%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091158+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091158+01'00') /Title (The Will to Believe: Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and America?s Strategy for Peace and Security) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3914 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Will to Believe: Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(America?s Strategy for Peace and Security)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Will to Believe)] TJ ET BT 125.672 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examines Woodrow Wilson?s national security strategy from the beginning of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War in 1914 to the end of his presidency, contrasting his ideas with alternative policies offered by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political rivals. Despite contradictions and weaknesses in Wilson?s argument, Kennedy argues, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president?s formulation proved more attractive to Americans during his presidency than those offered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, and after a hiatus in the 1920s and 1930s, returned to dominate American foreign policy down to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson and the ?liberal internationalists?, who generally agreed with his analysis of the world situation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that ?power politics? or ?balance of power? policies pursued by the European great powers had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitated the war. The system, they argued, had proved inherently unstable, forcing participants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarize their societies. If the United States found itself having to arm heavily to protect itself from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential enemies such as Germany, militarism might jeopardize its democratic institutions also. To escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the power politics game, Wilson reasoned, the balance of power must be replaced by collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security, in which every nation would become responsible for maintaining the peace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winning acceptance of an entirely new form of international organization, however, proved difficult in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(843)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross Kennedy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780873389716)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent University State Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent, OH)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kendrick Clements)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7290 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midst of war. Initially, Wilson hoped to clear the way for reform by mediating an end to the conflict on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of )] TJ ET BT 74.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(status quo ante bellum)] TJ ET BT 182.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with a ceasefire to be followed by the inauguration of a system of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security. But it soon became clear that neither the Entente nor the Central Powers wanted peace on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms. And in any case, Wilson distrusted the German government. He doubted that an autocratic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaristic regime could become a reliable partner in a system of collective security. A durable peace, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became convinced, required not only that the Germans return the territories they had occupied since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the war, but that the German government must be democratized. In short, he found himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially in sympathy with the Allied objectives. Once the United States entered the war in April 1917, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson concluded that his only chance to achieve liberal internationalist goals would come at the peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference. The peace might be imposed by the victors, but to reform international relations, it must it be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable to all sides as just.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How could Wilson imagine that the Germans would see being forced to give up conquered territory and pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for damage inflicted on Belgium and France as fair? Why should they accept what looked from their point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view like a defeat? Kennedy argues that Wilson, like most Americans, believed that the Allies would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually prevail, and that as they found themselves losing, the Germans would become more receptive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his peace terms, provided they felt they were being treated respectfully and could see that the proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement would assure them security. He was convinced that they would recognize that the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone among the major powers, had no selfish interests and wanted only to create an international system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would be fair to everyone. Wilson?s certainty that other nations would recognize and accept American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalism was a major part of the ?will to believe? in Kennedy?s title.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from the obvious difficulties in attempting to reform the international system in the midst of a war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy argues that there were serious inconsistencies in Wilson?s own position. One was that while he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrusted the German autocracy and essentially argued that the German people needed to replace it with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more democratic system, he did not entirely trust a democracy ? particularly a German democracy ? either. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordinary citizens, he noted, could be swayed by emotion, and he displayed little confidence that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic Germany would necessarily be more peaceful than the Reich. Any peace therefore needed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severe enough so that the Germans would learn the cost of aggression, yet conciliatory enough so that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would see the terms as fair. Even if such terms could be designed theoretically, however, winning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consent of the Allies and, after 1917, the American public, to them proved impossible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An equally fundamental contradiction within Wilson?s program became obvious even before the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States entered the war. During the neutrality period, Kennedy contends, the president favored the Allies for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological reasons and threw ?America?s weight onto the Allied side on the scales of a balance of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed at Germany? \(p. 122\), thus rendering mediation impossible and undermining his own efforts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international reform. Following America?s entry into the war, the contradiction became even more explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the United States employed force to compel a German surrender and to try to impose a new system that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would theoretically make force unnecessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s program did not escape criticism in the United States. The group centered on Theodore Roosevelt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Kennedy calls ?Atlanticists?, agreed with the president that power politics tended to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international anarchy, but they could see no alternative to each nation being prepared to defend its interests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They doubted that nations in a collective security system would really be willing to use force to defend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights of others if their own interests were not involved. Although they saw autocracies as likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaristic, they, even more than Wilson, had little confidence that democracies would be more peaceful. