%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062231+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062231+01'00') /Title (Black 1919: Riots, Racism and Resistance in Imperial Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4183 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Black 1919: Riots, Racism and Resistance in Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This long anticipated work forms a welcome addition to the growing but still sparse historical literature on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonised people?s lives in Britain. The seaport riots of 1919, in which white crowds attacked Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers, their families and communities, have long presented a painful conundrum, prefiguring a century of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict and harassment of people of colour in Britain. The book contains the most comprehensive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustive account to date of British racial violence in 1919, examining not only the notorious and lethal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June riots in Liverpool and in Cardiff, Newport and Barry, but earlier and less known incidents in Glasgow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Shields, London, Hull and Salford. Although the author has published accounts of individual riots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book brings them together, situated as part of the national and global wave of political violence common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Europe, the United States, the Caribbean and South Africa in the year following the Armistice. It locates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the causes of the riots in the interplay between ongoing strikes, riots and other collective violence elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain and the Atlantic basin, and local contexts and meanings including housing shortages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment. In this light, the British riots appear less an isolated eruption ?proving? British racism, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have often been portrayed, than part of a broader political movement of resistance against postwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayals. Yet the nagging question remains: why in this instance alone did working people displace their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anger against the state and employers onto fellow workers?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is based on an impressive volume and variety of research in national and local archives, the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(840)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Jenkinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846312007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(255pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Tabili)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7540 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press in the nine ports, and even interviews with survivors of the riots. Methodology in this field is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated by the unreliability of police and press reports on which researchers have been forced to rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily. Arguably these historical actors participated in shaping the environment in which conflicts occurred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as their subsequent interpretation. The book argues that the official response to xenophobic violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing first German ?enemy aliens? during the war, and later colonised people in 1919 and after, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged and rewarded rioters. The work offers the most exhaustive account to date of the state?s largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessful efforts to deport, repatriate, resettle, or otherwise rid Britain of unemployed workers of colour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach, the author argues, reduced port conflicts to ?a numbers game? \(p. 182\), whose purported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remedy involved removing men to the colonies while failing to address unemployment or other underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of social dissatisfaction. It also rendered violence a superficially successful strategy for British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?white? working people. Ultimately, however, the author argues that in displacing their violence from state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and employers to the most vulnerable among them, rioters? ?success? proved hollow. This misplaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach continues to haunt ex-colonial subjects and other migrants in Britain to the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an original and useful contribution, the book confirms the impression derived from cursory reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press accounts, that police arrested the Black victims of violence out of all proportion to their numbers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively few white perpetrators. In nearly all cases, white crowds numbering in the hundreds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes thousands made up the aggressors and Black men and their families the victims, yet nationally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police arrested nearly twice as many Black men \(155\) as white men \(80\) and women \(9\). Some even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecuted men of colour taken into protective custody. Tabulating hundreds of arrestees and the outcomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their trials, the author shows that although many more Black men than white men or women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrested, nearly half of Black arrestees won acquittal, suggesting the courts acknowledged their innocence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bench thus recognised and attempted to correct police bias. In contrast, white perpetrators of either sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were overwhelmingly convicted. Still, sentences of those Black men and white women convicted proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harsher than those of white men for equivalent crimes. This is attributed to the view of the former as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immature, emotional and in need of discipline. Valuable in itself, this evidence might have been pursued: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts, while less racist than the police, still clearly practiced institutional racism as well as sexism. A better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed discussion of possible reasons for disparities between police and courts, as well as the sources or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for discrimination by both, could have enriched the analysis, and offered other scholars hypotheses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which to approach institutional racism in other settings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This data also reveals that the vast majority of Black defendants proved to be British subjects, repudiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their spurious denunciation and exclusion as aliens. Further analysis shows most men of colour arrested were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seafarers of some sort, consistent with their position in the labour market. White arrestees, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practiced an array of working class occupations, but mainly labouring and other unskilled work. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence invalidates rioters? dismissal as mainly seafarers or else demobilised combatants inured to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. Rather, the author argues, rioters represented a cross-section of the white working class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicating all in racist violence. Further class analysis might have explored why unskilled men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominated in the crowds: perhaps they had the most to fear from the blurring of distinctions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and colonised workers. In short, the work tells who, what, when and where, but the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why colonised people in Britain became targets for displaced rage over longstanding domestic social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems such as housing shortages, and why only in 1919, remains open to further exploration and debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the scholar with the most panoptic knowledge of the 1919 riots, the author might have pushed her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence further to hazard some conclusions or at least hypotheses about causality. The book offers a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?interlocking causes? for the riots including postwar unemployment, the heightened visibility of Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime workers, ?social dislocation?, housing shortages, especially in the ports, and the global and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of collective protest and violence by returned ex-combatants and others. But these are not submitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rigorous analysis. While the nine ports affected shared characteristics including overcrowding, cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and racial diversity, and segregation from the rest of their respective towns, for example, one wonders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether ports that saw no rioting, such as Southampton, differed in these respects. The implied multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causality leaves the reader with little better grasp of the reasons for these riots than before. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly deplores the injustice and mistreatment recounted here, but offers little explanation of why colonized )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7298 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers in particular became scapegoats for postwar ills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, the decades since the pioneering 1987 dissertation on which this volume is based have seen an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outpouring of scholarship on the relationship between racism and colonialism. The book itself appears in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool series entitled `Postcolonialism across the Disciplines?, intended to rectify the bias toward cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and literary studies in postcolonial scholarship. While no scholar could be expected to master the whole of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this vast literature, the author might have been encouraged to embrace this remit more fully. The book might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have better served its purpose, and those of scholars generally, had it more explicitly engaged the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and relevant of such works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, despite a section devoted to the 1919 riots in the Caribbean, some of them involving men repatriated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Britain after the violence there, analysis of colonial power relations and their implications for Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men?s situation in Britain figures little in this work. Attacks on longstanding Black residents such as Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmanuel and James Gillespie as well as on the Strangers? Home for Asiatic Seaman, which had stood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East London since the 19th century, suggest profound cultural and political shifts, of which the riots proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely spectacular symptoms. Sudden hostility to long resident Black people surely partook not only of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing shortages and unemployment but of Britain?s altered global position, relative to its own colonies as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as other powers. Strikes, mutinies and other popular actions turned on what form the postwar world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should take: equality for colonized people might imply colonial conditions of labour and life for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan working class. The book hints at this in observing that the war had altered `the balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and employment prospects of black and white people?, as well as in likening Black workers to women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also pushed out of wartime jobs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book misses the point that the union did not simply oppose Black seafarers? employment, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colluded covertly in their relegation to colonial conditions of super-exploitation as Lascar or similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpaid contract workers: the number and proportion of Lascars actually increased between 1901 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938, displacing white and Black mariners alike from union-protected jobs. Like the riots themselves, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union?s deplorable racial politics thus took shape not only in a national but a global and imperial context, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms largely dictated by employers, who took full advantage of the ambiguities of imperial linkages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American scholars face increasing pressure to demonstrate the relevance of British history, from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in Britain remain mercifully free. Still, given their careful contextualization within global Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder, the book might have reflected on and shared what the analysis of Britain?s riots might contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of social disorder in 1919 and generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a lot to ask, of course, simply indicating how stimulating this book has proven, and the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalising questions it raises for further research. It may yet prove useful to explore distinctions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence primarily among mariners competing for work, as occurred in Glasgow, South Shields and Hull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in the year, and the more spectacular and lethal events of June, when huge crowds invaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods, destroying Black-occupied houses and businesses. Similarly, while aggregate tabulations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show American and Dominion troops cannot be scapegoated for all the riots, the evidence does suggest they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved catalysing in Cardiff and possibly Newport. South Shields union official John Barnabus Fye, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twice precipitated violence by calling Arab mariners `black bastards?, originated in the United States.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.588 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.588 193.347 m 535.580 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another intriguing dynamic was Black workers? use of the rhetoric of alien status to impugn the legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Scandinavians in Liverpool?s labour market. Turf wars with Irish migrants also emerged. Subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in enforcement from town to town might also be explored, lending depth to the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularities of this global phenomenon. Parallels between Black and women wartime workers might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued, helping to explain the hysteria over interrracial couples that accompanied some riots. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book dismisses rhetoric against racially mixed couples as a genuine catalyst for conflict, engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature on this question might nonetheless prove fruitful, perhaps within the context of postwar `gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trouble?. Finally, some attention to the possibility of `copycat? rioting of the sort occurring in 1915, 1958 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1981, when press accounts of riots in one place apparently inspired rioting elsewhere, might assist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing events in Newport. Exploring some of these subtleties might enhance efforts to situate the riots in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.5877 193.6615 535.5797 205.5415 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interaction of local and global dynamics, while perhaps offering some broader generalisations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the period and of collective violence generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For its painstakingly thorough reconstruction of a formative episode in Black people?s lives in Britain, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illumination of the tumultuous events of the immediate postwar period, and its effort to contextualise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain these events within the intersecting frameworks of 20th century British and global history, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves a wide readership. It will stimulate further debate into the numerous questions raised about race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to see that someone so well known in her field has taken the trouble to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed critique of her work. While taking issue with several aspects of the review the author is not able at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time to provide the detailed response which such a wide ranging review requires and therefore declines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 564.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturalisation case file of J. Barnabus Fye, TNA HO144/1498/364777.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.304 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.304 562.995 m 460.292 562.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 538.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 519.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 501.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 501.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/840)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 499.977 m 322.316 499.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4305)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.3037 563.3095 460.2917 575.1895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 500.2915 322.3157 512.1715 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/840) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000645 00000 n 0000004880 00000 n 0000004989 00000 n 0000005099 00000 n 0000005208 00000 n 0000008769 00000 n 0000008897 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000009046 00000 n 0000016639 00000 n 0000016723 00000 n 0000024074 00000 n 0000024104 00000 n 0000024232 00000 n 0000024268 00000 n 0000024359 00000 n 0000026961 00000 n 0000027089 00000 n 0000027144 00000 n 0000027272 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27367 %%EOF