%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140921072507+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140921072507+01'00') /Title (Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4812 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I must admit that, at the outset, the prospect of reviewing yet another book on the history of spices was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly alluring. In recent years there have been several such accounts, part of a succession it seems ? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently, an avalanche ? of ?food history? books. There are reasons of course why food has all of a sudden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become flavour of the month, in history, as in interdisciplinary studies. Why this is so has as much to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with long term trends and, not surprisingly, latent or deeply embedded prejudices within the discipline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Although it is only very recently ? belatedly, that the subject of food \(and as the anthropologists say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foodways\) has been deemed worthy of academic interest, pioneers in the field recognized long ago that food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture merited serious research. In the first half of the 20th century, French historians Lucien Febvre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernand Braudel, and the )] TJ ET BT 158.324 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 196.988 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( School which they founded, upheld ?the everyday? \(including foodways\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a world worth writing about. The first volume of Braudel?s, )] TJ ET BT 337.640 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilisation and Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 470.336 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, entitled, ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Structures of Everyday Life? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.976 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.976 143.625 m 189.968 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.968 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, incorporated detailed comments on the spice trade and its global impact to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show more clearly the relationship between taste and trade, people and politics, eating and economics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There?s little point here deliberating further over the sea-change that has since taken place in the last 20 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so years regarding food studies, suffice to say that now that it has arrived it also presents a set of challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to historians that were first approached in earnest by these pioneers in the field. Food represents a field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human experience that spans the moral, physical, intellectual and emotional. The ways of life of a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, but more particularly, their beliefs and values, their aesthetics, and social attitudes are wondrously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(842)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Freedman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300111996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Haden)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.9757 143.9395 189.9677 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condensed symbolically; and, when expressed through their cuisine, the behaviour associated with dining, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociologist Norbert Elias convincingly showed, is inextricably bound to the very form of progress we call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilization. Cooking and eating as are thus expressions of ?who we are? culturally as well as individually ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 91.676 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to use Braudel?s conception ? as much as of the material trappings of our lives and histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The geopolitical scale and economic importance of the spice trade in premodern and early modern times \(up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the first half of the 18th century\), the cross-cultural exchanges it spawned and the wranglings between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European, Muslim, and Oriental powers are on the face of it seemingly made for good history writing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figuratively speaking, the term ?spice? itself must have gained metaphorical power from the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spice, having acquired as it has the connotation of excitement, intrigue, illicitness, or perhaps all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined. Of the stories frequently told, well or badly, that of spice almost holds pride of place in histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of food. The ?story of spice? is already a good yarn: exciting, provocative and is mingled in mystery, risky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, and spurred by human passions: greed, love, desire. Questions also make for good story-telling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why were spices so popular for so long, and then, why suddenly, by comparison, did they lose favour? Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it purely profit that lured many men to their deaths having gone in search of spice?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Paul Freedman?s )] TJ ET BT 167.660 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of the East: Spices and the Medieval Imagination )] TJ ET BT 428.636 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a major work of food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that does not shirk for the task of answering these questions, but presents a timely reappraisal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical record in order to make its reasoned argument. It deserves to be read by all those interested in food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, but also in trade, economics, and geography; and from disciplinary perspectives spanning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonialism, cultural studies and language studies. Professor Freedman explores the story of spice with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural context in mind, as he rather untangles the thematic threads of what is a complex cultural tale. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has recently made a splash with an edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 277.976 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food: the History of Taste)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.308 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.308 485.955 m 422.300 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.300 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a large format and lavishly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated work that has been favourably been reviewed in one of the most prestigious food journals: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gastronomica: the Journal of Food and Culture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.012 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.012 457.443 m 283.004 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.004 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The reviewer, Rachel Laudan, herself a food scholar of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renown, commends Freedman?s book as one that treats its subject with academic aplomb as well as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic and exciting in its presentation. Food history )] TJ ET BT 295.676 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 303.680 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exciting! This is surely what in part is fuelling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest of academics from many disciplines, some of whom it seems have waited a long time \(years!