%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828183059+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828183059+01'00') /Title (The Culture of Giving: Informal Support and Gift-Exchange in Early Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4084 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Culture of Giving: Informal Support and Gift-Exchange in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a hugely welcome book. The informal economy of gifts, favours and support in early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, though of obvious importance, remains extremely elusive. Relationships between early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English men and women and their immediate family, their wider kin and ?friends?, their neighbours and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even those whom they had never met were infused with notions of charity, co-operation, and reciprocity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parents were expected to care for their children, children were expected to love their parents, neighbours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were supposed to support each other financially through hard times, and to send money to distant places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by natural or man-made catastrophes like fires, plagues, and persecution. Mutual support was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to the poor: members of the elite supported and patronized their friends? and kin?s political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic ambitions, as well as acting as founts of charity to the local needy. It is sometimes assumed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this economy of mutual obligation was eroded in the early modern period, a result of Reformation, state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation, formal poor relief, and the development of market capitalism. Not so, argues Ben-Amos. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly there was change, but ? the author argues ? this was adaptation in the face of new challenges rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than indicative of a ?traditional? social system under threat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part one, the author presents an overview of the character and form of gift-exchange and informal support. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one reconstructs the parent-child nexus, showing ? unsurprisingly ? that the relationship was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(848)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ilana Krausman Ben-Amos)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521867238)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(454pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Healey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7973 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and wide-ranging one. Importantly, it is emphasized that the gift relationship between parents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children was )] TJ ET BT 98.000 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(unequal)] TJ ET BT 136.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Parents tended to provide much more in the way of cash support, whereas children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would reciprocate with non-material gifts such as love and loyalty. This may, of course, be too schematic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there must have been complex variations between times, places, even households on the same street, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is an intriguing and plausible idea which might have significant implications for the economic history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family. Chapter two emphasizes the complexity of informal, non-familial support, which often involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a considerable degree of mutuality between semi-strangers. Two broad types are suggested: on the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were essentially horizontal relationships \(such as between neighbours on a street\), built on trust, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which givers expected returns of roughly equal proportions; and on the other, more asymmetrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships \(e.g. patron-client, master-servant, or lord-tenant\), in which social distinctions were greater and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which returns were very divergent. Chapter three adopts a more institutional approach, examining the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of parishes, guilds and associations in fostering mutual support. Here, there are stronger hints of change, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Reformation doing away with the religious fraternities, while in the 17th century ? so the older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography would have it ? informal giving through the parish was gradually swamped by formalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief. This picture is challenged usefully: in London at least \(there is little evidence drawn from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder of England\), parish collections for very diverse charitable causes were going strong in the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. London companies, meanwhile, also continued to provide wide-ranging support to their members. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, as older forms of association disappeared, others sprang up in the form of mutual aid societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly ? again ? in the capital. This was an alteration to rather than the disintegration of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of mutuality. Finally, in chapter four, more obviously charitable giving is analysed, and while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author makes it clear that some forms of charity, such as the more inclusive elite hospitality, were on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wane, others were simultaneously emergent, most notably associated philanthropy, so that the overall picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a reordering rather than a decline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two, giving is placed in its broader cultural context, and the ideological pressures favouring gift-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving and some of the social pitfalls are cleverly reconstructed. In chapter five it is argued ? plausibly ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifts reinforced both the status of the giver and their ties of mutuality, conviviality and sociability with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider community. In chapter six the focus is put more squarely on giving as a reinforcement of honour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation: written appeals, for example, showing clearly that the bestowing of patronage was viewed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of emphasizing status. It helped, of course, if generosity was displayed conspicuously, and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicized gifts to the parish church proved popular partly for this reason. Chapter seven is one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting, using a range of qualitative source material, such as conduct manuals, courtesy books and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funeral sermons, to reconstruct the various discourses of giving. These were complex, with emphasis not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on )] TJ ET BT 49.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(noblesse oblige)] TJ ET BT 123.344 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but on carefulness in )] TJ ET BT 228.992 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 244.328 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( giving to unworthy recipients. Funeral sermons are particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting for the light they shed on non-elite conceptions of need and liberality ? indeed, historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Law will find this a useful window into the cultural worlds of those people likely to hold parochial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office. Finally, chapter eight, again extremely useful, looks at the perils associated with gifts, or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with the failure of the gift economy, which was a perennial threat. ?Exchanges gone awry? could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to frustration, resentment and insult between parties which might never heal, while some gifts might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confer shame and humiliation on the receiver, notably those associated with poverty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three adopts a more teleological approach, reconstructing the complex relationships between the gift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and the evolving market and state. Herein lies the crux of the argument, namely that the gift-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy was not expunged or even significantly weakened by early-modern English economic, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political development, rather it came out altered. Nonetheless, as chapter nine shows, the state was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes called to greater prominence at moments of strain, such as during food shortages, when informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks became frayed. The growing hegemony of wage-labour over service contracts, meanwhile, served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to marketize the relationships between employers and employees. Chapter ten, however, shows that the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times actively encouraged informal giving and support by ? for example ? licensing begging or issuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?briefs? for collections for particular causes, both at home and overseas. State-backed law courts showed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for informal settlement, meanwhile, which served to emphasize neighbourly co-operation. Market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development also offered new avenues for giving and for the organization of philanthropy: some charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations were based on joint-stock companies, while newspapers were used creatively to open up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7577 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential donors? purses. In all then, developments sometimes blamed for eroding informal social relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually in many ways helped them develop.