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior to the beginning of the war, Roosevelt in fact believed that the international system, dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilized? great powers, was becoming more stable. The balance of power, he argued, had tended to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war less likely. That argument, of course, lost much of its appeal after war began, but the Atlanticists did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give up their belief that each nation?s ability to deter a potential attack reduced the risk of conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collective security seemed to them essentially unworkable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy labels a second group of domestic critics of Wilson?s liberal internationalism ?pacifists.? This, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits \(p. 229, n.3\), is not an entirely satisfactory term, since some of the important members of the group ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jennings Bryan, for example ? were not pacifists in the sense of opposing all uses of force. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems strange that he omits any mention of the most notorious pacifist of the era, Eugene Debs. My own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference would have been to use Robert David Johnson?s term, ?the peace progressives?, but the issue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not crucial. The pacifists? central argument was that participation in the war ?would imperil both America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safety and the cause of international reform? \(p. 114\). Unlike the Atlanticists, they shared Wilson?s belief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a system of collective security, although they generally preferred that an international league of nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue the resolution of disputes, arms limitation, and anti-imperialism by non-coercive methods. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believing that no foreign nation posed a credible threat to the United States, they were skeptical of Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments both for entry into the war and for collective enforcement of international peace. They charged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Treaty of Versailles contradicted Wilson?s own Fourteen Points because it stripped the Germans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory rightfully theirs, handed over Chinese territory to the Japanese, imposed excessive reparations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Germans, excluded Germany from the League of Nations, and disarmed Germany without general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disarmament. They distrusted Wilson?s contention that the League could correct the admitted weaknesses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the treaty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the logical force and popular appeal of the arguments advanced by the Atlanticists and pacifists, why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did Wilson?s position not only win out but go on to shape American foreign policy well into the 21st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? As Kennedy points out, Wilson had the advantage of incumbency, and he proved a talented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political leader with a particular gift for public speaking. His arguments, which rested on assertions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American exceptionalism, also had a strong and continuing appeal for Americans who assumed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s moral superiority over all others. The Atlanticists? arguments, on the other hand, implied American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in a balance of power system that was foreign to American tradition and seemed extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risky. The pacifists? assertion that the United States could rely for its security on geography and for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on moral suasion also seemed increasingly questionable in the age of submarines and airships. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s, however, with liberal internationalism rejected and the Atlanticists having failed to make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing case for an alternative balance of power strategy, America?s traditional policy, ?the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively disarmed isolation from international political-military affairs? \(p. 125\), became dominant by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(default. Then, when the events of the 1930s and 1940s discredited that position, liberal internationalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasserted their primacy. In the cold war, Kennedy contends, the key assumption of liberal internationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the United States had to respond to every threat to peace everywhere, came to shape policy, and after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the cold war, apparent American military superiority in the world made the argument even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive. Thus the Wilsonian formulation continues to influence American policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy?s argument is based on solid research in published collections of documents and papers ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly Arthur Link?s edition of )] TJ ET BT 212.324 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Papers of Woodrow Wilson)] TJ ET BT 365.660 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and wide secondary reading. Every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major point is buttressed by appropriate quotations from the primary sources. Kennedy has a shrewd eye for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the telling quotation and a gift for expressing his principals? arguments clearly and concisely. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtaposition of Wilson?s arguments against those of the Atlanticists and the pacifists for the whole period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1914 to 1920 goes far to clarify both the weaknesses of Wilson?s position and the reasons it won out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite those limitations. I know of no other study of this period that so sharply defines and contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing formulations of national security policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The limitation of Kennedy?s approach, in my view, is that it both overstates the consistency of Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives and makes his adversaries sound more unified than they were. To be sure, Wilson always blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war on balance of power politics ? so did most Americans ? but he did not immediately propose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective security as an alternative. Throughout the autumn of 1914 and well into 1915 he displayed great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty about the best American policy. The sharp differences between his ideas and those of Secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of State Bryan that led to Bryan?s resignation in June 1915 did not seem obvious to either man prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late spring of 1915.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The so-called ?loan ban? offers a case in point. Traditional neutrality did not require it, and its effect on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belligerents would not have been impartial, since the Allies had greater need of foreign money and supplies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than their enemies. Bryan proposed the ban not to favor the Central Powers, however, but to curtail access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both sides to the vast sums needed to sustain modern warfare, and Wilson accepted it initially for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7253 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same reason. Subsequently, as it became apparent that the ban would hurt American interests as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allies in particular, both men went along, first, with permitting ?credits?, and later with an outright repeal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ban. Kennedy mentions the incident, but, to my mind, understates the degree to which neutrality policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was shaped by economic self-interest as well as an ideological preference for one side over the other. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the United States was in a recession at the outbreak of the war had a significant influence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration?s policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Missing from Kennedy?s analysis are a number of important figures who seem not to fit conveniently into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his categories, including Claude Kitchin and most other Congressional leaders, as well other leaders such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Evans Hughes and Herbert Hoover. Congressional debates, as well as the elections of 1916 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918, surely played some role in shaping American policy, yet they receive little or no discussion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. And, unless one accepts Wilson?s opinion that Robert Lansing was only a sophisticated clerk, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary of state?s logical and thoughtful interpretation of American policy deserves more thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment than Kennedy gives it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A perhaps minor example of the way in which Kennedy?s focus on analyzing Wilson?s thought from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single perspective subtly distorts his argument is the case of the Overman Act. Kennedy depicts the act, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed in April 1918, as part of a conscious effort by Wilson to ?sharply? expand ?the government?s powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the economy? \(p. 146\). Certainly it had somewhat that effect, although Wilson never made much use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, but his main goal in asking Senator Overman to sponsor the legislation was not to enhance presidential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power so much as to head off a Republican attempt to seize control over the war by creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congressionally dominated ?war cabinet.? Partisan politics, more than a specific theory of how the president )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could make his office stronger, led to the law?s passage. It was defensive rather than offensive. Kennedy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly correct that one of the war?s effects was to enlarge the power of the presidency, but it is not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that Wilson deliberately sought that power, and it is notable that he tried to surrender as much of it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible after the conflict ended. As Kennedy correctly notes, Wilson feared the militarization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. My disagreement with Kennedy?s treatment of the Overman Act is with his depiction of it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a conscious plan, not with his estimate of its effect. A similar point, I think, could also be made about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects of his argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy?s use of broad labels ? liberal internationalists, Atlanticists, pacifists ? for the various points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view he discusses has the probably inescapable effect of making them seem more coherent than they were. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is careful to point out disagreements within groups, but the mere use of the terms creates a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression of unity than was the case. The problem becomes particularly evident in his discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period after the negotiation of the Treaty of Versailles. Of course, as Wilson had anticipated, conversion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective security from theory to treaty not only highlighted differences between America and the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allies, and between the Allies and the Germans, but also realigned the groups in the United States. That was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a major reason that he resisted offering specifics of his plans for so long. Indeed, the fragmentation of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war and wartime alignments was so great, with some pacifists supporting the treaty and some moving into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolationism, and with some Atlanticists outright opposed to it and others willing to accept it with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations, that it becomes questionable whether Kennedy?s categories retain any meaning. Perhaps he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been well-advised to abandon them and devise new ones for the post-war period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curiously, after spending most of the book seemingly building the case that the internal contradictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Wilson?s position, as well as the criticisms of it made by the Atlanticists and pacifists, ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented American ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and entrance into the League of Nations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy abruptly concludes that ?the decline of Wilson?s health in the summer and fall of 1919 played the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive role in preventing ratification of the treaty? \(p. 219\). That argument seems to contradict his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding ideological analysis, and Kennedy does not explain how the two can be reconciled. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health argument seems like something of an afterthought here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, despite these reservations, I think )] TJ ET BT 265.304 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Will to Believe)] TJ ET BT 356.960 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a valuable contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of Woodrow Wilson?s ideas, their rejection by the Senate in 1919, and their enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on American foreign policy. Although it is notable for the clarity of its analysis and writing, it is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1499 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps not the best starting point for novices interested in understanding Wilson?s policy, but specialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will value its trenchant and original analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Clements for his thoughtful and detailed review and does not wish to comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net PDF)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/roundtables/PDF/Roundtable-XI-10.pdf)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 685.539 m 364.832 685.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 367.832 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 682.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 664.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 664.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/843)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 663.033 m 322.316 663.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 638.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4418)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/roundtables/PDF/Roundtable-XI-10.pdf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 685.8535 364.8317 697.7335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/~diplo/roundtables/PDF/Roundtable-XI-10.pdf) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 663.3475 322.3157 675.2275 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/843) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000004653 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000008542 00000 n 0000008670 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008819 00000 n 0000016162 00000 n 0000016227 00000 n 0000023713 00000 n 0000023778 00000 n 0000031084 00000 n 0000031175 00000 n 0000032727 00000 n 0000032854 00000 n 0000032970 00000 n 0000033098 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33193 %%EOF