%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027094814+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027094814+00'00') /Title (British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878-1915: the Inconsequential Possession) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4835 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878-1915: the Inconsequential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Possession)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first decades of British rule in Cyprus have so far received by far too little academic interest. Ever since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fourth volume of George Hill?s epic )] TJ ET BT 228.980 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Cyprus)] TJ ET BT 325.316 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in 1952, few books have added )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in depth analysis and new insights on this period. In 1979, George Georghallides, the leading expert on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British rule until the failed uprising of 1931, was the first to challenge Hill?s pro-British account from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate Greek Cypriot perspective. The first four chapters of his book )] TJ ET BT 381.272 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Political and Administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Cyprus 1918?1926)] TJ ET BT 177.020 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contain a fine outline of the first decades of British rule and served for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years as the best source available in the English language. In 1996, Rolandos Katsiaounis added his excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book titled )] TJ ET BT 88.688 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour, Society and Politics in Cyprus during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 516.680 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short list of essential reading. Keenly interested in social history, his book partially overlaps as far a politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are concerned with Andrekos Varnava?s study but his focus on social transformation and labour relations i.e. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the life of the common people, is very different from the political and cultural angle taken by Varnava. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Bryant?s well written anthropological study )] TJ ET BT 291.308 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining the Modern )] TJ ET BT 402.296 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\) and the comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of Robert Holland and Diana Markides )] TJ ET BT 263.648 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British and the Hellenes, Struggles for Mastery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Mediterranean 1850-1960 )] TJ ET BT 204.332 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2006\) together with some chapters in the book edited by Nicos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peristianis and Hubert Faustmann )] TJ ET BT 199.340 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in Cyprus. Colonialism and Post-Colonialism 1878-2006 )] TJ ET BT 514.040 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2006\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete the short list of essential reading about the first decades of British colonial rule in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(845)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079030)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hubert Faustmann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language. The latter was not evaluated by the author for this book though one of the five chapters covering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his period was written by himself nor was the Holland/Markides book, which is unfortunate given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinence to some of the topics explored in Varnava?s study. Soon, the first book of the English version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinz Richter?s monumental four volume )] TJ ET BT 238.988 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Cyprus)] TJ ET BT 324.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 1878 to 1977 will have to be added to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list. But, the first volume covering the years 1878?1949 has so far only been published in German while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek edition appeared too late \(2007\) to be included by the author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878?1915 )] TJ ET BT 240.692 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is based on Varnava?s PhD dissertation written for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department of History at the University of Melbourne and now published within the Studies of Imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of Manchester University Press. Within his short academic career, he has distinguished himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already as the author of numerous academic articles, two edited books )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.940 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.940 654.771 m 387.932 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.932 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and now his first monograph. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With so little research done there are plenty of new angles to take and Andrekos Varnava has succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both providing the reader with plenty of new archival and other findings that add important new insights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge to the historiography of Cyprus as well as taking a new and different approach to all of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodologically, he relies heavily on his thorough evaluation of archival material from British and Cypriot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives which provide a solid base for the reconstruction of political decision making and strategic choices. