%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 40 0 R 45 0 R 53 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026015218+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026015218+00'00') /Title (The History of Italian Cinema: a Guide to Italian Film from its Origins to the Twenty-First Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4911 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The History of Italian Cinema: a Guide to Italian Film from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Origins to the Twenty-First Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This new history of Italian cinema is in fact a translation of Gian Piero Brunetta?s 2003 volume )] TJ ET BT 496.292 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guida alla )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(storia del cinema italiano 1905?2003 )] TJ ET BT 217.688 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Guide to the History of Italian Cinema 1905-2003]. It is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give an accurate sense, for the non-Italianist, of Brunetta?s stature within the field of Italian film studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor of Cinema History at the University of Padua, his works on Italian film have been voluminous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palimpsestic, frequently overlapping and regularly being reissued in slightly different forms. His major work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is his four-volume )] TJ ET BT 125.012 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storia del cinema italiano)] TJ ET BT 250.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [History of Italian Cinema]\(Einaudi, 1993\), of which the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume was reissued in updated form only this year. The four-volume )] TJ ET BT 372.632 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storia)] TJ ET BT 401.972 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the ?ineluctable point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference? for any scholar working on Italian film, and overshadows all other such works.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.572 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.572 165.009 m 479.564 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.564 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunetta?s prolific output, and the undoubted authority with which he speaks, mean that he occupies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central position within the study of Italian film in Italy and abroad; as Alan O?Leary writes, ?Italian cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies is written )] TJ ET BT 118.352 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after )] TJ ET BT 144.020 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gian Piero Brunetta?s pioneering work, and is always indebted to it?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.308 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.308 122.241 m 491.300 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.300 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first English translation of his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunetta opens his work by making a distinction between the activity of the critic and that of the historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing himself firmly in the latter camp: ?while critics tend to separate, to distinguish, to condemn, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create hierarchical values \(often with ephemeral longevity\), the historian?s primary task is to shed light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(837)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gian Piero Brunetta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691119885)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(397pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine O'Rawe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.5717 165.3235 479.5637 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.3077 122.5555 491.2997 134.4355 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8670 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationships between different elements? \(p. 4\). History is the watchword of Brunetta?s text, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing body of accessible archival sources on the history of the Italian film industry is enthusiastically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even over-enthusiastically, welcomed by him: ?hopefully a new historiographic spirit will continue to ascend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? like a Pentecostal spirit ? among university scholars in Italy and abroad? \(p. 6\). It is worth pausing for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second to unpack some of the disciplinary issues raised by these comments. Historical and empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on film emerged in the 1970s, particularly in North America; David Bordwell traces its rise to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of so-called ?Grand Theory? \(semiotics, psychoanalysis, structuralism\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.940 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.940 709.539 m 429.932 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.932 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What Bordwell calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?middle-level research?, small-scale studies of the material practices of film, is analogous to Allen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gomery?s refusal of what they call ?superhistory?, a totalizing history that ?could be written only if this or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?correct? perspective were taken and all the facts of film history uncovered?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.232 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.232 666.771 m 438.224 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?historical turn? within film studies has involved a focus on audiences and reception history, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival study of production, distribution and exhibition contexts, as well as the histories of technologies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Staiger?s important work on historical reception studies in 1992 laid the ground for a materialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the empirical spectator, assumed by psychoanalytic criticism to be ahistorical.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.612 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.612 597.747 m 481.604 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.604 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach film viewing practices are shown to be embedded in social and economic contexts, and Staiger and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others such as Robert Allen, Richard Maltby and Miriam Hansen have demonstrated the effects of gender, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race, geography and class on the historical interpretation of films.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.956 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.956 554.979 m 362.948 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the UK work on audiences and reception is flourishing, and empirical work has been combined with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional theoretical approaches, as in the seminal work on popular reception of stars by Jackie Stacey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 534.248 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 534.248 514.467 m 548.240 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This type of broadly culturalist approach is very much the norm in UK film studies. In Italy, however, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has never been an academic tradition of cultural studies in the sense in that the UK and the USA have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, there has been relatively little Italian work on the history of technologies, or of exhibition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception, and a certain critical insularity has prevented the dismantling of what Allen and Gomery critiqued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1985 as the ?masterpiece tradition?, based on aesthetic valuation. Valuable work on the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience, often involving oral histories, has been somewhat sidelined, while philological approaches to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of film texts and genres have prevailed, generally asserting the primacy of the director as supreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auteur.