\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to express their thoughts about food and food culture, perhaps after careers largely spent writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other subjects. We all, wittingly or otherwise, form strong opinions about food and food culture, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic context, this has translated into numerous food-related books and essays. From an interdisciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, in looking at food culture as a way of understanding humans social and political life on a grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, we come to understand popular or everyday culture as a dynamic canvass of events that play out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways which shed light on the machinations and perturbations of the political and economic life of cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nations, and the more the study of food as a potential window onto that world makes sense. Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman?s book does just this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If ever there were a story required to justify this claim, then the tale of spice is exemplary and Freedman has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excelled with his second helping of food history, unleashing his intellectual muscle with a savvy thesis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what prompted, made possible, and sustained medieval Europe?s liking for spice: pepper, ginger, cloves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mace, galanghal, sugar, cardamom, cinnamon, spikenard and mastic \(the latter, like many others, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to medical than to culinary use\). But perhaps more crucially, to this reviewer?s sensibility, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s astuteness and sure-footedness reveals that here is a scholar whose clearly long-term interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spices has now, to our good fortune, coalesced into simply one of the best accounts of spice yet produced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thanks to the current scope of historical studies, including food studies, Freedman has taken the opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to develop his nuanced thesis about spice?s history in the West and delivered a work of substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The culinary uses of spices are of course today widely known and taken for granted. But the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical \(social, economic, political\) context of the uses, place and meaning of spice has seldom been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in detail; rather, it is simply, and commonly, glossed. Serious works of scholarship that have dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with these questions )] TJ ET BT 134.348 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have)] TJ ET BT 157.004 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( been produced over the years. Wolfgang Schivelbusch?s )] TJ ET BT 434.600 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tastes of Paradise)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.940 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.940 77.043 m 540.932 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to explain the European penchant for spices, along with the ?intoxicants? \(tea, coffee, tobacco, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chocolate\) that usurped them, with reference to the new demands of a shifting social psychology. This )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.3077 486.2695 422.2997 498.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.0117 457.7575 283.0037 469.6375 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.9397 77.3575 540.9317 89.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology, borrowing something from continental phenomenology, grounds a discussion focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual experience and sense of self within a changing cultural context. The work of Andrew Dalby, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.340 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.340 766.563 m 237.332 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also comes to mind as a more recent account of spices, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and significance; as does Jack Turner?s )] TJ ET BT 265.964 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spice: The History of a Temptation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.960 752.307 m 451.952 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.952 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a racily written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling and well-documented account of the discovery and exploitation of spices and of how the West?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insatiable lust for them turned into a global business. Turner?s entertaining treatment of the spice story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers that period of history, which to the reader looking for a general history, would initially look most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing. The swashbuckling winner-take-all saga of how Western powers \(Portugal, Spain, Holland, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England\) warred, in particular, over access to the East Indian spice islands \(in present day Indonesia\) needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little extra spice by way of exaggeration or embellishment. If truth is stranger than fiction, no story as little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in need of adornment better supports this adage than that related to the demand for spice that gripped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and late-medieval Europe. So it was a pleasant surprise to discover that Paul Freedman?s new book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets a new benchmark in historical food studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman uses the detailed accounts of observers and travellers; names like Mandeville and Marco Polo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to mind, but also spreads the net much more widely, incorporating the obvious key culinary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic texts \(medieval and modern\), and those pertaining to health \(cooking and health being so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely linked in medieval cosmology and cosmogony\), as well as numerous primary sources ranging over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical and medieval texts on a range of subjects, to numerous maps. The bibliography is impressive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intially, however, for anyone with a gastronomic interest in spices the opening of )] TJ ET BT 426.956 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of the East )] TJ ET BT 502.292 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reads, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps inevitably, as a relatively pedestrian account of spice?s popularity and the reasons for this, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details the culinary and medical uses of spices. These uses, and the humoral logic ascribed to foods and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooking, have been well described and explored elsewhere. Some of the better gastronomic histories \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of T. Sarah Peterson, and Phyllis Bober )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.660 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.660 469.443 m 268.652 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.652 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( come to mind, and both cited by Freedman\) cover this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic and importantly, have