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the strengths of the study is the evaluation of previously overlooked and rare sources like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished and published correspondence, journals and diaries as well as literary sources by travellers or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs. Of special value is his evaluation of fictional references in particular by the man under whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative premiership Cyprus became part of the British Empire: Benjamin Disraeli \(later Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaconsfield\). Contemporary images like caricatures, sketches and photographs analysing and visualising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new acquisition of the British empire aimed at educating \(but also manipulating\) the public about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new colonial possession. These pictorial sources provide important insights otherwise lost in accounts purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the evaluation of files and secondary sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His wider and different approach is also mirrored in the methodology and structure of the book. Following a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief introduction, the book is divided into eight chapters and a conclusion. A largely chronological account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the liberal Gladstone becomes prime minister in 1880 is followed by a thematic approach exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various aspects of British rule in Cyprus: finance/economy, governance and identity, strategic value and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international position in separate internally chronologically structured chapters. The year 1915, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in Athens rejected the British offer to cede the island in exchange for a Greek entry into the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, ends the narrative of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also raises issues not specific to Cyprus. The case of Cyprus is used to examine more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions either relevant for researchers of imperialism or social scientists who look into wrong political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices and the inability of leaders to reverse them: ?It [the study] deals with British imperialism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of the worthless territorial acquisition ? States do not always come to decisions logically or through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence-based reasoning; decisions are often wrong; reasons for bad decisions can be twisted and turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify them differently; and there is a great reluctance to admit a wrong move, let alone to reverse it? \(p. 3\) .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book title )] TJ ET BT 104.348 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878-1915 )] TJ ET BT 309.020 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the scope while the subtitle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Inconsequential Possession )] TJ ET BT 190.340 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects the main thesis of the study. As far as the former is concerned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is the most thorough attempt so far to place the acquisition of and policies in Cyprus within a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial context. This is also the first monograph which in its core focuses on the period from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British takeover ?on lease? from the Ottoman Empire in 1878 to the formal ? and never repeated ? proposal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hand it over to Greece. The year 1915 as a watershed in Cypriot history makes perfect sense as Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever since \(with the notable exception of some internal deliberations during and shortly after the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War\) was determined to keep the island \(or failing that at least military bases on it\) until today and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one wonders why it took so long to dedicate a monograph to such an obvious story to tell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why was Cyprus in the first 35 years of British rule an inconsequential possession, as the subtitle claims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book impressively proves? Strategically it was inconsequential because Britain required the right to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.9397 655.0855 387.9317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administer and occupy Cyprus ?to end the threats to British interests, both strategic and economic, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Near East and India, arising from a weak Ottoman Empire and an expansionist Russia? \(p. 1\). But ?it soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became apparent that the island was going to deliver neither the commercial nor the geopolitical value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected of it? \(p. x\). Cyprus became an inconsequential possession in many ways, not living up to any of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strategic and economic expectations but also disappointing the cultural imperial imaginations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative proponents of its acquisition in 1878. Britain failed to make the intended use of its ?European? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession in the decades that followed. As a strategic colonial backwater ever since the beginning of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over it, Cyprus turned into a \(rejected\) pawn failing to be of any but some financial use within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British empire until the end of the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter, the author outlines the main theses of the book, presents the main arguments used and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places them within the context of theories of imperialism. Varnava rightly points out that Cyprus has always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more important for scholars of decolonisation than of imperial expansion. Those authors who deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of Cyprus within wider British imperial strategies in the late 19th century do so within the received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom of its strategic importance. This strategic argument is rejected by Varnava even for the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predating the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, which so far had served in the literature as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation why Cyprus was not developed into a base. He rightly points out that Cyprus was never fortified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor made a naval base unlike the other three British Mediterranean possessions Egypt, Malta and Gibraltar. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One could counter argue that despite its non-development into a base, Cyprus always was of strategic value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Britain albeit in a negative sense: denying its possession to any other major power which could make use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it by doing what Britain failed to do: materialise its potential.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, arguably the most original one, tries to locate Cyprus within the imagined space it occupied in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective memory of the educated imperial upper class: ?To the British there was an unequalled sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession over the Holy Land which included much of the eastern Mediterranean and especially Cyprus? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 60\). Impressively, he traces back the links of Cyprus with Europe and England from the times of Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lionhearted, who was crowned King of Cyprus, its status as an outpost of western Christendom during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the times of the Crusades, when the island became associated with the Holy Land until Ottoman rule ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period where Cyprus belonged to the West. The decision makers in London in the late 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently associated Cyprus with the spiritual and strategic Holy Land/Crusader imagination as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the intellectual and cultural concept of Hellenism. The Ottoman and Oriental elements were suppressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the imagination of Disraeli and others when they ?imagined? the acquisition of ?Greek? Cyprus. In one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most interesting parts of the book, Varnava reconstructs the strong intellectual but also biographical links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Disraeli and Cyprus. His fiction according to the author served as a blueprint for the acquisition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus. He visited the island in 1830 and in one of this novels \()] TJ ET BT 340.004 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tancred)] TJ ET BT 380.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1847\) already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborated his desire to bring the Near East and India into the British imperial structure unifying England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Asia culturally and spiritually. In the novel Britain acquired Cyprus to create an empire in the Levant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Queen Victoria was made Empress of India. Once prime minister, this is exactly what Disraeli did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the intended empire in the Levant never materialised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter analyses the justifications used for the occupation of Cyprus. It contains nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly new concerning the story of how Cyprus became part of the British Empire in 1878. But, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is full of interesting new details proving how Disraeli and Lord Salisbury contemplated since 1876 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupation of Cyprus to counter Russian expansion against the Ottoman Empire based on decades old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports on Cyprus? potential value instead of checking its actual state. The ensuing illusions of leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives about Cyprus as a Mediterranean ?El Dorado? are the focus of the fourth chapter. Within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months, the realities on the ground where only diseases flourished and reports made clear that massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investments would be necessary to develop Cyprus into a base soon shelved the desired development and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore use of the island. That the Liberals, whose leader Gladstone had opposed the occupation of Cyprus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the beginning, came to power in 1880 did not help the development of the new colonial possession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either. Once in power the Liberals accepted the island as a colonial possession but were ?as confused as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives over what to do with Cyprus? \(p. 127\). Quickly Cyprus declined from a perceived gem to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useless millstone within imperial strategy, though the Conservatives at least publicly still presented Cyprus )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7524 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an asset, most probably in order not to admit that they had made a mistake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, as the first thematic chapter, analyses the British financial policy and its relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in Cyprus from 1880?1912. British policy cynically rendered Cyprus economically unviable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was unwilling to spend imperial funds for the development of the island and in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Famagusta harbour into a deep water naval base. This would have made Cyprus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategically significant and might in the long run have brought economic benefits but London rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited the island to pay for the so called ?tribute? to the Ottoman Sultan for ?leasing? it. The perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability of the ?island of plenty? to pay a tribute was a major motive for the occupation of Cyprus though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(island actually was never able to pay for it without extensive British grants-in-aid. The Tribute, which until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1905 used up nearly 43% of the island?s revenue, dramatically hindered its development but remained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only positive contribution of Cyprus from an imperial perspective. The money went straight into the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and French treasury to pay for a defaulted Ottoman loan thereby relieving the British tax payers of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligation. Exceeding the already harsh criticism of Varnava, the Tribute constitutes one of the major \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely forgotten\) crimes against the Cypriots by the British who continued to collect it devoid of any legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis long after the annexation of the island until 1927. This is not to say that British colonial rule until 1915 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not bring improvements like an efficient and non-corrupt administration as well as a fine road network, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the first major projects were only initiated after 1895 \(railway, irrigation\) and largely failed \(irrigation\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or proved economically unviable \(railway\). Only the limited and long overdue improvement of Famagusta?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harbour in 1906 would lead to a moderate increase in trade by 1914.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, titled ?From multiculturalism to multi-nationalism: the ?European? possession?, elaborates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most controversial but also most interesting hypothesis of the book: ?British rule not only created the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space for the introduction of Hellenism, it planted its seeds?