%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082744+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082744+01'00') /Title (Fat, Gluttony and Sloth: Obesity in Literature, Art and Medicine) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fat, Gluttony and Sloth: Obesity in Literature, Art and Medicine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The co-authors of this volume are David Haslam, the Chair and Clinical Director of the National Obesity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forum and Fiona Haslam, a former physician, art historian, and the author of a distinguished study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine and Art in Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 417.008 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.008 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.008 243.417 m 434.000 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.000 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This summarizes both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strength and the weakness of this comprehensive study of the representation ? and the reality ? of fat in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high and popular culture in the West. The study assumes a set of given physiological \(and by implication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological\) models for obesity that are seen as transhistorical: if you are fat you have the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathologies listed from apnea to ? Cultural sources are then used to document the transhistorical nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this list of symptoms, but the study also assumes that the very concept of representing fat has specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological implications ranging from notions of ?gluttony? to those of ?sloth?. These associations are seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being very time-bound and rooted in specific cultural and/or religious views of the body.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet in the 21st century even the new global medicine of obesity stresses that there may well be a plurality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often-conflicting causes \(read: meanings\) of obesity. Central among them, however, are social and genetic-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiological explanations:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1\) A shift in ?quality of life? and life expectancy. We live longer now, have less physically stressful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations, and have easier access to more food. ?The epidemic of obesity can be understood as a logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(838)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 November, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Haslam)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiona Haslam)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846310935)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sander Gilman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.0077 243.7315 433.9997 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of the fact that it has become progressively easier to consume more calories while expending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.656 780.819 m 83.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\) The idea that we depend psychologically on food as a means of manipulating our immediate environment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an assumption that obesity is simply on a continuum with anorexia nervosa, which has been so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by psychologists. Obesity is thus a mental illness, but this category itself shifts from a psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a somatic one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\) Abundant access to poor food and the absence of structures to engage physical activity: the obesity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\) The loss of control over our consumption of food because of our addictive behavior. Addiction is usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood following the medical model of some type of pathological genetic predisposition in an individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a group rather than a ?weakness of will?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5\) A ?normal? genetic predisposition understood in terms of evolutionary biological drive to accumulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body fat in order to preclude starvation in times of famine. This is the ?ob-gen? \(or ?thrifty-gene?\) argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered in work on the genetics of obesity in mice that extrapolated its findings to human beings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6\) A disruption of normal growth because of the changes in the endocrine system though pathological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes including aging \(also understood as pathological\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7\) The result of infection since over the past 20 years six different pathogens have been reported to cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obesity in animal models as well as humans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is clear is that any single explanation maybe possible for any given individual, but it is the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of ?obesity? that have now turned it into today?s ?epidemic? of obesity. The cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of these claims are vitiated by specific, contemporary attitudes towards the body and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings within the system in which it is found. As a culturally bound concept ?epidemic? today has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power that ?gluttony? had in the Middle Ages. Both gain their power from the system of meaning that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shapes attitudes towards socially acceptable and non-acceptable categories. We must remember that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxiety about epidemics is a recent if resurgent phenomenon \(it mirrors the rhetoric of the 19th century\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late as 1969 the then Surgeon General of the United States, William T. Stewart, suggested to Congress that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was now ?time to close the book on infectious disease as a major health threat?. Three decades later, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996, Gro Harlem Brundtland, the then Director-General of the World Health Organization, gave a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different prophecy: ?We stand on the brink of a global crisis in infectious diseases. No country is safe from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them?. We moved from a sense of accomplishment to one of foreboding. The new epidemic is that of ?fat? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though in 2009 ?swine flu? has come to challenge for the moment its centrality in the public sphere. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haslams believe that their physiology of fat reflects transhistorical \(evolutionary or physiological\) truths, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural meanings grafted onto the social implications of body size.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constructing diseases such as obesity does not always mean inventing them. Often real pathological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences are rethought as part of a new pattern that can be then discerned, diagnosed, and treated. Obesity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a category has been the subject of such a public reconceptualization over the past decades. It has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the target of public health campaigns and spurred a global rethinking of where the sources of danger for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public may lie. Fat people exist in the world, but the boundaries of what defines ?fat? and the meanings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attached to it are constantly shifting. Such a rethinking mixes together and stirs many qualities in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a compelling story that defines ?obesity? as the ?new public health epidemic?. This is not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discount the costs, both personal and national, that overweight can accrue, but to understand why, in the 21st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, we have suddenly seen the ?moral panic?, which was associated in the 1980s with HIV/AIDS as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially global disease, being transferred to obesity. Indeed, the moral panic about obesity seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filled a gap left by the restructuring of the moral panic about AIDS, today mistakenly seen as curable, just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(AIDS filled the gap left in the West by the ?conquering? of syphilis.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6557 781.1335 83.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8018 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moral panics can reflect ?real? situations in the world. The very term had its origin in Jock Young?s study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beginnings of the British drug scene: ?The role of the police as amplifiers of deviance, negotiators of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug control as seen in Notting Hill?