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.004 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.004 400.419 m 80.996 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.996 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Significantly, Brunetta immediately slides from the macrohistorical paradigm he lays out \(?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final analysis shows Italian film history to be relatively unified despite its complex, multisided structure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irregular development and discontinuities?, \(p. 8\)\) and a praise for the ?philology of film? that is at the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Italian critical practice \(p. 6\). So for Brunetta the film-text itself is at the core of his project \(along with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originator, the director, as we shall see\), and his interest in the economic and social conditions in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films are produced and consumed is permanently at war with his view of the great films by auteurs such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica and Federico Fellini as transhistorical objects, consumed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undifferentiated spectators.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into five chapters, and aims to give a chronological account of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cinema, from its earliest manifestation in popular travelling shows to its current attempts to compete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a media landscape transformed by TV and internet. In the book?s first two chapters, on early cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cinema under Fascism, Brunetta is quite successful at relating texts, genres, practitioners and technicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to social and industrial changes, writing interestingly, if all too briefly, on the evolution of the travelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema or the role of the cinema barker; he is able both to detail Fascism?s instrumentalization of cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through its institutions, and yet shows how Italian Jewish directors and migrs from Germany and Austria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still found work in the film industry of Fascist Italy . He gives a brief but fascinating account of film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production in the Republic of Sal, the puppet government set up by the Nazis in 1943 with Mussolini at its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head. Although the republic lasted only 18 months, 19 films were put into production, and this interlude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains underexamined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In later chapters, however, although social, economic and political history are in the background of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunetta?s narrative, its structuring principle is auteurism: his account conceives of directors as social actors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely disengaged from their contexts, even as free-floating geniuses. 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The overdetermined construction of neorealism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the privileged origin of Italian cinema, as its ground zero, has the effect of relegating all other production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the post-war period to the margins. Brunetta?s conception of neorealism as a new beginning acts as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for his vision of Italian cinema in genealogical terms. His narrative is full of metaphorical fathers \(with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rossellini the supreme father figure\), )] TJ ET BT 215.984 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maestri)] TJ ET BT 251.984 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, successors, legacies and patrimonies. The repetition of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphors leads to a certain unintentional absurdity: if ?the umbilical cords that connect the neorealist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers and subsequent generations have never been severed? \(p. 157\), then Brunetta is ascribing to the male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(director the function of both siring and birthing, his patriarchal language emphasising the redundancy of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female presence. In fact, men are also responsible for delivering the filmic progeny in this paradigm: Cesare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zavattini, the screenwriter of De Sica?s neorealist films, is described, presumably not literally, as ?guide and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midwife? \(p. 135\). It is clear that the repressed of Brunetta?s homosocial text is the absence of women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except as the buxom, shapely stars in the 1950s, and a few exceptional female directors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An example of what is lost to film history and criticism by the privileging of great auteurs and realism as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode in the post-war period can be seen in Brunetta?s observation that post-war cinema ?depicted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics and transformations of Italians? lives ? a ?public diary? of their attitudes and collective mentality? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 126\). ?The people? are constantly invoked here, though the concept is never interrogated, nor is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly gendered. Although Brunetta notes the range of genres operative in this period, and the prevalence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of melodramas and operatic films with a Resistance or war theme, his statement that ?for a time, everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopped on the neorealist bandwagon? \(p. 140\) overlooks the function of this rich array of genres in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing and working through the experience of occupation and Resistance. In fact, Mary Wood has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that ?realist cinematic conventions were insufficient for the maximum perception of the complexity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historical context? in this period, and that the ?affective charge? of melodrama was essential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring this complexity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.016 469.443 m 171.008 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 171.008 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The problem with melodrama, of course ? which rendered it suspect to the left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing critics of the 1940s and ?50s, and indeed to today?s critics ? is that it is assumed to have a female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address, and an appeal to the emotions, through the use of suffering female protagonists and family scandals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a