\(p. 33\). For Varnava ?by the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the orthodox and Muslim Cypriots shared a language, folklore, economic and social hardships and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermarried? \(p. 155\). But British rule, through its perception and treatment of orthodox Cypriots as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Greeks, the tolerance and encouragement of Greek nationalism on the island and its administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, which introduced a secular system and divided Christian and Muslim inhabitants along ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines, brought political modernity to the island to the detriment of the development of a common Cypriot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity which predominated in 1878: ?The imposition of political modernity replaced the religious, civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional identity of the Cypriots with an imagined ethnic identity, making British rule problematic? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(152\). In short, orthodox and Muslim Cypriots ceased to be Cypriots and became Greeks \(and at a later stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in case of the Muslims Turks\), the former because of British rule: ?The Cypriot Orthodox may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become ?Greeks? if the British and the Hellenist leaders, which replaced, marginalised and absorbed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders that preached good relations with the British and Muslims, had not imposed it on them? \(p. 279\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the public discourse of the Greek Cypriot community is based on a primordial approach to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity though most social scientists agree ? and there is plenty of evidence for 19th century Cyprus ? on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernist approach to identity formation or at least a perennial one, Varnava?s thesis is bound not to go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down well in Cyprus should the book get the attention it deserves. He is not the first to challenge the official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of a predominance of a Greek identity in Cyprus prior to 1878, but he is the first to claim that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly the British who were responsible for the adaptation of a Greek identity of the orthodox Cypriots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their perception and treatment as Greek and their tolerance and even support for the Hellenists. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cypriotism? as a common national identity for all islanders was a realistic alternative to the adaptation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek ethnic identity by the majority of the population had Ottoman rule continued, British rule had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different or if the island had been granted independence in the 19th century \(which was never contemplated\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of the debates this book should trigger. The opponents of this thesis will point at the existence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek state with an irredentist agenda that included Cyprus \(Megali Idea\) thereby offering an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. They will also point at the lack of assimilation of the Muslim minority and their identification with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire \(and therefore possibly later Turkey\). Furthermore, the orthodox religion, Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, Byzantine past and at least perceived descend from Minoan settlers of the majority of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants made arguably the development of a Greek identity in the age of nationalism still a serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contender if not a likely choice after 1878.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7222 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a series of impressive contemporary quotes brought forward in the study to support the argument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the almost complete absence of a Greek identity amongst the orthodox Cypriots in 1878 despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of a Greek state since 1832. But, the author provides also evidence that Cypriots, considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as Greeks as well as mainland Greeks living on the island, were already promoting a Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity prior to the British takeover which begs the question: how many orthodox Cypriots felt Greek in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic sense in 1878? We will never know given the absence of empirical data, though the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available seems to support Varnava?s thesis that there were only very few. But we also know that local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers in Cyprus spread Hellenism and promoted the demand to unify the island with Greece ever since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1878/9 and that the educational system was allowed to disseminate a Greek identity soon after the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take over and did so very successfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most interesting is how Varnava reconstructs the process of Greek identity adaptation within the first three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of British rule with impressive evidence and quotes like the one of a British Commissioner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus in 1900. He saw trouble coming which Britain was unwilling to stop since it considered the Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity adaptation and the demand for union with Greece to be legitimate: ?Having watched the march of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hellenic movement for ? some thirteen years, I must respectfully submit the opinion that unless Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majesty?s Government intend to favour the annexation of Cyprus to Greece serious trouble will sooner or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later [result] if something is not speedily done to check what is going on.? \(p. 179\). In 1910, the orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cypriotists \(who, according to Varnava, also adopted rather reluctantly Hellenist positions albeit in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate form in acknowledgment of the progress made by the Greek nationalists\) were finally defeated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more hardline Hellenists with British help in the archiepiscopal dispute. The candidate of the Hellenists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed after a ten year dispute and irredentist Greek nationalism finally won the identity battle: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Nationalism, which has plagued