%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416025905+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416025905+01'00') /Title (Ending British Rule in Africa: Writers in a Common Cause) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4306 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ending British Rule in Africa: Writers in a Common Cause)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This excellent book is about some of the writers ? mainly those living in Europe from the 1930s till the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s ? whose writings were either wholly or partly about the ?ending of British rule in Africa?. The main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer dealt with is George Padmore; the others are Jomo Kenyatta \(while he lived in the UK\), C. L. R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James, Peter Abrahams, Ras T. Makonnen, Richard Wright, and then Kwame Nkrumah?s autobiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padmore devoted his life to political activism and writing in the cause of freedom for colonised peoples. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first via the Comintern, then when he resigned from the Communist Party in 1934, in the UK, working with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other activists. Those of his colleagues discussed are the other writers: his fellow Trinidadian James \(then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to work on his book on the Haitian revolution\); Jomo Kenyatta \(then in Britain to campaign for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land rights in Kenya\); Peter Abrahams of South Africa, who hoped to find ?freedom in Britain as a writer?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and I. T. A. Wallace Johnson from Sierra Leone, in Britain to fight a court case as he had been accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sedition for some of his writings as a journalist in the Gold Coast. These men set up the International African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friends of Abyssinia \(IAFA\) to campaign against the Italian invasion of Abyssinia/Ethiopia. They failed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IAFA was turned into the International African Service Bureau \(IASB\), which lasted till c.1945 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published a number of pamphlets and monthly newspapers, beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 415.316 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opinion. )] TJ ET BT 79.352 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polsgrove argues that publication of each newspaper had to cease temporarily not only because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of funds, but that the name had to be changed in order to avoid ? at least for a while ? the banning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(841)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carol Polsgrove)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077678)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(186pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marika Sherwood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6165 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IASB publications by the colonial authorities. Padmore?s books had also, of course, been banned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polsgrove raises another question here: given the probably relatively low sales figures, did these writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak mainly to each other? The production of pamphlets, newspapers and the planning public meetings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided them with a forum to build solidarity among themselves, she suggests. Did it help them overcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of their political differences: eg Padmore could probably best be described as a Marxist socialist; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James had become a Trotskyist, while Kenyatta was focused on nationalism without the socialism espoused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the others. But there was another perhaps crucial difference between them, which was to resurface in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles for independence: ?James and Padmore envisioned an Africa becoming more rather than less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western and leaving its tribal ways behind. Kenyatta had no such future in mind: he did not want to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa detribalised? \(p. 41\). But work together they did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, to my mind, this proposition by Polsgrove perhaps stems from the little context that she provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her analysis. There were Black organisations in many British cities by the 1930s and Black residents in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the major towns and cities. They would certainly have been interested in the publications by these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London-based activists. As would the Black students? organisations at some of the major universities. And, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Padmore had become adept at getting the )] TJ ET BT 247.976 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Negro Worker)] TJ ET BT 316.964 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( past the customs in the British colonies while he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was editing it in the early 1930s in Hamburg, had he tried to use the same tactics from London? While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy rate in English would have been pretty low in West and East Africa except in the major coastal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, some the educated lite would certainly have been interested. And was there any attempt to reach the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black working class, perhaps especially in the major British ports, where ex-seamen were often the core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of such communities?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James left for the USA prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, which curtailed the public activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the IASB, but did not halt the publication of articles by Padmore in the Black press in the USA and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving left-wing news-sheets in the UK. When they could foresee the ending of the war, the IASB )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became part of the new organisation, the Pan-African Federation, which organised the 6th \(not the 5th\) Pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African Congress in Manchester, attended by many who were to become the leaders in their newly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent African countries, the first of which was the Gold Coast. Among those who helped with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organising the Congress were Kenyatta, Abrahams, Makonnen and Kwame Nkrumah, the newly arrived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gold Coast student from the USA.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Amy Ashwood Garvey chaired one of the Congress sessions, the others were chaired by W. E. B. Du )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bois of the USA. Some of the Du Bois/Padmore correspondence is included here, but sadly Polsgrove does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not delve into a question I have often asked: why was Padmore so very self-negating and almost subservient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his relationship with Du Bois as evidenced by these letters? The African-American academic/activist was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not at this time a socialist, as he had had advocated the supremacy of the Talented Tenth. