%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 53 0 R 58 0 R ] /Count 9 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721175222+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721175222+01'00') /Title (The Two Cultures Controversy: Science, Literature and Cultural Politics in Postwar Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4662 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Two Cultures Controversy: Science, Literature and Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Politics in Postwar Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of the ?two cultures? was launched by C. P. Snow in the Rede lecture, delivered in Cambridge on 9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March 1959, and entitled, ?The two cultures and the scientific revolution?. 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The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(849)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guy Ortolano)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521892049)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(308pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Waugh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.6277 236.6035 489.6197 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.9077 208.0915 443.8997 219.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9124 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of C. P. Snow?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 795.075 m 184.328 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Recognising, perhaps, that Snow was by then much better known as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelist than as a one-time scientist, Leavis spent much of the early part of the lecture undermining Snow?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority to speak by pillorying the banality and vulgarity of his literary style. Even in the remainder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecture, he answered Snow?s charges only obliquely. He went on to advance a thesis honed \(alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical writings of I. A. Richards and the American New Critics\) and refined over a 30-year career as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding father of Cambridge English and modern literary criticism; a thesis therefore entirely familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of his academic contemporaries: that in a society like the present where the advances of science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology threaten a future of momentous and ?insidious? change, ?mankind ... will need to be in full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligent possession of its full humanity ... a basic living deference towards that to which, opening as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does into the unknown and itself unmeasurable, we know we belong?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.628 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.628 666.771 m 384.620 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.620 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For 30 years, Leavis had pursued a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission to justify the establishment and growth of the ?English school? or the discipline of English Literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies as )] TJ ET BT 85.352 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 103.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital centre of university education, the )] TJ ET BT 293.984 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only)] TJ ET BT 314.648 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( centre which might hold together the fragmenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisms of an increasingly technological era. 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One of Ortolano?s main arguments, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we?ll see, is that comparisons between different historical outbreaks of a ?two cultures? kind are invidious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they obscure the real historical issues at stake in such contests, but this later disciplinary blurring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was fought self-consciously in a conceptual space already set up by the earlier debate and it helps to shed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospective light on some of the more mystifying aspects of the blurred disciplinary alignment of the Snow-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leavis controversy. Ideological lines are almost never entirely congruent with simple disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries. In the Science Wars too, probably as many liberal or left )] TJ ET BT 367.280 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(literary)] TJ ET BT 403.280 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( intellectuals threw their weight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the ?science? banner \(as defender of Enlightenment and progressive values\) and against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernism as those who tied their left or liberal credentials to postmodern culturalism. Though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary line-up seemed more clear-cut in the Snow-Leavis controversy \(given the greater homogeneity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English Studies at that time and its general preoccupation with a Fall myth of modernity, and given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empiricist framework of science mapped fairly neatly onto Enlightenment concepts of truth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress\) it was still more complicated and the ideological underpinnings also refused to fall neatly into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple ?science? versus ?literature? camp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though Leavis had far more insistently than any of the protagonists in the later Science Wars flown the flag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English studies as )] TJ ET BT 136.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 150.680 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( central discipline in the revitalisation and continued existence of a national English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, and more so in fact, than any critic who followed him, his differences with Snow were more about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting visions of a Good Society, and more about philosophical, moral, or even temperamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in their respective visions of its necessary intellectual sources, its building blocks for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation, and its ideological underpinnings. \(Ortolano quite rightly points out the many similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them, including their shared meritocratic vision and a liberal outlook, though Snow?s is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately described as a technocratic liberalism and Leavis?s a variety of radical liberalism\). Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science Wars, their controversy too was an extension of their underlying differences and social visions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as it was a battle between disciplines, but those visions were embedded in the specific practices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemologies and self-conceptions of the disciplines of the natural sciences and of English literary studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No one, surely, has ever doubted )] TJ ET BT 194.648 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(that. )] TJ ET BT 219.320 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, every culture has staged its own version of the debate; every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture has witnessed struggles for dominance between rival paradigms of knowledge which have always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been struggles also to establish a structure of values formulated )] TJ ET BT 341.300 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within the current terms of the discipline)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might not only underpin educational reform but ensure the integrity of a vision of a Good Society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for that particular society)] TJ ET BT 157.688 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In antiquity, an emergent rationalism vied with a literary culture concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the training of the orator-lawyer; in the Renaissance, an emergent humanism with an entrenched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholasticism, the foundation of a theological training and world-view; since the 19th century, the cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the humanities have found themselves repeatedly clashing with the positivist or rationalistic foundations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the research model of scientific training, which is now the dominant paradigm of knowledge