%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141101000440+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141101000440+00'00') /Title (The Posthumous Career of Emiliano Zapata: Myth, Memory, and Mexico's Twentieth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4196 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Posthumous Career of Emiliano Zapata: Myth, Memory, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mexico's Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Look into his eyes: could you ever say ?no? to a man like that?? We were standing before a portrait of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emiliano Zapata; the woman who would have found it hard to say ?no? was a young, middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional from Mexico City who had generously taken up the task of introducing her nation?s language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and history to me. Such was my ignorance back in 1987 that for all I knew the eyes could have been those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a film star. To learn that Zapata was, in fact, a revolutionary leader who had died in 1919 was quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsettling. To place the situation within a more familiar context, it would have been tantamount to a London-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based ?yuppie? in Thatcher?s Britain drooling over a picture of Lord Kitchener. Utterly absurd, of course. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why did my friend feel so much affection for Zapata and was she unusual in doing so; how could someone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who died so long ago still stir the emotions of an intelligent, seemingly rational person?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reason why I remember the incident so well is because, when introducing my own students to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of post-revolutionary Mexico, it provides the perfect starting point for raising awareness of what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution means to many Mexicans. For some years my efforts in this regard have been helped by the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Samuel Brunk. Steadily he has become one of the world?s leading authorities on the revolutionary leader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his life, his death, and his life after death. Indeed, one fleeting concern I had as I began to read )] TJ ET BT 489.896 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Posthumous Career of Emiliano Zapata)] TJ ET BT 226.028 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was that it might be little more than a compilation of the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(847)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Brunk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780292717800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(370pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Texas Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austin, TX)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Brewster)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles that Brunk has already published. These fears were soon allayed, however, as the perspective of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s analysis became clear. Deftly side-stepping discussions conducted elsewhere, the underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention of this book is to apply a wealth of primary source evidence to the task of understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, and always contested, ways in which diverse groups have sought to use and abuse Zapata?s image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While always placing his analysis within the context of post-revolutionary state-building, Brunk?s focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture locates his work firmly within the current historiographical debate concerning cultural politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemonic discourse. More specifically, this book seeks to understand how a regional leader who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambushed and killed by government forces in 1919, could subsequently be celebrated as a national hero by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians who were implicated in his death. Arguing that previous treatment of Zapata has placed undue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the ability of the state to direct the thoughts, emotions and memories of its people, Brunk seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand how popular discourse has been essential in constructing the Zapata myth. As he readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits, his findings do not represent a significant departure from an already established consensus that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subaltern groups played a major role in helping to shape, refine, and sometimes to contest and reject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrally-driven policies. Bunk is justified, however, in stressing that the unique contribution of his analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes from the depth and richness of the material he brings to the table.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main body of Brunk?s study offers a fundamentally empirical history based around the trajectory of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zapata myth from the Revolution \(1910?7\) to the end of the 20th century. His evidence is indeed rich, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefiting from painstaking research in local, regional, and national archives, newspapers, political speeches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history, studies by previous generations of chroniclers and historians, as well as a trawl of literary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual representations of his subject. Given Mexico?s fascination with Zapata, this is no mean feat and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunk deserves great credit for the diligence and patience with which he has gone about this task. It may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly churlish to suggest that the sheer weight of evidence occasionally hampers a more thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with the analytical framework outlined in the introduction. There is scope in each chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, to develop further the argument pertaining to the ways in which historical context and politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played into the equation concerning ownership of Zapata?s image. The book?s concluding section, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does a fine job in drawing these empirical strands together and thereby substantiating the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic argument that Brunk offers is one that, as he acknowledges, has already been explored. Zapata?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination effectively brought an end to a violent civil war. While Zapata may have been out of the way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it left a bitterly divided nation and a weak central state that lacked any degree of legitimacy. From the 1920s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards, the national government?s priority was to unify the nation and convince rival factions that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had, in fact, all been fighting for the same values and reforms that the government promised to deliver. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the immediate post-revolutionary period, partisan loyalties took precedence over national unity: piecemeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms, patronage, and repression only partially reversed this tendency. During the 1930s, the strengthening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central state recognised the potential of deploying cultural tools to supplement propaganda and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric. As such, it engaged in an increasingly coordinated attempt to reify the Revolution and its leaders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Zapata, as part of a broader effort to achieve unity and political conformity. The crucial issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed in the book is the nature and the extent to which the state enjoyed success in this quest and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways that popular elements contributed and/or contested the process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is clear is that the battle over the Zapata myth began before his death, in the form of negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda issued by his enemies in an attempt to counteract the growing popularity with which Zapata was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed within his own bailiwick in the state of Morelos. A particularly crucial element in this battle was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of disconnection. Negative portrayals of Zapata and his peasant followers were more easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced by those who had never come into physical contact with them \(especially those living in Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City\). When, however, Zapata?s troops occupied the capital in 1914, their general demeanour ran contrary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an image that depicted them as barbaric and violent. Conversely, peasant communities that may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by the many positive rumours of Zapata?s bravery and struggle for justice would have found it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to reconcile this with the arbitrary violence visited upon them by bandits calling themselves Zapatistas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such it seems that the life-blood of myth-making depends upon an absence; a measure of ?unknown? or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?misunderstanding? that creates a void in the story. This void then becomes the contested space within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which alternative portrayals compete for the ascendancy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The battle over Zapata?s legacy can be reduced down to the question of ownership. Any group that could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim legitimate inheritance of his image became better placed to further its objectives. While much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate concerning cultural hegemony and state-building emphasises the state?s ability to overcome local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance and establish its