts that damages were only awarded upon the default of payment when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case was presented at court, it could be argued that this may have been a planned strategy from the start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the debtor and the creditor, in at least some cases. Peasants may well have used the court?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and conventions for their own purposes, which may have been quite different from those officially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also engages with the long-standing discussion of the role of land and leaseholding in rural credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. In chapter three it is suggested that the leasing of land was sometimes used to secure loans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an interesting and very probable proposition. However, the problem lies again in the limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court rolls, and it is impossible to know how many, or indeed if any of such leases were arranged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure loans. At the manors of Horwood and Oakington Briggs observed very active lease markets in years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of crisis, due to poor harvests or high taxation. This could be explained at least partly by peasants subletting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of their land to raise cash. However Briggs also contends that there is some correlation between leases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the extension of credit. He concludes that most credit in villages was given on a short term basis, usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for less than a year, while land was used only occasionally as security for credit arrangements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparing English with continental credit arrangements it is observed that in England there seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a greater dependence on oral sureties than in other European countries. However, far from seeing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a weakness, Briggs argues convincingly that manorial courts enforced oral debts arrangements generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively \(p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five lets the reader get close to some real experiences of 14th century peasant life and there are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging stories of individual indebtedness. This chapter also touches on the intra-peasant land market, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the connections between peasant debt and leasing. Briggs found that indeed many leases appear not to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been related to credit arrangements. Of great interest and an important contribution to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit systems are the conclusions drawn from these discussions. Briggs argues that in the villages of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study people generally borrowed without experiencing any serious long-term problems of indebtedness or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardship, and that there was also no real evidence of serious exploitation by individual creditors. Briggs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the rather interesting observation that this type of credit market may have represented a typical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of Midland type manors. These experiences of credit relationships, he argues, may have stood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to the prevailing circumstances of East Anglian manorial communities, which witnessed a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of landless or smallholding peasants, due to the prevalence of fragmented holdings, and who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a lot more vulnerable to impoverishment or debt.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.9477 586.0615 283.9397 597.9415 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7302 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four brings the reader into close contact with the individuals involved in rural credit relationships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are examined in detail. An interesting observation made here is that until about the 15th or 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries credit arrangements were conducted primarily between individuals, and not institutions. Similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs contends that seigniorial involvement in village credit was virtually unheard of, and the involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the local clergy was very limited, possibly due to fears of accusations of usury.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should not come as a surprise of course that seigniorial visibility in the credit market would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either low or non existent. A lord would hardly have borrowed from most peasants, who, in any case, if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unfree would have had no legal recourse against their lord should he have defaulted on any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repayments. However, the indirect extension of credit by a lord to individual peasants could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored at some depth. This could potentially have included lords granting peasants time to pay off large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one-off fines, such as entry fines or even rents, in instalments across several months or a year. Similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances of tenants being accused of withholding rents or owing the lord portions of rents, which court rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes note, may potentially hide cases where the lord did extend credit to individual tenants who then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to meet the agreements made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since there has been an increasing interest of the role of women in credit relationships, Briggs? section on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the credit market in chapter four is a very welcome addition to these debates. In particular Briggs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the problem of coverture in the representation of women in credit arrangements. It is indeed often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to tell if on occasion husbands stood in for their wives in any form of court proceedings, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt litigation. However, Briggs argues against historians like McIntosh )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.988 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.988 502.467 m 396.980 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.980 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who have expressed doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manor court can be seen as a true reflection of the involvement of women in the credit market, due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of an informal network of credit arrangements, which meant that only a fraction of cases would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually end up in the formal framework of the manorial court. Briggs however is highly sceptical of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of such informal networks: ?we should perhaps be sceptical about the existence of an informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village credit network undocumented by the court rolls? \(p.113\). One reason for this is, he argues, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of coverture would have made it problematic for anyone to reclaim a debt from a married woman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who in theory would not be sued in her own right. Thus Briggs asserts not only that the involvement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the credit market was fairly limited, with a participation rate ranging from ten per cent to 18.1 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent, and that this is a fairly true representation, but that the majority of women who appeared in credit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt cases were unmarried and widows \(p. 114\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not clear how Briggs came to the conclusion that the women who thus appeared in their own right in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of debt litigation were in fact widows. An expansion of the discussion would have been helpful and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest here, especially as other studies have questioned the effectiveness of coverture in barring or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shielding women from local manor court proceedings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is welcome and proper that Briggs aims to represent the peasantry as resilient and intelligent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he is keen to negate their at times unjustly accorded victim status, a potential area of criticism is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative absence of lordship from the discussions of the village credit market. One does not have to view the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry as helplessly subjugated in order to acknowledge the important role lordship played in the fortunes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the local peasantry. Peasants were frequently indebted to their lords, by, for instance owing them rents in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind or cash or in the withholding of labour services or other dues which fell on free and unfree peasants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees. At times peasants defaulted in rent payments, and a comparative examination on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts dealt with such debts to the lord and debts to other peasants would have been of great interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly the question remains to what extend peasants might have been forced to borrow cash in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet seigniorial demands for rents or entry fines, especially perhaps at times of stress or at crucial stages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their life-cycle, such as when first taking up a holding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another interesting question in this context would have been whether changes in seigniorial pressures on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local communities, such as have been examined in a number of local studies, across the 14th century, led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts in the dynamics of credit arrangements between peasants. For example, did debt levels rise when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seigniorial demands were increased, or vice versa, did the weakening of seigniorial control towards the later )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9877 502.7815 396.9797 514.6615 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2860 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth century also impact on credit arrangements in the respective peasant communities?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall Briggs? )] TJ ET BT 113.336 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Credit and Village Society)] TJ ET BT 240.332 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ambitious and detailed study, and is a welcome addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a growing corpus of works dealing specifically with the nature of rural society in later medieval England. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such it will be of great interest, not only to those who specialise in the history of credit or debt or the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of private litigation, but also those concerned more broadly with the social and economic history of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in the pre-modern era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Bailey, ?Peasant welfare in England, 1290?1348?, )] TJ ET BT 324.968 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 449.612 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51 \(1998\), 223?51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 632.019 m 118.004 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 147.344 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Women in English Society, 1300?1620)] TJ ET BT 377.324 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.644 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.644 617.763 m 528.632 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/519/412.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 562.995 m 313.004 562.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 559.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 541.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 541.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/835)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 540.489 m 322.316 540.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3818)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/519/412.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 632.3335 118.0037 644.2135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.6437 618.0775 528.6317 629.9575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 563.3095 313.0037 575.1895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/519/412.full) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 540.8035 322.3157 552.6835 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/835) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000004797 00000 n 0000004906 00000 n 0000005016 00000 n 0000005125 00000 n 0000008686 00000 n 0000008814 00000 n 0000008898 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000016303 00000 n 0000016387 00000 n 0000023765 00000 n 0000023795 00000 n 0000023923 00000 n 0000023959 00000 n 0000024043 00000 n 0000031398 00000 n 0000031428 00000 n 0000031556 00000 n 0000031592 00000 n 0000031697 00000 n 0000034610 00000 n 0000034737 00000 n 0000034792 00000 n 0000034920 00000 n 0000034975 00000 n 0000035102 00000 n 0000035210 00000 n 0000035338 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35433 %%EOF