underlined the medieval cultural logic that gave spices their central role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet but also in the )] TJ ET BT 125.684 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imagination)] TJ ET BT 183.692 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The latter is of course what Freedman aims to address and expose in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. He clearly wants to expand on the narrow gastronomic history, albeit while incorporating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval humoral lore that makes the prevalent use of spice at that time comprehensible to modern minds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and satisfies, in general, any incredulity about how the apparent lavish use of spice \(on contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards\) persisted over centuries despite the high cost of these flavourings in the medieval period. The fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that, as luxuries, spices captivated the ?taste? of the wealthy at whatever the cost; importantly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman argues, it was what the medieval mind imagined spices to be as much as what the body dictated it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to consume, out of habit, or from the allure of taste. The exotic character of what Schivelbusch called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the tastes of paradise? were indeed wondrous, magical flavours and aromas thought to arise from a Paradise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on earth, as well as conveying, sensually, the tangible character of that mythical place. The question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where spices were from as much as how they could get hold of them haunted and attracted at the same time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman embarks on a thoroughly well organized exploration of the threads of this global story, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing at the outset that the ancient world had already established spice routes to the east. The Romans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had made the connection with India, for example. Later, the Venetians and Genoans \(but also the Arabs, via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandria\) kept control of the largely overland spice route \(although the Indian Ocean was also used\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched of course all the way to South East Asia, the home of some the world?s then most precious spices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably, cloves and nutmeg. Arab accounts make mention of the Moluccas \(a small group of islands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present day Indonesia\) in 1460, long before Columbus set sail to discover ?India,? but Arab links with Java )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ceylon \(Sri Lanka\) were established earlier, at a time when Europe thought India to be the sole source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of spice \(pp. 108?9\). Thus, the geo-politics and economics of how to procure spices more cheaply provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman with a way to situate the provision and consumption of spice in a wider cultural context; as wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as possible in order to assess their social role in shaping the both the medieval imagination and in inspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global voyages, risk-taking and significant investment. The links between gastronomy and health, or diet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the humoral qualities of foods \(and spices\), which underpin Freedman?s cultural purview in the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, thus broaden to encompass how the aromas of spice in particular had firstly a spiritual significance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the odour of saintliness, or of Paradise itself. Taking in, in broader measure, the role and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative practice of, respectively, medicines and medical practitioners, Freedman convincingly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.3397 766.8775 237.3317 778.7575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.9597 752.6215 451.9517 764.5015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.6597 469.7575 268.6517 481.6375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that ?spices were regarded in the Middle Ages as both pleasurable and healthful, as drugs and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfumes? \(p. 75\). Freedman?s analysis is both lucidly constructed and persuasive in its detail, building on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central idea that spices played a crucial and unique role in shaping the medieval imagination. This line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is part of a broader strategy that encompasses the cultural context of spice mania in the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. Gradually during these early chapters, through the use of meticulously researched examples often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited from primary manuscript sources, the premodern world of spice begins to appear as one intimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound up with social structure, inter-cultural communications and geo-political and economic strategies on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Expanding on the notion of a cultural continuity created through the acquisition and consumption of spices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman moves from establishing the idea that spices were the material and spiritual messengers of a here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and now \(sensual\), but also of a hereafter and an inexplicable ?otherness,? to a very much more grounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective in chapter four, one that approaches the actual economy and trade, including prices, of spice in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period. The Europeans? ?delight in spices ... provoked speculation about geography?, Freedman states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting up a discussion based on a detailed account of the then established global trade links. Meticulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on prices paid by traders, merchants and consumers affords Freedman the opportunity to reflect as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much on the reality, as on the imaginary, in this story of spice. Interestingly, as the trade developed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of middle-men, secured by stable access to Mediterranean ports \(Italy, via North Africa\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulteration and fraud played a role. While prices remained reasonably steady \(according to the limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records available\) for the more common and relatively affordable spices, like sugar, pepper and ginger \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(128\), the price of others, like saffron, sometimes fluctuated wildly \(saffron is of course labour intensive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvest and highly perishable\). Spices used for medicine like ambergris, camphor and musk could be hugely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive. Freedman concludes that while the exoticism of spice added value, spices were bought for and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold for various purposes and priced to an extent accordingly. To reflect, as Freedman does, on the facts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the records show, it seems that as previously conceived, the medieval ?lust? for spice has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstated. Freedman?s account is a welcome corrective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five looks closely at the nature of rarity, one factor that added to both the cost and the allure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spices. Freedman