own legitimacy, Brunk?s evidence demonstrates that the power struggle in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico was far more complicated. Rather than sustain a top-down, or even bottom-up, analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, he probes deeper into localities to analyse how memory and myth are formed and embraced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the control of the state. Far from producing a unified rear-guard action against outside interference, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunk suggests that even within Zapata?s home constituency different interests fought for the right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine his legacy. Similarly, at various stages in Mexico?s 20th century political history, regional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national factions also contested the role, if any, that Zapata should play in national discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fascinating aspect of cultural politics and, in particular, the creation and use of iconic imagery is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an extremely delicate tool of manipulation. In order for the state to make the best use of an icon, it has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow its people to believe that it is an intrinsic part of their own place within society. Too tight a control can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expose the true nature of state intentions and render an icon illegitimate; too loose a control, and the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrenders the icon?s potential to manipulate and opens up the possibility of alternative, oppositional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations. In the case of Zapata?s posthumous career, Brunk traces this tussle for control and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of getting the balance wrong. In the immediate post-revolutionary period, the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contestation over Zapata?s legacy was, indeed, local versus national. In many respects, legitimacy lay with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who had known Zapata and had shared his specific experiences. Certainly, a weak national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government that was implicated in his assassination could not and, indeed, did not try to orchestrate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation. While this basic contestation has never quite disappeared, throughout the 1930s and 1940s an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly strong and confident central government began to wrest control of Zapata. Through education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda and civic ceremony it began to solidify a version of Zapata?s struggle that simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced the state?s self-portrayal as the legitimate guarantor of the values that Zapata held dear. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely this phase in Zapata?s career that laid the grounds for middle-class professionals in 1980s Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City to speak of Zapata with a mix of passion, emotion and patriotic fervour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was also precisely this phase of Zapata?s career that convinced more critical sections of Mexican society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Zapata had become little more than a puppet of government manipulation. As Brunk points out, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students took to the streets of Mexico City in 1968, Che Guevara, rather than Emiliano Zapata, was their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred symbol of resistance. Only belatedly, when faced with accusations of being ?anti-Mexican?, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the students underline their patriotic credentials by recruiting images of past national heroes, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zapata, to accompany Guevara on protest marches. Ironically, this most vivid example of cultural pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the extent to which the process of nationalising Zapata had been achieved. Opponents of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could only rescue their legitimacy by demonstrating their faith in a state-produced version of a national icon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While reading )] TJ ET BT 105.332 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Posthumous Career of Emiliano Zapata)] TJ ET BT 318.344 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I found myself drawing comparisons between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trajectory of Zapata?s image and that of Jos Mart; the Cuban intellectual and near contemporary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zapata who articulated the struggle for independence from Spain in the late 19th century and who was killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the struggle to achieve it. As with Zapata, the significance of Mart?s life and death has long been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested. Most recently, Tony Kapcia has argued that the enduring utility of Jos Mart lies in the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his life story appeared to reflect that of his country: a process of struggle, self-sacrifice, betrayal, and future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope. As such, the storyline offers a continuous strand of legitimacy; a legitimacy that might be claimed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse, often opposing factions. Such was the abundance of Mart?s writings, that he provided interpreters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a wealth of material with which to reinvent his role within Cuban history. For the pro-US republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government \(1902?59\), Mart?s admiration for US democratic values lent legitimacy to their reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their northern neighbour. Simultaneously, Mart?s words of social and racial equality provided hope for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugated Afro-Cuban population; even though Republican racism forced this alternative vision of Mart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground, awaiting a more propitious moment to come to the fore. Mart?s writings on national self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination were embraced by the revolutionary government from 1959 onwards: Fidel Castro?s struggle )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3983 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was merely the triumphant conclusion of a struggle for which Mart had given his life. As with the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zapata, contestation over Mart?s image continues. While his image adorns every school playground and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(park square in Cuba, )] TJ ET BT 136.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Televisin)] TJ ET BT 185.660 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Mart)] TJ ET BT 215.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( continues to broadcast anti-Castro propaganda on behalf of the exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community in Florida.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, Kapcia?s concept of national myth making would appear to apply to Zapata. It allows for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple, often opposing, interpretations of the myth to coexist. It recognises different forms of ownership ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some personal, others more public. Importantly, it recognises that evolving contemporary circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine the extent to which a particular interpretation gains the ascendancy. So, for example, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous rebels rose up in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas in 1994 bearing the name of Zapata \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zapatista National Liberation Front\), the movement needed to be understood from a specific political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. As Brunk points out, by 1994, the national government?s claim to uphold Zapata?s principles had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been severely compromised. In effect, the state had lost control of the image and the time was propitious for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposing groups to inherit the legitimacy that came from association with the revolutionary leader. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely the latest tussle in a century-long battle for Zapata?s legacy which, in )] TJ ET BT 405.944 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Posthumous Career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emiliano Zapata, )] TJ ET BT 121.028 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunk presents in exquisite detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Brewster for the kind review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 502.467 m 154.700 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/1/261.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 473.955 m 281.012 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.012 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 470.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 452.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 452.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/847)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 451.449 m 322.316 451.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 426.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4437)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/the_americas/v066/66.2.dawson.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/1/261.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 502.7815 154.6997 514.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/the_americas/v066/66.2.dawson.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 474.2695 281.0117 486.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/115/1/261.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 451.7635 322.3157 463.6435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/847) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004919 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000005138 00000 n 0000005247 00000 n 0000008808 00000 n 0000008936 00000 n 0000009020 00000 n 0000009085 00000 n 0000016504 00000 n 0000016569 00000 n 0000024230 00000 n 0000024328 00000 n 0000028364 00000 n 0000028491 00000 n 0000028637 00000 n 0000028764 00000 n 0000028868 00000 n 0000028996 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29091 %%EOF