way of staging and working through the national trauma. Brunetta has a huge knowledge of film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production in this period, and he is able to lay out all the pieces, but his ideological stance prevents him from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing neorealism as merely a generic variant among many in the period, and one which was ill equipped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the experiences of women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The spectator in this period is constantly invoked: he is universal, transcendent, ungendered and assumed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be acting in the way that Brunetta thinks he acted. For example, Brunetta says that Rossellini ?restored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man?s greatness to the camera? \(p. 121\) and repeatedly asserts that the audience recognised themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his masterpiece )] TJ ET BT 111.332 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rome Open City)] TJ ET BT 190.652 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?it was a magical, unique moment? \(p. 123\). Unfortunately we know very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little about historical audiences in this period, apart from the fact that they tended to prefer films other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neorealist ones. Brunetta?s hyperbole \(?all knowledge, every paradigm and rule of films, had been swept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away? \(p. 125\)\) leaves unasked questions about the real popularity of neorealism, and about the preferences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of audiences for weepies, opera films, comedies and swashbuckling adventure films, particularly once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood films re-entered the Italian market. It also fails to address the question of neorealism itself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode that incorporates a wide range of stylistic practices and generic elements, including Hollywood ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book Brunetta has a keen eye for changes in the film industry, and is especially good on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-productions of the 1950s and 1960s; he argues for the need to study TV movies in the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production context of the 1980s onwards, and shows an appreciation of cult genres such as sex comedies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westerns and horror. Again, though, Brunetta?s appreciation is hamstrung by his reflectionist view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation between film texts and genres and their contexts. So when he argues that studying the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comedies of the 1960s and 1970s is valuable, his argument is that their value lies precisely in their ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document social change: ?[they] provide us with an overview that could have been used in an annual report )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sociological statistics documenting the Italian society? \(p. 185\). Earlier he had noted that the films of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular realism of the 1950s offer ?a preview of future sociological investigation and census-taking that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be offered later by Italian institutions like Doxa, Istat and Censis? \(p. 127\). It goes without saying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film does more than document social change, and while Brunetta has perhaps felt it necessary, within a very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.0157 469.7575 171.0077 481.6375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8222 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative Italian academy, to assert the sociological worth of film, one feels that he has forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jameson?s view that narrative forms themselves are ideological acts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunetta?s knowledge is encyclopaedic, even if he could have been better served by his editor at times, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his tendency towards lists \(of directors, films, technicians\), is a little overwhelming, and probably unhelpful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the casual reader. For example, page 301 is entirely composed of a list of debut films from the 1990s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would have been interesting to have fewer titles and some analysis. Brunetta?s style ? his predilection for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colourful and elaborate metaphor - makes for a difficult translation task, but it has to be said that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are many infelicities here: the suggestion that the popular actors Aldo Fabrizi and Anna Magnani ?break new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(air? \(p. 89\) in a 1943 film is puzzling, as is the assertion that they were ?ferryboat captains? \(p. 91\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a truly staggering passage which runs thus: ??Mamma mia, Italian cinema got smaller!? The average )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian moviegoer might say something like this if she or he were to awake after thirty years of hibernation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 255\). Neither has Brunetta?s tendency to mix metaphors been resolved in the translation: Italian cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?has breathed in and digested the surrounding atmosphere? and ?fed on contemporary political humours? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it ?was traversed by winds and currents that blew and flowed in more than one direction? \(p. 9\). There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also many typographical errors, a shame from a publisher such as Princeton. The Berlusconi-owned holding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company of which film production and distribution arm Medusa is a part is Fininvest, not Finivest; Fellini?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET BT 49.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is inexplicably rendered as )] TJ ET BT 183.320 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET BT 189.320 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( throughout; De Sica?s )] TJ ET BT 301.976 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ladri di biciclette)] TJ ET BT 387.980 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?bicycles? plural\) is given as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ladri di bicicletta)] TJ ET BT 120.692 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?bicycle?\) etc. It is to be hoped these errors will be corrected in a future edition. Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question of the text?s addressee is interesting: of the voluminous secondary reading referenced the vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority is in Italian, and therefore difficult to access for the undergraduate student of film or the casual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, whilst the reader with a strong reading knowledge of Italian and access to Italian libraries will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably prefer to read the book in the original. It might have made sense for Princeton to slim down both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text and its references, and offer a comprehensive English-language bibliography, as there are many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant journal articles and collections in English that Brunetta does not cite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one sense it is misguided to take Brunetta?s work as the sober work of history he claims it is: despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s protestations, it is intended, and written, as a passionate, infuriating, subjective guide to Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema. It is impossible to doubt his belief, his religious faith in the moral and ethical transformative power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a certain kind of Italian cinema; his closing note \(in the epilogue, written in 2007, that is, after the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of the text, which dates from before 2003\) that contemporary Italian filmmakers ?are attending an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninterrupted banquet with the mystical body and blood of Rossellini \(and that of Zavattini, Olmi, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pasolini as well\)? \(p. 320\), might raise eyebrows for the seeming equation of Rossellini with Jesus Christ, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this Christological analogy is the logical conclusion of Brunetta?s act of faith. To critique his view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(golden age Italian cinema as a ?Renaissance workshop? is beside the point, in a way. You either believe or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you don?t, and the text?s force is as an act of persuasion, of proselytising and conversion. If another film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian were to write the words with which Brunetta closes the body of the text, ?if Italian cinema is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become competitive again, filmmakers have to once again believe that they can fly? \(p. 314\), with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconscious evocation of R. Kelly, one might despair at such an idealistic, ahistorical \(and cheesy\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiration. Yet with Brunetta, it makes sense. Ultimately what comes across from his text, is not so much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philology of film, but a theology, in which faith and absurdity exist side by side.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has not responded to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan O?Leary, ?After Brunetta: Italian cinema studies in Italy, 2000 to 2007?, )] TJ ET BT 442.280 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Italian Studies, )] TJ ET BT 517.952 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue on ?Thinking Italian Film?, ed. A. O?Leary and C. O?Rawe, 63, 2 \(2008\), 279. I am grateful to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan for his comments on this review.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.664 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.664 109.059 m 301.652 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET BT 86.348 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Emphasis in original.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.684 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.684 94.803 m 245.672 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bordwell, ?Contemporary film studies and the vicissitudes of grand theory?, in )] TJ ET BT 478.640 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Post-Theory: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing Film Studies)] TJ ET BT 200.012 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Bordwell and N. Carroll \(Madison, WI, 1996\), p. 29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.972 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.972 66.291 m 545.960 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert C. Allen and Douglas Gomery, )] TJ ET BT 251.996 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film History: Theory and Practice)] TJ ET BT 419.312 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1985\), p. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.6637 109.3735 301.6517 121.2535 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.6837 95.1175 245.6717 106.9975 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9717 66.6055 545.9597 78.4855 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 5829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.352 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.352 795.075 m 130.340 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Staiger, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpreting Films: Studies in the Historical Reception of American Cinema )] TJ ET BT 499.652 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NJ, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.344 766.563 m 168.332 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert C. Allen, ?Relocating American film history?, )] TJ ET BT 324.656 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Studies)] TJ ET BT 403.004 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20, 1 \(2006\), 48?88; Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maltby, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Going to the Movies: Hollywood and the Social Experience of Cinema )] TJ ET BT 446.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Exeter, 2007\); Miriam )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hansen, )] TJ ET BT 106.004 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film)] TJ ET BT 388.988 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1991\). See also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate in )] TJ ET BT 128.336 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinema Journal)] TJ ET BT 206.000 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44, 1\(2004\) on where film history and empirical research is going.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.612 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.612 709.539 m 558.272 709.539 l S BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 90.344 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackie Stacey, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Star Gazing: )] TJ ET BT 199.664 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship)] TJ ET BT 421.652 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\). Stacey?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on oral history has influenced Annette Kuhn?s )] TJ ET BT 337.976 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Everyday Magic: Cinema and Cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory)] TJ ET BT 104.000 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), and current projects such as the AHRC-funded ?A History of Television for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women in Britain: 1947?1989?, being carried out by Rachel Moseley, Helen Wheatley and Helen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wood. See also John Sedgwick?s articles on economics and exhibition in the UK, and recent articles )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Luke McKernan?s, ??Only the Screen was Silent?? memories of children?s cinemagoing in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London before the First World War?, )] TJ ET BT 246.308 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film Studies)] TJ ET BT 306.644 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 \(2007\), 1?20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.964 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.964 595.491 m 445.952 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the Italian audience, see the work of Mariagrazia Fanchi, particularly Mariagrazia Fanchi, ?Un )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genere di storia. Alcune considerazioni su storia di genere e storiografia del cinema?, in ?Cinema e )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender Studies?, ed. G. Alonge and R. West, edition of )] TJ ET BT 333.644 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La valle dell?Eden)] TJ ET BT 424.304 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 \(2007\), 183?93; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spettatori : forme di consumo e pubblici del cinema in Italia, 1930-1960)] TJ ET BT 412.664 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Fanchi and E. 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