the stability of Cyprus, started manifesting itself in the 1890s in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cypriot Orthodox community and was not instituted as a ?national policy? until 1910.? \(p. 279\) But, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerance and support for the Hellenists backfired. By April 1912, British rule was openly challenged by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek nationalists, who demanded a Greek majority in parliament in exchange for postponing their demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for union with Greece. Moreover, within a month, the first Cypriots were killed in bloody inter-communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clashes between Greeks and Muslims, a first sign of by far worse things to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven describes Cyprus? strategic place within the British imperial structure. Acquired for strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons, Cyprus turned within months into a backwater of the British empire. The chapter reconstructs the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated but always unsuccessful attempts to develop Cyprus into the base it never became until 1915. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed story of failed plans and proposals, the chapter is in some parts tedious. The main thesis is well put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the conclusion: ?Party affiliation determined, to a large degree, how Cyprus was viewed within British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial strategy. Most Conservatives viewed Cyprus as valuable or potentially valuable, while most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberals viewed it as inconsequential. Imperial strategy played a large part in Cyprus becoming an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsequential possession. The British failed to forge a role for Cyprus after Beaconsfield?s government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postponed making it a military and naval base...? \(p. 235\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of Chapter eight ??Cyprus is of no use to anybody?: the pawn? epitomizes the theme of chapter 7. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gradually and reluctantly, more and more decision makers in Britain came to the conclusion that Cyprus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was useless and could \(or in the eyes of some should\) be given to Greece resulting in an informal proposal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cede Cyprus in 1912 in return for the use of a harbour in the Ionian see and a formal one in 1915 to lure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greece into the first world war. Clearly, ?the offer of 1915 was not an isolated event, but the outcome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of seeing Cyprus as strategically useless and a pawn? \(p. 265\). After 1916, a new chapter of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule began where ?exaggerated advantages were once again invented to justify the maintenance of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, while the new phase saw little sympathy to Hellenism and few attempts to try to justify ceding Cyprus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Greece? \(p. 265\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not without irony that this ?useless colony?, ?millstone?, ?strategic backwater? or failed ?pawn?, as it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so convincingly described in this study, is one of the few contemporary remains of the British empire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanging on to the island paid off for Great Britain eventually since the island acquired real strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance as an ?unsinkable aircraft carrier? in the final phase of British colonial rule and never lost it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 2823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since. The two sovereign military bases as well as the intelligence gathering stations kept as colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions after granting independence form one most important strategic assets the UK controls today. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only Disraeli had known?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This thoroughly researched and very well written study will remain essential for any modern historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus. Intellectually stimulating, in a well substantiated way provocative and full of new insights, one can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only wish that its main theses enter the public discourse of Cyprus, which is so ignorant of many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Minorities of Cyprus: Development Patterns and the Identity of External-Internal Exclusion)] TJ ET BT 526.976 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava, Nicholas Coureas, Marina Elia \(Cambridge, 2008\); )] TJ ET BT 408.944 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reunifiying Cyprus: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annan Plan and Beyond)] TJ ET BT 181.004 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Andrekos Varnava, Hubert Faustmann \(London/New York, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.600 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.600 603.507 m 552.260 603.507 l S BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 589.251 m 90.344 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mgs/summary/v027/27.2.rappas.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 534.483 m 351.032 534.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.032 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 531.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 513.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 513.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/845)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 511.977 m 322.316 511.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mgs/summary/v027/27.2.rappas.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.5997 603.8215 552.2597 615.7015 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 589.5655 90.3437 601.4455 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 534.7975 351.0317 546.6775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/mgs/summary/v027/27.2.rappas.html) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 512.2915 322.3157 524.1715 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/845) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005558 00000 n 0000005667 00000 n 0000005777 00000 n 0000005886 00000 n 0000009447 00000 n 0000009575 00000 n 0000009659 00000 n 0000009743 00000 n 0000017352 00000 n 0000017382 00000 n 0000017510 00000 n 0000017546 00000 n 0000017611 00000 n 0000025249 00000 n 0000025314 00000 n 0000032891 00000 n 0000032956 00000 n 0000040231 00000 n 0000040336 00000 n 0000043212 00000 n 0000043340 00000 n 0000043395 00000 n 0000043521 00000 n 0000043576 00000 n 0000043703 00000 n 0000043817 00000 n 0000043945 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44040 %%EOF