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Du Bois had organised a number of Pan-African Congresses, these were all partly White and were not, in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimation, particularly forceful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Makonnen?s restaurant in Manchester fed most of those attending the Congress and he was to feed them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ideas expressed in )] TJ ET BT 166.328 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pan-Africa)] TJ ET BT 219.656 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a journal whose first issue appeared in 1947. He also set up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bookshop and a mail-order service, the Pan-African Bookshop. The journal died in 1948, as bookshops, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Makonnen, refused to stock it as they felt they should not ?encourage a publication of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind?. \(p. 89\) )] TJ ET BT 101.672 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pan-Africa)] TJ ET BT 155.000 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was also banned in East Africa \(Makonnen was from British Guiana; he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed his Guyanese name of Peter Griffiths to ?Ras T. Makonnen? many years previously\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polsgrove explains why the mid-late 1940s were just about the end of Abrahams? involvement with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of activists. She describes the growing political relationship between Padmore and Nkrumah, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to the Gold Coast in 1947 to work for the new political party formed there, the United Gold Coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Convention \(UGCC\). He soon left the UGCC, finding it too elitist an organisation and formed his own, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Convention People?s Party. He was twice imprisoned by the colonial government, but had to be finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(released in 1951 when his Party won the elections and he had to be given the title of Leader of Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1946 Padmore, undoubtedly angered by the lack of colonials at the meetings establishing the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations, attended the Paris Peace Conference in 1946 and visited Richard Wright then living there. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ex-communist, Wright, a well-recognised novelist, had known James in the USA before he decided that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have greater freedom as a writer in Paris than he could have in the USA. A long relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed between the two men, and also between their wives. \(Dorothy Pizer was always seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padmore?s wife.\) When Wright told Padmore he wanted to visit the Gold Coast, Padmore arranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductions for him. However, Nkrumah only spared a week of his time for Wright and the CPP apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored him to such an extent that the infuriated Wright complained to the US Consul. From then Wright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an informant, passing on all the political information that Padmore and Dorothy shared with him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padmore never discovered this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Invited by Nkrumah, Padmore visited the Gold Coast in 1951 and stopped in Nigeria to visit Nnamdi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Azikiwe, who would become the president of independent Nigeria. By now Padmore was forcefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocating at least a union of West Africa, if not the unity of the whole of Africa. Padmore ?used his time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gold Coast for a good deal more than glorifying Nkrumah and educating CPP members. Familiarizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself with the conditions under which Nkrumah was working and the economic and political challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nkrumah faced, he had strengthened his ability to advise Nkrumah from London? \(p. 109\). That is precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Padmore then did: publishing his findings and advising Nkrumah on the vast variety of issues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for independence and nation-building involved, until he accepted Nkrumah?s invitation to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with him openly in Accra. The book on his Ghana experiences, )] TJ ET BT 340.292 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gold Coast Revolution)] TJ ET BT 471.296 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1953. It provides a brief history of resistance to colonialism, details of recent developments in the Gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coast and then an analysis of the ?Problems of Economic Development?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Abrahams was also interested in the events on the Gold Coast. His visit coincided with that of Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright: the two men had breakfast together and Abrahams later wrote that he thought Wright had found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa ?bewildering?. Undoubtedly speaking also of himself, he wrote: ?the tribal African was no Pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African dreaming of a greater African glory when the white man is driven into the sea. The acute race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness of the American Negro, or of the black South African at the receiving end of Apartheid, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien to him? \(p. 123\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. L. R. James, whom Padmore helped rescue from imprisonment in Ellis Island in New York, now returned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the UK, \(Not to write cricket, as Polsgrove recounts\). He embarked on new writings and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism, but not with Padmore. As this book focuses on writings, we do not learn what Padmore was )] TJ ET BT 524.312 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in these years, as opposed to what he was writing; his journalism continued, in British \(left-wing\), Gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coast and African-American publications and then in )] TJ ET BT 293.636 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socialist Asia)] TJ ET BT 359.312 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James, was, of course, also interested in the events in the Gold Coast, so he \(and the Padmores\) accepted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invitation to attend the Independence Day celebrations in 1957. He was there for two weeks and reported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Prime Minister Nkrumah of now Ghana, whom he had known while he was a student in the USA, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked him to write about the ?building of the Convention People?s Party \(CPP\) ? as nobody had yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?philosophised it?? \(p. 155\). So he set about doing this, but for reasons outlined by Polsgrove, the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 214.004 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not published till 1977. James in letters to his friends expressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that ?Padmore failed to understand the Gold Coast revolution ? and had shown no evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the mass movement that the CPP would soon unleash?. However, as Polsgrove points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the many years he had spent focusing his attention on the USA, his ignorance of the development of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the CPP and his very brief stay in Ghana, James in fact knew very little of the new country of Ghana. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also ignorant, it would appear, of Padmore?s work as Nkrumah?s ?private policy advisor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagandist? as well as the ?London correspondent? for Nkrumah/CPP?s newspaper, the )] TJ ET BT 468.596 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accra Evening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News)] TJ ET BT 60.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 111\). \(The Padmores had even advised Nkrumah about the writing of his autobiography ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions which were partly followed.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably in about 1953 Padmore embarked on the writing of what became )] TJ ET BT 394.628 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pan-Africanism or Communism?