%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722081013+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722081013+01'00') /Title (History of the Present: Essays, Sketches and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3726 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History of the Present: Essays, Sketches and Dispatches from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Europe in the 1990s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are various ways of reading Timothy Garton Ash's )] TJ ET BT 310.448 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Present)] TJ ET BT 416.108 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and I shall try to look at it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through four different sets of criteria. These are iconographical, historical-historiographical, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological, and, finally, literary. This last criterion produces the best evaluation, so if anyone wishes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skip the critical bits, they can go directly to the end of this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iconographical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aesthetic criteria are only about the appearance of the book. On the front cover is a photo of a street in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vukovar after the siege of 1991 and on the back, one of the author. Both of these are revealing, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily intentionally so. Why Vukovar, why the destroyed street? It is built in what is a recognisably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baroque style, with soldiers or paramilitaries \(or perhaps just firemen\) walking away from the camera. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are destroyed cars on either side of the street - symbolic of the destroye d modernity that characterised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war of Jugoslav succession? Possibly these ruins and shards of broken glass symbolise not just the shattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of former Jugoslavia, but post-communism itself, at least in the author's \(and picture researcher's\) min )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(84)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Garton Ash)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713993233)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(462pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane, Penguin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Schpflin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d. The old order has been shelled to smithereens and the reader or casual customer in a bookshop can expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the destructive elements that post-communism has released.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author's likeness is more mysterious. He is pictured standing against a wall, the plaster is cracked, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light and shade moving from the author's to right to left; the bottom quarter of the photo is overprinted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(red. This, we might think, re flects the element of communism that still survives in Central and South-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Europe. The author himself is almost wholly dark, a darkness from which only the upper part of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face appears, his forehead high and dominating the entire ensemble, intrep id and determined. His eyes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaded and all but squinting, screwed up against the light maybe. In any case, a viable reading is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's intellect is the dominant quality that he brings to the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical-historiographical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadly, there are two kinds of history writing fighting it out in Britain today - the professional and the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional. I will not call the latter "amateur", because that word carries a certain amount of dismissive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baggage. TGA, as I shall refe r to him in this review, is firmly in the latter camp. That might settle it. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book should be read as non-professional history, as an engaging but not particularly well ordered set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections on the post-communist world. It would, were it not fo r TGA's introduction, in which he seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place himself firmly among the historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He sets out his criteria, his credo, in this introduction and it is by these that his enterprise must be assessed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, he argues in favour of history as being "what it was really like at the time. How places looked and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smelled, how people felt, wh at they didn't know" \(p.xv\). This kind of history can only be written by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who go there, to the field, who undergo the experience of being in touch with what they write about. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic history, written from archives, cannot attain this goal. There is accuracy in this, but it is very far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from being the whole story. Crucially, there is such a phenomenon - not referred to by TGA - as being too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close to events, as being overwhelmed by the emotions that they generate, the crowds, the awesome human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pres ence, the pheromones, and never thereafter being able to see the wood for the trees. Going there, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produces "feel", but feel can distort as much as it can illuminate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA quotes George Kennan as follows: the "history of the present lies 'in that small and rarely visited field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of literary effort where journalism, history and literature ... come together'\(pp.xiii-xiv\)." Maybe. But this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omits a rather vital aspect o f the story, namely the mental equipment of the one who goes there. TGA tacitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumes that all observers are the same, come with much the same set of experiences, rational ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral norms. This is very Anglo-Saxon and very universalistic. It t akes no account of diversity at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cognitive level, of radically different ways of understanding the world. And it overlooks the proposition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a historian who is trained in the disciplines of history - or, in my case, of political science - brings a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and equally valid set of intuitions and insights to h/h field of study from that of the journalist or novelist. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maybe the history of the present does not lie exclusively in that triangle, but parts of it are to be found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in the fore st, parts that TGA does not think worth visiting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, TGA discusses the problem of sources through the prism of language, the languages of Central and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South-Eastern Europe, and the relative inaccessibility of these places to anyone who has no knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of the languages. Agreed: if you don't know the language, you will be lost for various reasons. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these is that you will not have access to at least three-quarters of the sources. Second, you will never pick up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very informal communications by which TGA sets such store. Third, the locals tell different stories in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different languages. Here the spread of English as second language gets in the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English is an excellent second language precisely because for non-native speakers, it carries very few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional overtones. Native speakers of English are at a disadvantage here, by the way, because they decode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they hear in International English by their own linguistic codes and, therefore, misunderstand them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, the degree of intimacy in the mother tongue is necessarily higher than in a second language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("history as feel", TGA's chosen method, must depend heavily on this intimacy, on this ability to pick up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusion that is second nature to native speakers. This clearly places him at a severe disadvantage in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many countries where he does not know the language. Hence the importance of methods other than feel, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cognitive categori es of discipline, of comparison, of seeking a pattern and looking for divergences from that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, every language has its own capacities, its unique expression. Sometimes these cannot be translated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An example \(not from this book, but it illustrates what I mean\). Anyone who can compare the excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English translation of Pter N& aacute;das's )] TJ ET BT 248.816 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book of Memories)] TJ ET BT 336.800 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the Hungarian original will soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise that English cannot do it justice, because English is too concrete, too concise to render the vague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusive, almost oneiric quality of Ndas's Hungarian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another revealing aside on language, on p. xvii. TGA refers to "the South Slav languages now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bewilderingly called Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Macedonian". Now this "bewilderingly" is an odd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adverb to use. It carries a number of implicati ons. One refers to a core value of the Anglo-Saxon mindset, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that foreigners make life difficult by speaking their own languages and that there are too many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. Otherwise, we shall be bewildered. Or is this reading too fanciful? Not rea lly; the English and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans deeply dislike the diversity of languages and TGA, with his knowledge of some of the languages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Central and South-Eastern Europe, reflects this inadvertently. Or is it that TGA is himself bewildered? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that case, shoul d he be offering us this history of the present in South-Eastern Europe?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a further point. The list of bewildering South Slav languages omits Slovene and Bulgarian. Why? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Possibility \(1\) is that TGA does not know that they belong to the South Slav language group; unlikely. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Possibility \(2\): Slovene and Bulgarian are somehow more respectable because they are spoken by language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities that have gained international respectability. Possibility \(3\): including them would confuse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of there being too many "bewildering" languages because their presence would suggest that it is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feasible for some language groups to gain acceptability and then become role models for the rest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, TGA does not recognise that language exists in at least three dimensions - the philological, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and the political. Philologically the South Slav language area is one, in that one can move from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slovene to Bulgarian and encounter no disc ontinuity; the dialects shade into one another, whereas there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuity the moment one moves outside the area \(ie Italian, German, Hungarian, Romanian, Albanian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek\). But all this says nothing about the cultural values, norms, expectations, ha bits of mind that every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language encodes, transmits and even less about how and why such diversity can become the target of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political aspirations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5869 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This brings us to a major point, the role of the historian as interpreter and translator. TGA is aware of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, but I'm not persuaded that he has explored his own perfectly proper Anglo-Saxon prejudgements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. He does not seem to me to reco gnise the pitfalls that beset him, with the consequence that at times he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in the same bear-trap that he suggests academic historians tend to inhabit: "Academics, by contrast [to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists], can take years to finish a single article. ... Witnessing r eal life is not what they are supposed - or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded - to do. ... Participants in the worlds they describe sometimes throw up their hands in laughter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despair at the unreality of what comes out" \(p.xix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very revealing passage. It says clearly that for TGA there is only one "reality" and only one way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding and interpreting that reality. Farewell diversity, good-bye otherness, adieu reflection. Reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is what we experience direc tly and anything else seems to be a misreading of that. Participants have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly of real life. All this is very empirical and positivistic. It is also very open to question. It is open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question above all because it assumes that participants s ee everything around them \(through feel?\), that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see both text and context and that they have total perception. We know that this is nonsense, of course, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that participants have an extremely partial view of what they see. A brief glance at the li terature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitness testimony will confirm the accuracy of this argument. Besides, as TGA knows well, memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distorts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To all of which may be added the central methodological difficulty, that of the problem of occlusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contrary to many people's tacit assumptions, at all times certain ideas, certain forms of knowledge, certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions are screened out, they canno t be heard or seen. Hence our assessments of the world will always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be partial. The hidden assumptions, the implicit norms that we carry with us as a part of our cognitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baggage, do, however, affect our judgement and it would enhance TGA's approach to recognise this, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then he could place participants' "laughter and despair" into their appropriate context. They do not know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything, but think they do. How often have we heard a particularly outrageous proposition legitimated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("I was there, I know"?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is more to be said on TGA's historiographical method. The current British scholarly and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style, unlike the French, requires the fullest possible citation of sources and acknowledgements, as if to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("mine is a collective work, reall y", though customarily adding, "I take the blame for any flaws in it." TGA's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is at the lone author end of the spectrum. There are, indeed, sources, but we have no picture of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works make up TGA's intellectual assumptions, his parentage as histor ian. This applies to the deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background. Has he read Hayden White? We do not know. There are references to Weber but I could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find one to Durkheim. Yet it would be helpful to know in connection with his perception of his role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian. He se ems to be operating within the paradigm that history is like the natural sciences - positivistic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical, moving from one proposition to another, with the occasional intuitive leap possibly. But strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing post-modern, nothing at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor does there appear to be much attention devoted to the secondary literature on the topics under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. Then, it is generally a courtesy to attribute ideas to those who first published them. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrases used by TGA to capture the collap se of communism is "negotiated revolution". It is strange that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nowhere notes that it was first used by Rudolf Tokes, whose book on the transfer of power in Hungary is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually called "Hungary's Negotiated Revolution".)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6006 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1990s, TGA decided to concern himself seriously with South-Eastern Europe, but it is very unclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he has read. Stavrianos, Tomasevich, Erlich, Bicanic, Jovan Cvijic might have been useful, but there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no mention of them. If one is to und erstand some of the collective motivations of the Serbs, should one not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have glanced at the Kosovo cycle of ballads? Does all this matter? Yes, because knowing allows us to assess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what TGA, a relative newcomer, though distinguished, should and should no t recognise in what people say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him in the area. It is a part of being straightforward with the reader about one's sources. His interlocutors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come from very different thought-worlds, believe that their thought-worlds are the only way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding their aspirations, and what they say can never be fully understood; but it can be better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood if one has a rough and ready model of that thought-world, the one that TGA - or any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author - is attempting to interpret for us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is particularly the case when one is dealing with Central and South-Eastern Europe which has thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds that are seriously at variance with those of the Anglo-Saxons. TGA does not have too much time for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this. He refers to Bronislaw Geremek, historian first and politician second, as someone who has "always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fascinated by structure and process, which alone gives sense to events and anecdotes. ... [O]ne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes wishes that the relentless analysis of structure and process might now and th en give way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description or evocation of the scenes and emotions with which this year [1991] was, after all, packed full" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.79\). TGA's concept of the writing of history may fairly be defined as the reverse of Geremek's. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter encapsulates th e difference between the English and the Polish thought-worlds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political and sociological)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to applying the criteria of political and sociological analysis, matters become more difficult. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Anglo-Saxon historical tradition seldom troubles itself with questions of political theory. It tends to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such questions either as "common sense" or as something that will take care of itself \(which is not quite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same thing\). In so far as one can deduce a theory of power from such an approach, it runs the risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a residual category - when everything has been tried, cal l it power. Yet the notion of power - why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people command and obey, what they see as an authoritative command, how power is used, why some forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of power are legitimate \(or seen as legitimate\) while others are not, what is the relationship between coercio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n and consent - is vital. Without a theory of power one runs the danger of ending up with a "coercion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear" model, tacitly anyway. Furthermore, are models of power in Central and South-Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from those in the West; if yes, why, i n what way and why do they persist?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this dimension of one's analysis is neglected, one can offer no persuasive answer, say, to the paradox of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milosevic, a ruler who lost every major ethno-nationalist objective yet still commands a degree of consent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that goes beyond coercion. People d o not obey merely because they are afraid of being beaten up \(not that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA says this, but then he says very little on this problem\). He is certainly not a Maoist, a devotee of Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beguilingly reductionist theory of power, that it grows out of the barre l of a gun - this might also be called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Al Capone theory - but TGA leaves us without any account of how sees these issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other uses for a political science reading of what is going on in Central and South-Eastern Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA's own evidence is quite clear that there is fluidity, uncertainty, insecurity in the region, but it is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear why this should be the case, why it is that the introduction \(importation?\) of democratic institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like elections and parliaments, should have failed to produce democratic stability. The answer lies in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the move from communism to whatever post-communism is - a sui generis system with features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are democratic and some that are not by the accepted criteria of Western practice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The communist system established a political and economic monopoly and post-communism has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in diluting this. This has necessarily meant a very large number of new political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors, people with power, but without their having a ccepted the democratic values \(moderation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility, self-limitation, compromise etc\) that make democratically elected institutions operate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratically. This state of affairs is hardly a surprise, as communism did everything to destroy democrati )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c values. It eliminated civic institutions, and thus the practice that goes with them, and vested as much power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as possible in the state. Hence the end of communism left post-communist societies without either the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions or the values to cope with diversity - a diversity that had existed under the ever more threadbare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veil of communism, but which communism did nothing to integrate into itself. In this sense, communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies emerged into post-communism all but naked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every society, if it is to be called that, needs a set of shared, agreed values. Some of these are established and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained by the state, some by citizenship and civil society and some by ethnicity. In the absence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first two, ethnicity acquir ed a disproportionate role in the politics of post-communism and one that it cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discharge, as ethnicity has nothing meaningful to say about the equitable exercise of power, about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutuality of obligations in the political sphere, about popular sove reignty and popular control of coercion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and taxation. The inevitable outcome of this disproportionate role has been the fluidity and insecurity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA registers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new political and economic actors simply lack the democratic cultural capital that would make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic institutions work by Copenhagen criteria. What? Oh yes. TGA strongly supports the eastward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlargement of the European Union, but says littl e about the nuts and bolts of enlargement. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copenhagen criteria lay down minimum conditions for membership. This is of central significance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the present of Central and South-Eastern Europe. Eastward enlargement really is of pivotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in the contemporary history of the region and would, I should have thought, deserved extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment. TGA does not seem to agree, to judge from this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point is that we are 10 years after. Post-communism has itself acquired a momentum, had its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences, shaped its own responses and values. No longer can everything be blamed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communists. Indeed, some of the actors have begun to gen erate attitudes and values that are new and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compatible with Copenhagen criteria than not. But they are still few and there are very serious cleavages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between those who do and those who do not accept democratic values.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadly speaking, about one-third of the populations of the early accession states \(Poland, Czech Republic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary, Estonia, Slovenia\) have undergone a new socialisation and are ready to face the challenge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlargement, though even here there is a q uestion mark over the Czech Republic, which has an elite \(led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA's sparring partner Vaclav Klaus\) that is clearly opposed to the EU and has considerable public backing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very serious difficulty. Elsewhere, sizeable swathes of the population are sceptical of membership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but do not have a high prestige political elite to articulate this. Does this imply that accession is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undemocratic? Possibly so, but then every radical shift is opposed by significant sections of public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is drive n by elite will. The question in Central Europe is whether the elites can build consent that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sanctioned by referenda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That brings me to the last point about politics, one where a theoretical distinction is genuinely helpful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding what is going on. In sum, these systems are consensual but not democratic. They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensual in that parliaments are elected and express the will of the people - something that communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disdained because it had an ideology that assumed consent - but consensus does not, as I have argued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount to democracy without the values that underpin the democratic working of institutions . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, this means that what post-communist elites do is more difficult to contest, because they have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a claim to consensual power. Neither elites nor populations are ready to recognise this vital distinction, vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it explains why post- communist systems can behave in the way that they do. The fluidity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecurity, the diversity and conflict feed on themselves because of the lack of trust in one's political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents. This distrust then becomes perfectly rational, as political actor s come to expect the worst of one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another and enter into a self-fulfilling prophecy. And yet it is based on consent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does TGA have a theory of collective action? Why do people, the people on whom he reflects, identify with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others and accept a degree of solidarity with them, their political opponents with whom they disagree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included? Why do people do things as membe rs of a collectivity that they would never do as individuals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what consequences does this phenomenon have? Should the historian, particularly the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, seek intellectual self-empowerment by means of a theory of collective action? Ye s, otherwise h/s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not understand what h/s is seeing, or only very partially. Above all why is collective action rational in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own terms and why collectivities, with their differences, particularisms, differentiated forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, will not be a bsorbed into a kind of universal harmony \(heaven forfend, say I\), one that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspiciously resemble one's own prior assumptions?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TGA has little time for such theories. He notes, of course, that there are collective identities, collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action and, though he would not use the term, collective representations. But he leaves it at that. The reason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why people come together in c ollectivities and what effect this has do not really interest him. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly legitimate approach, in my view, but it does leave a fair number of issues unexplored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems to me that it is by literary criteria that this book scores best. It is very elegantly written. TGA has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great skill in finding the right phrase, the vivid description \(that he self-professedly relies on for creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful impression \), the thumb-nail sketches of places and people. Indeed, the book is a pleasure to read. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has great charm and some passages, like his reflection on Britain and Germany, are very moving. It is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he ventures into theoretical analysis, like his paper on Britain and Europe \("Catching the Wrong Bus"\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his prose limps somewhat. That leaves only one question. Is it history? Well, as TGA himself has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, it is his kind of history. Read it as that, as a first person narrative of distinctio n, as a very English )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of Central and South-Eastern Europe, as TGA's ongoing encounter with the region. By this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yardstick, he is even entitled to be bewildered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/84)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 316.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 316.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/84) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000000693 00000 n 0000004471 00000 n 0000004580 00000 n 0000004690 00000 n 0000004799 00000 n 0000008360 00000 n 0000008488 00000 n 0000008572 00000 n 0000008637 00000 n 0000014661 00000 n 0000014726 00000 n 0000020514 00000 n 0000020579 00000 n 0000026501 00000 n 0000026566 00000 n 0000032625 00000 n 0000032690 00000 n 0000037419 00000 n 0000037484 00000 n 0000043743 00000 n 0000043827 00000 n 0000044826 00000 n 0000044954 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45048 %%EOF