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall this is a significant contribution to English social history. Arguments are subtly made and the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is very good at conveying the complexities of the gift economy in early-modern England. In questioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy teleological ?modernization? paradigm the book is very successful. The analysis of diaries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies, and a number of London parishes and companies is thoughtful and perceptive. In particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s exploration of the discourses of giving in conduct literature and funeral sermons is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome. The book is of considerable relevance to historians of welfare, and most especially those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the so-called ?economy of makeshifts?. The Poor Law is supposed by many to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crowded out? informal charity in the community, but there was, the author argues, ?no zero-sum relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between charitable giving and an emerging public relief system?. This is an important point, and one worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwelling on. It certainly appears there was little crowding out of )] TJ ET BT 345.296 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(endowed )] TJ ET BT 390.956 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity: bequests to the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes and institutions clearly accumulated considerably, well after the embedding of formal poor relief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English society. Fasting and occasional charitable briefs were also sustained and revitalised across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and it is clear that the support of the poor by their kin, friends and neighbours continued into the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and beyond to the present day in fact. On the other hand, it is still very possible that the quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of ?informal support? to the livelihoods of the needy reduced. Recounting the amount of money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowed in various parishes, guilds and institutions is only part of the story: such figures can show absolute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth but simultaneously hide a decline in per capita terms. It is also unhealthy to extrapolate from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of London parishes, which were almost certainly considerably better endowed in absolute terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than their rural counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is not just as context for the Poor Law that )] TJ ET BT 270.680 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Giving )] TJ ET BT 379.352 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. It is also able to show that giving in its exceptionally varied forms was central to social life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-modern England, and that this centrality was extremely resilient in the face of considerable social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, and development in terms of state institutions and the market. For this, the book is essential reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the early-modern social historian. Nonetheless, there are some problems, though they do not overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detract from the quality of the book. The argument suffers from the limitations of the source base: most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manuscript research is centred on London, but the potential distortions of such a focus are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently acknowledged. When the spotlight shifts to the rest of England \(in which around 80-90 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the population lived\) the source material is either secondary, or relies upon the standard corpus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published diaries and autobiographies. Many of these are, of course, wonderful documents, and the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does a great service by going into the detail it does, but there are also multiple rich seams of manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for provincial England which could have been analysed. There seems no reason that the use of court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depositions could not have been expanded beyond the Old Bailey, for example, or that the accounts of a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural parishes could not have been analysed for evidence of charitable collections. It is a particular shame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the author did not turn her expertise to analysing pauper petitions, which Jeremy Boulton and Steve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindle have shown can shed fascinating light on the kinds of support provided by neighbours and kin to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The written style is not always particularly accessible: several sentences run on so long that they require )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple readings in order fully to grasp their sense. The ten-line whopper on page 273 is an extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. On a couple of occasions, the analysis of a single case study becomes a little too heavy, almost to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point of digression. When the aim is so wide-ranging, it would have been more useful to draw examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely rather than string out the discussion of one source for several pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there are some knotty conceptual problems, particularly relating to definition. Concepts such as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?, ?the market? and ?support systems? are allowed to pass without proper definition, while the concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ?gift? is defined but briefly. I for one am sympathetic with the identification of the Poor Law as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arm of the ?state?, but not all readers will be without justification. Of course, defining the ?gift? is extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult, and perhaps one of the book?s many strengths is conversely that it does not spend too long chasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its tail trying to define gift-giving, but there are times when readers will question the inclusion of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of relationship and yearn for more conceptual discussion. Membership of friendly societies is one )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3872 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example: these are included largely unquestioningly in the analysis, but in many ways these were simply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of savings bank: people paid their money in and, when they needed it, they drew from it. This is, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, related to the older gift economy, but it was also a step closer to modern concepts of actuarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance. The expectations that surrounded apprenticeship are also problematic. Clearly, there were certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things expected of both masters and apprentices, many of which were not explicitly set out in the initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract, but the fact that at least some of them were enforceable at common law suggests that including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them in a study of ?the culture of giving? at the very least problematic and invites conceptual discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These quibbles should not detract too much from the book?s importance, however. In tackling a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult subject, in analysing a wide variety of different types of source material, primary and secondary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in posing a thoughtful challenge to ideas about ?modernization? and the supposed ?decline of gift-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving? in early-modern England, )] TJ ET BT 198.992 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Giving )] TJ ET BT 307.664 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than earns its place on the shelves of any self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respecting social historian of the period. It will not satisfy everyone: those who crave theory will find the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book too heavily empiricist \(no bad thing\) and those who require minute quantification of every aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past will struggle with the overwhelmingly qualitative approach. But everyone should find something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here to stimulate their interest in the gift economy, and the society in which it obviously played such a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v040/40.3.pollock.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 514.467 m 348.380 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.380 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1525.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 287.012 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.012 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 482.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 464.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 464.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/848)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 463.449 m 322.316 463.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4438)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v040/40.3.pollock.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1525.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 514.7815 348.3797 526.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jih/summary/v040/40.3.pollock.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 486.2695 287.0117 498.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1525.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 463.7635 322.3157 475.6435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/848) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000004802 00000 n 0000004911 00000 n 0000005021 00000 n 0000005130 00000 n 0000008691 00000 n 0000008819 00000 n 0000008903 00000 n 0000008968 00000 n 0000016994 00000 n 0000017059 00000 n 0000024689 00000 n 0000024787 00000 n 0000028712 00000 n 0000028839 00000 n 0000028954 00000 n 0000029081 00000 n 0000029186 00000 n 0000029314 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29409 %%EOF