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Coming Struggle for Africa,)] TJ ET BT 189.692 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1956. This attacked the imposition of foreign political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic concepts, whether Stalinist-communist or capitalist, onto Africa. Padmore, )] TJ ET BT 444.968 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 489.308 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, advocated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional federations prior to the union of all independent African states. Reviewers from the Left criticised it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for its anti-communist tone while those on the right \(including those surreptitiously funded by the CIA\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticised it for its pro-communist tone. The book was fairly widely reviewed; it was published in French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an edition for Africa was published by Azikiwe?s Zik Press in Nigeria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Padmore?s writing was soon almost curtailed by his acceptance of the post of Advisor on African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Affairs offered by Ghana?s new Prime Minister. He and Dorothy moved to Accra and both worked for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nkrumah, much to the dissatisfaction if not hostility of many Ghanaians, who resented the elevation of West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians \(and African-Americans\) by their leader. To attempt to circumvent this, Padmore?s office was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Padmore reported directly to Nkrumah. Though Polsgrove does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not explore this \(probably as little ?writing? was involved\), I believe Padmore was crucial to the organising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the two conferences held in Accra in 1958: that of the Independent African States and then the All-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African People?s Congress, both intended to foreground the need for African unity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polsgrove has uncovered letters indicating that Padmore wanted to move from Ghana. His death in 1959 left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorothy living alone in Accra. She continued to write for the CPP?s newspapers and to work for Nkrumah.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much more in this book than could possibly be summarised, for example on the novels and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings by Peter Abrahams, Richard Wright and Padmore, on the criticisms of Padmore, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence between these men as well as with their publishers. Perhaps more importantly I have not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with the autobiography of Ras Makonnen, Padmore?s collaborator in the UK, and then in Ghana, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which we can learn some of the ?inside stories?. The result of taped interviews by Kenneth King then at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Nairobi, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pan-Africanism from Within)] TJ ET BT 280.004 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in 1973. \(Makonnen had been imprisoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by those who led the coup against Nkrumah in 1966. Intervention not only by Julian Mayfield as Polsgrove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, but also I think by Jomo Kenyatta, now president of independent Kenya \(1963\), led to his release. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenyatta offered him accommodation and work in Kenya.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My major criticism of this invaluable book is that while Polsgrove unearthed much information new even to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me \(and I am supposed to be familiar with at least the Padmores and the situation in the UK in the 1930s ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40s\), there is far too little context in either the sections on Europe or those on Ghana, and nothing much on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in West Africa or the influence of the Cold War. Writing, as Polsgrove points out, was for the men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she chronicles, a ?political act?. And yes, they did write ?in a common cause? ? more or less, and not in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their writings. And yes, they contributed to the ?ending of British rule in Africa?. But so did those workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and market women who went on strike, those who demonstrated, those who sang songs of freedom, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called and addressed meetings around their colonies/countries, often risking arrest. And how influential were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these writings?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, of course, unanswered questions: for example, I have asked myself many times, had Padmore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived longer, had he stayed in Ghana, would he have been able to prevent the government of Kwame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nkrumah becoming what some have described as a ?benevolent dictatorship?? And a question the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not even hint at: both Padmore and Nkrumah attacked chieftaincy, sometimes in quite uncompromising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms. Undoubtedly they wanted to negate the power of chiefs and to create a new nation. But the 3- 400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the devastation caused by the Atlantic Slave Trade did not negate indigenous nationhoods ? it might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even have emphasised them, as some people became accomplices of the Europeans while others became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hunted?. Colonialists used chiefs to entrench their rule by ?indirect? means. But you cannot from one day )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3309 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the next move to become a ?Ghanaian? when for centuries you were a Ga or a Grunsi or an Ewe. \(There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are 200 languages spoken in today?s Ghana.\) And these traditional, historic systems were complicated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often dual-heritage progeny of Europeans, many of whom became the educated, merchant lite, vying for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and influence. Padmore did not recognise this. Neither did Nkrumah, sufficiently or efficiently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, in order to emphasise this: women were an important part of these writers? work: Amy Ashwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garvey?s restaurant in London in the mid-1930s provided a meeting place for these writers at a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black faces were certainly not welcome in many cafs or restaurants in London. Dinah Stock worked with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenyatta on his )] TJ ET BT 112.340 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Mount Kenya )] TJ ET BT 217.328 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1938\) and with Makonnen?s publishing enterprises in Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war. Without Dorothy Pizer?s research and typing skills and contributions to their income Padmore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been much much less productive. In the Gold Coast, it was Erica Powell who helped Nkrumah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce his autobiography. \(Polsgrove does not tackle outright the question of how much of it Powell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually wrote, which has been asked by others.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.491 m 154.700 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/2/251.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 542.979 m 280.352 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.352 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 539.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 521.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 521.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/841)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 520.473 m 322.316 520.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/africa_today/v058/58.2.smith.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/2/251.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 571.8055 154.6997 583.6855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/africa_today/v058/58.2.smith.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 543.2935 280.3517 555.1735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/2/251.full) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 520.7875 322.3157 532.6675 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/841) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000005115 00000 n 0000005225 00000 n 0000005334 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000009023 00000 n 0000009107 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000015390 00000 n 0000015455 00000 n 0000022648 00000 n 0000022713 00000 n 0000030109 00000 n 0000030207 00000 n 0000033569 00000 n 0000033696 00000 n 0000033841 00000 n 0000033968 00000 n 0000034072 00000 n 0000034200 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34295 %%EOF