takes pains to classify three differing types of rarity as pertaining to spice: intrinsic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstantial and artificial \(p. 131\). These relate accordingly to natural rarity of the spice, to the difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in acquiring it, and to the ?rarity? produced by virtue of monopoly control as was the case with the Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the spice route into Europe, for example. Freedman makes the case that a ?growing understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the economic situation certainly represented progress over the obsessively miraculous worldview? as this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertained to the European vision of spices as magical foods of Paradise. Perhaps inevitably, the reality of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual trade, of actual sources \(no longer protected by vipers, monsters, or rivers of fire\), came into view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aided initially from 1240?1360 by the Mongol empire, which allowed Europeans to travel along the routes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, where many spices were produced, processed and shipped. Notwithstanding, rather than downplaying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fanciful in favour of the realistic, Freedman makes this crucially important interpretation:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accurate information and better technology are important in promoting discovery, but so are excessively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistic, unrealistic, even flat-out false anticipations. The marvellous is more important than the scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the initial and most risky stages of innovation. Business histories tend to emphasize technological or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual, ?paradigm-shifting? breakthroughs, but it is the crazes, fads, and marvels that seize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination, including that of investors and those who undertake physical and financial risks \(p. 142\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The moral economy is dealt with in chapter six, where Freedman neatly tackles the issue of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed moral indignation about the consumption of spice, which was not meant only as a pseudo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious diatribe but as a way of deterring their purchase at such high cost. This discourse fell largely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaf ears. Freedman turns then, in the remaining two chapters to the search for spice, filling in a lot of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many know a little \(but often in a form that eschews historical fact\). Particularly fascinating here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freedman?s account of the early voyages in search of spice and of the maps used \(since ancient times\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the globe, the continents, and importantly the oceans. Based on the biblical convention according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which only one seventh of the earth was supposed to be taken up by water, pre-modern maps simply got )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the proportions very wrong. Freedman?s research of these early maps makes for a fascinating discussion as it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 7340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does for that on the early explorers. The recession of Mongol authority and the rise again of \(Turkish\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic rule in the late 14th century, changed the geo-politics of spice supply to Europe \(the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople to the Turks, in 1453, was a turning point\), prompting renewed efforts among Europeans to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain access to the sources of spices. Here, more modern maps helped a great deal, especially in so far as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented possible sea routes. Freedman?s descriptive analysis of how better maps helped strategies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration succeed deepens the question of how spices were a crucial element in early global power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles. Ironically, it was the re-emergence of classical texts, notably Ptolemy?s world map \(re-discovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the fall of Constantinople\), that also aided this cause, since Ptolemy includes more navigable sea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channels as an option, unlike many other extant maps at the time. The voyage of Niccol de? Conti ?to India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and east to the Indonesian islands, which lasted from 1415 to 1440? was a crucial precursor to the later, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous voyages of De Gama and Columbus \(p. 182\). An updated map showing more navigable ocean, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating the presence of ?spice islands? by Fra Mauro of Venice, informed those undertaking subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As to why, on an ideological level, the dreams to reach the spice islands were realized, Freedman suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the long-standing ?frustration with foreign and infidel control of the spice trade? in fact played only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor role. By the 15th century, crusader zeal was well on the wane. The fact that ?the strongest powers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the global spice trade were Islamic was not something that bothered everyone in Europe?, Freedman writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 188\). The discovery of the spice routes \(accessed around the horn of Africa\) were ?more of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity than a necessity? \(ibid\). Freedman is careful however not to fall for technological determinism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advances in navigation, ship?s technology, and mapping cannot of themselves account for the discovery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sea routes to the spice meccas. Freedman uses the example of Chinese exploration to make this case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracing the story of admiral Zheng He \(ca. 1371?1430\) whose ?armada? of, on one occasion, 317 ships \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially greater size than their European counterparts\), travelled to Africa and back, but whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander, and those he represented, were not interested, as the Europeans were, in capturing the spice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. This ?decision to cede control of the spice trade to other players on the part of the Chinese reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cultural attitude ?? \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a wide-ranging discussion that moves far outside the tangible, corporeal experience of spice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and use \(as a medicine or perfume\), Freedman returns in his conclusion to the various themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed throughout the book. It is a summing up in brief but also, I suggest, a re-grounding in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative realm that provided the impetus for the spice phenomenon and for his book. Freedman thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines that while economics, geo-politics, religion, and technology played roles, without the imaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception of spices ? their powers, prestige, and preciousness ? in the minds of Europeans, the voyages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery would have needed alternative inspiration. In some sense, after an enjoyable encounter with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, it has also brought me back to the original problem. In this instance, the facts have been lucidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related, the fanciful kept at bay, and to the merit of Paul Freedman, the reasoning is refreshing, compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and convincing. What still requires work is the question of the degree to which spices were physiologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and psychologically a part of medieval European life \(and of life elsewhere\); of how the life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual, the representational power of spices, and the ways these tastes transformed everyday life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience; of how the experience of life was understood in terms of taste, smell, and the other senses. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensorium too is subject to changes in ?taste?. Such studies undertaken with recourse to sensory and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data of the most detailed kind is possible, if difficult. Interdisciplinarity helps us see the same data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently and so there is always room to develop this multi-faceted approaches to historical subjects. Spices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a particularly rich vein of potential research. In fairness, these questions seem to fall outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of Freedman?s book, a welcome addition to a new type of food history, presenting as it does a cogent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-informed and highly enjoyed thesis. If lacks at all a little spice, perhaps it is that the individual tasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of spice take a back seat fairly early on \(in the chapters on gastronomy and medicine\), and that the story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon becomes one writ on a much larger stage. Lost in this albeit lively, readable account are some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(experiences)] TJ ET BT 90.656 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( related to consuming spice that would have rooted it more in the everyday. Yet I read with great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest and appreciation and recommend this book without reservation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 4534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 749.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 718.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 718.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernand Braudel, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 718.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century. Vol. 1. The Structures of Everyday )] TJ ET BT 64.016 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life)] TJ ET BT 82.688 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(English ed., London, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.012 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.012 703.299 m 278.000 703.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 690.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Freedman, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 690.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food: the History of Taste)] TJ ET BT 269.672 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.652 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.652 689.043 m 433.640 689.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Laudan, ?Review: ?Food: the History of Taste??, )] TJ ET BT 339.296 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gastronomica, )] TJ ET BT 413.960 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9, 2 \(2009\), 101?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.280 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.280 674.787 m 559.268 674.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 661.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Schivelbusch, )] TJ ET BT 185.000 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tastes of Paradise)] TJ ET BT 274.340 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.976 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.976 660.531 m 445.964 660.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Dalby, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices)] TJ ET BT 327.320 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.300 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.300 646.275 m 491.288 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Turner, )] TJ ET BT 126.992 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spice: The History of a Temptation)] TJ ET BT 295.988 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.312 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.312 632.019 m 431.300 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Sarah Peterson, )] TJ ET BT 155.000 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Acquired Taste: The French Origins of Modern Cooking)] TJ ET BT 427.316 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phyllis Bober, )] TJ ET BT 135.692 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art, Culture and Cuisine: Ancient and Medieval Gastronomy)] TJ ET BT 429.008 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.324 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.324 603.507 m 557.984 603.507 l S BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 589.251 m 90.344 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 534.483 m 240.992 534.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 531.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 513.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 513.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/842)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 511.977 m 322.316 511.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4316)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=23721)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.0117 703.6135 277.9997 715.4935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.6517 689.3575 433.6397 701.2375 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.2797 675.1015 559.2677 686.9815 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.9757 660.8455 445.9637 672.7255 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.2997 646.5895 491.2877 658.4695 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.3117 632.3335 431.2997 644.2135 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.3237 603.8215 557.9837 615.7015 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 589.5655 90.3437 601.4455 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 534.7975 240.9917 546.6775 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=23721) >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 512.2915 322.3157 524.1715 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/842) >> endobj xref 0 65 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005522 00000 n 0000005631 00000 n 0000005741 00000 n 0000005850 00000 n 0000009411 00000 n 0000009539 00000 n 0000009623 00000 n 0000009652 00000 n 0000009780 00000 n 0000009816 00000 n 0000009914 00000 n 0000018390 00000 n 0000018420 00000 n 0000018548 00000 n 0000018584 00000 n 0000018614 00000 n 0000018742 00000 n 0000018778 00000 n 0000018808 00000 n 0000018934 00000 n 0000018970 00000 n 0000019068 00000 n 0000027641 00000 n 0000027671 00000 n 0000027799 00000 n 0000027835 00000 n 0000027865 00000 n 0000027993 00000 n 0000028029 00000 n 0000028059 00000 n 0000028187 00000 n 0000028223 00000 n 0000028288 00000 n 0000035854 00000 n 0000035919 00000 n 0000043312 00000 n 0000043459 00000 n 0000048046 00000 n 0000048174 00000 n 0000048229 00000 n 0000048357 00000 n 0000048412 00000 n 0000048540 00000 n 0000048595 00000 n 0000048723 00000 n 0000048778 00000 n 0000048906 00000 n 0000048961 00000 n 0000049089 00000 n 0000049144 00000 n 0000049272 00000 n 0000049327 00000 n 0000049453 00000 n 0000049508 00000 n 0000049635 00000 n 0000049736 00000 n 0000049864 00000 n trailer << /Size 65 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49959 %%EOF