both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university education and in the wider culture. In each case there are complex ties between practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemologies and social visions and concepts of the Good which are seen to be bound to the very methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the objects of enquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the early part of the 20th century, the period leading up to the ?two cultures? controversy, debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning knowledge and cultural and human values tended to flourish on two main fronts \(by the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Science Wars, postmodernism had launched a full attack on the very possibility of grounding )] TJ ET BT 501.956 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(any kind)] TJ ET BT 542.948 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge or value\). On one hand, was an outright acceptance of the narrow \(logical\) positivist model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge which insisted that propositions were meaningful only insofar as they were verifiable by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to testable facts, so that any claim falling outside that narrow definition is of the order of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless evaluation, an expression of opinion or preference, and strictly non-referential. Within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model, disciplines either sought ?scientific? or logical status in referential terms and took their foundational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cues from scientific methodologies and language, or they sought to elevate the realm of value as one of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 5453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostension or of judgement, the nature of which was seen to be too significant, too rich and nuanced, to fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the umbrella of mere mundane reference. I. A. Richards tried to have it both ways, by insisting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of literature is non-referential, but that the methodology of literary studies and, in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary criticism, might be brought under a scientifically methodological description. Leavis plumped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unswervingly for the latter, insisting that literature is a judgment on life; but in some ways Leavis too tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have it both ways, by insisting that literature represents a kind of thinking and knowing that is closer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-reflective, to a kind of largely inexplicit and linguistically embodied and performative knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enshrined in its highest and most valuable form in great works of literature. This is what he means in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecture by the idea of the ?creative collaborative? that must also underpin scientific enquiry itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leavis began his academic career transferring from history to English. In this discipline-hopping, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the model of his early mentor, I. A. Richards, who had moved from philosophy, under the tutelage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Moore and Russell and Cambridge Realism, to establish the methodological basis for English Studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the lines of scientific enquiry, ?objectivity? and close observation of texts. Leavis, enormously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by T. S. Eliot, and in some ways, never ending the struggle to come out from under his shadow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added to Richards? ?practical criticism?, a canon of texts, a vision, and a pedagogic mission for English. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was mostly developed from Eliot?s early criticism \( the essays in )] TJ ET BT 373.316 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sacred Wood)] TJ ET BT 458.636 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1920, and ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metaphysical Poets?, 1921\) with its emphasis on the internal )] TJ ET BT 328.664 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(integrity)] TJ ET BT 369.332 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the literary text and its vision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural rejuvenation tied to a grand and sweeping vision of the search to restore a ?unified? sensibility in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world. For Eliot, increasingly by the 1930s, that experience might only be recovered finally through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a return to a Christian society, but for the consistently secular Leavis, only through a fully sensitive response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the formal and expressive organicism of the literary text. Snow?s attack was directed specifically at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modernist)] TJ ET BT 82.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literary intellectuals \(though he confusingly refers to literary intellectual culture as ?traditional?\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Leavis?s programme of reform was built on the back of Eliot?s vast influence as the leading modernist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poet of his time, an authority underpinning his critical mission to overhaul the literary canon in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place a premium on the restorative and necessary complexity of the modernist literary work. For Leavis, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical appreciation of such complex formal organicism was the first step on his journey to reintegrate into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern civilisation the values of a minority culture, and to overcome the deep-seated and insidious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dissociation of sensibility?, the major cause of the ?sickness? of advanced industrialised Western cultures. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Interestingly, by the time of the debate with Snow, Leavis?s literary vision of a national culture that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only restore an organic community through the artifice of organicism of the complex modernist literary text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had undergone something of a transmutation into a post-Imperial retreat from Britishness towards a revival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pastoral ?Englishness? as a key to the regeneration of national values. This was evident on a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural fronts, but particularly in Eliot?s late work, in the popularity of the music of Vaughan Williams and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Leavis?s growing preoccupation with the fiction of D. H. Lawrence.\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 8176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If it is taken for granted that the controversy between Snow and Leavis, like the Science Wars between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernists and scientists, was never narrowly disciplinary, it is still the case, however, that there can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no comprehension of its more profound nuances without a full understanding of the disciplinary history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Studies and its situation within an academy and culture whose assumptions about enquiry are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already firmly on epistemological models supporting the natural sciences, such as those drawn from logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positivism. What placed )] TJ ET BT 153.344 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(science and literature)] TJ ET BT 257.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, specifically, at the heart of the debate that erupted in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s between Snow and Leavis, was in part related to this complex history; in part, bound up with Snow?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensive position as a traditional \(ie. realist and non-modernist\) novelist vis a vis Leavis as the first and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most influential academic critical proponent of modernist poetics in Britain \()] TJ ET BT 402.644 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Bearings in English Poetry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1932\); and in part, a consequence of the enormously influential pedagogic role of Leavis in developing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical writings of Richards and Eliot to claim, grandiloquently, for university English, )] TJ ET BT 455.660 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 470.