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.336 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.336 754.563 m 226.328 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.328 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It has since been used to analyze social ?epidemics? such as ?child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse? and, of course, the American ?war on drugs.? Obesity clearly exists in the world; but how it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined is culturally, not scientifically, limited and the centrality of it in the mental universe of any given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual is heavily dependant on the role of anxiety associated with it. In our ?dieting? culture obesity has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to have meanings well beyond health and beauty; it has become a danger to the ?body politic? because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the every mounting costs of those diseases associated today with obesity and so well described by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haslams.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientists at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002 had already warned the government that obesity was now a ?global epidemic? ? no longer confined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western, industrialized societies. This reflected a growing consensus in the 1990s that obesity \(not smoking\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was going to be the major public health issue of the new millennium. By 2005 the ?war against obesity? had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced the ?war against tobacco?, even though worldwide tobacco sales continue to increase. The phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?war against obesity, sloth, and addiction? appears in the UK in )] TJ ET BT 342.968 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 392.636 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as early as 1981 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.616 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.616 571.491 m 489.608 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 489.608 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sloth now seems an odd concept to be associated with the medicalization of obesity, the ?laziness? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obese \(read: their resistance to treatment and their non-compliance and their recidivism\) is part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary of obesity today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I noted this is a comprehensive study of BOTH ?medical? and ?cultural? representations of obesity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes the problem of the volume even more engaging. The notion that representations validate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical views seems very 19th century, very much enmeshed in a Rankian positivism rarely seen today in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of medical imagery. Yet the study is sophisticated enough to engage in a rather good summary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological meanings grafted onto to the constructed categories of obesity over the ages. But in its analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medicine remains a sphere seemingly devoid of ideology. Thus the representation of medical knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one that centers on the ?facts? of contemporary medicine and their antecedents. That there are recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to obesity that are no longer seen as ?scientific,? such as the psychoanalytic ones proposed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilde Bruch in the 1950s, is ignored. But of course in the 1950s these approaches assumed that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cutting-edge scientific explanation ? and they were! Such claims of science as a true representation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, rather than a flawed or partial one, seem to be inherent to the science of obesity itself. And yet as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated by my list above, even the medical authorities of our day seem not quite clear as to what obesity is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what its implications are. Do we assume that we are a fat collecting species? Do we assume that we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an addictive species? Is this not an inherent contradiction: if collecting fat is natural because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preprogrammed in us genetically due to evolutionary processes how can it be pathological? How can an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addiction to food be anything but natural and therefore non-addictive?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Haslam volume brings together a wide range of sources, wonderful reproductions, and a basic approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that will give many students pause. Certainly we know what is ?fat,? don?t we? They ask already. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly do at any given point and this volume makes that clear. But our present wrestling with body size is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet one more point on the spectrum of dealing with ?fat,? now seen as a danger to health and, therefore, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. An economic imperative seems to underline much of this discussion. Like the discussion about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoking in the 1960s, it is not just a public health but also a question of economic impact that caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments to focus on certain aspects of risk. Today?s cigarette is the high fat, high sugar snack. Both are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly dangerous but they also are the focus of a moral panic. The history of this may be better sketched in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a number of other, more recent studies, such as my own )] TJ ET BT 304.964 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fat: A Cultural History of Obesity)] TJ ET BT 470.636 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.636 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.636 148.323 m 487.628 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 114.819 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiona Haslam, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine and Art in Eighteenth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.336 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.336 68.547 m 206.324 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael L. Power and Jay Schulkin, )] TJ ET BT 241.328 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of Obesity)] TJ ET BT 360.992 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, 2009\), pp. 41?2)] TJ ET BT 497.312 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.312 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.312 54.291 m 554.300 54.291 l S endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.3357 754.8775 226.3277 766.7575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.6157 571.8055 489.6077 583.6855 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.6357 148.6375 487.6277 160.5175 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.3357 68.8615 206.3237 80.7415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.3117 54.6055 554.2997 66.4855 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 2721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jock Young, ?The role of the police as amplifiers of deviance, negotiators of drug control as seen in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notting Hill?, in )] TJ ET BT 146.024 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Images of Deviance)] TJ ET BT 241.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stanley Cohen \(Harmondsworth, 1971\), pp. 27?61.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 780.819 m 550.292 780.819 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 78.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annabel Ferriman, ?The man who will try to persuade us to give up some of life?s good things?, )] TJ ET BT 530.624 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 92.684 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [London], 7 August 1981, 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.676 738.051 m 292.664 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sander L. Gilman, )] TJ ET BT 155.672 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fat: a Cultural History of Obesity)] TJ ET BT 320.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.332 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.332 723.795 m 471.320 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 154.700 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/838)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 322.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_social_history/v044/44.1.stearns.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 781.1335 550.2917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 78.0077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6757 738.3655 292.6637 750.2455 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.3317 724.1095 471.3197 735.9895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 669.3415 154.6997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_social_history/v044/44.1.stearns.html) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 322.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/838) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005226 00000 n 0000005335 00000 n 0000008896 00000 n 0000009024 00000 n 0000009108 00000 n 0000009137 00000 n 0000009265 00000 n 0000009301 00000 n 0000009385 00000 n 0000015935 00000 n 0000015965 00000 n 0000016091 00000 n 0000016127 00000 n 0000016239 00000 n 0000024310 00000 n 0000024340 00000 n 0000024468 00000 n 0000024504 00000 n 0000024534 00000 n 0000024662 00000 n 0000024698 00000 n 0000024728 00000 n 0000024856 00000 n 0000024892 00000 n 0000025018 00000 n 0000025073 00000 n 0000025199 00000 n 0000025254 00000 n 0000025373 00000 n 0000028147 00000 n 0000028275 00000 n 0000028330 00000 n 0000028456 00000 n 0000028511 00000 n 0000028639 00000 n 0000028694 00000 n 0000028822 00000 n 0000028877 00000 n 0000029004 00000 n 0000029164 00000 n 0000029292 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29387 %%EOF