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( key role for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new modernist vision of English in preserving cultural values and protecting and revitalising complex modes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thinking and feeling. This task would always, for Leavis, stand outside of the remit and capacities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science and science-based ways of understanding the world, whatever their importance to the future material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancement of Britain. Leavis?s real indictment of Snow, and the reason for the seemingly excessive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eccentric attack on his literary)] TJ ET BT 178.640 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( style, )] TJ ET BT 209.636 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that Snow was regarded by Leavis as not even capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognising the significance of what he was incapable of grasping.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Snow?s intellectual vision was shaped by post-war theories of Britain?s economic decline, so that he saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future of Britain harnessed tightly to the success or failure of technological investment and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking, Leavis saw himself entrusted with Eliot?s sweeping Myth of The Modern Fall, the Declinist theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to outdo all other others, broadly: that in the 17th century, and for reasons left tantalisingly vague in Eliot?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original argument, cultural life, language, and customary living in Britain, fell into a generalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dissociation of sensiblity?, a severance between thought and feeling, whose unification and restoration to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural health would rest significantly with the work of literary culture and, in particular, the writing of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately linguistically complex \(ie modernist\) literature and its criticism in the contemporary academy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1962, Leavis was at the end of his career and the hey-day of the Eliot-Leavis-New Criticism hegemony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was drawing rapidly to a close: English Studies had already started to diversify in substantial ways, in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branching leftward into left-cultural critique, but also, increasingly, toward a repudiation of what had begun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to appear as the naive empiricism of the earlier and foundationalist phase, and towards what would become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, simply, as ?theory?. Snow too was past the high point of his career as a novelist; his subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steady move to the right would lead to his political marginalisation in the years following the 1964 Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory. In some ways, though they did not know it, both were delivering a collaborative swan-song and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a swan-song with an amazingly vigorous and flourishing after-life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the starting point for Ortolano?s study, which departs in significant ways from this thumbnail sketch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disciplinary and intellectual history. For it is certainly true that the leading question posed at the start of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his introduction and designed to launch the investigation and justify its methods of enquiry is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactorily answered by the outline offered above which views the debate largely through the lens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary and intellectual histories. Ortolano concedes that ?the controversy was charged by disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions, and it somehow fits into a longer tradition?, but, he continues, ?neither explanation sufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts for the arguments and energies of this particular episode. The fact of personal difficulties between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snow and Leavis is similarly unhelpful: after all, they had coexisted peacefully in and around Cambridge for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than three decades, and they both later denied the existence of any enmity between them prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate. )] TJ ET BT 71.336 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why then, did this familiar topic inspire such ferocious controversy in the early 1960s?)] TJ ET BT 490.652 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\(my italics\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer, he tells us, will ?lead beyond personal antipathies or disciplinary rivalries, and into the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of postwar Britain? \(p. 7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With something of C. P. Snow?s own forthrightness, Ortolano is quite explicit from the outset about his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose in writing )] TJ ET BT 125.012 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Cultures Controversy)] TJ ET BT 273.356 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?I argue that what has previously been read as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary)] TJ ET BT 91.352 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dispute about the arts and the sciences was actually an )] TJ ET BT 357.632 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ideological)] TJ ET BT 411.632 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( conflict between competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions of Britain?s past, present and future?. But surely such assertive confidence begs a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions: In what sense are ?disciplines? ever ideologically innocent? And \(even allowing that disciplines )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 7870 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are at least always invested in presenting themselves as ideologically pure, as in pursuit of ?knowledge? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ideologically driven\), has there ever been a significant and informed commentator on the ?two cultures? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy who has not seen it as an ideologically fraught engagement with visions of British future, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as seeing it as a debate about the kinds of knowledge and related values that might secure that vision? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his magisterial introduction to the 1993 Canto edition of Snow?s lecture, )] TJ ET BT 398.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 419.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two Cultures and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Revolution)] TJ ET BT 133.676 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Stefan Collini suggests that Snow had launched a phrase to name a debate that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been particularly intense in modern civilisations and that the phrase has stuck as a kind of convenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorthand, but more than this, he demonstrates how the cultural climate at the end of the 1950s and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s was in effect stage-built to receive a performance along ?two cultures? lines of such epic proportions: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gloomy traditionalist prognoses of economic decline and post-Imperial retrenchment and national suicide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running alongside the modern meritocratic optimism and/or scepticism of a younger generation beholden to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and benefitting from educational expansion and access to new social and cultural opportunities. But given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the personalities, lifestyles and commitments of the protagonists, the performance was always likely to be as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much a contest between the styles of rival divas as a clash of competing cultural visions: Collini notes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some wry humour that ?a malevolent deity setting out to design a single figure in whom the largest number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Leavis?s deepest antipathies would find themselves embodied could not have done better than to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Percy Snow? \(p. xxxii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense, Ortolano?s thesis is hardly original, and the case for the controversy reflecting the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions in post-war Britain is already eloquently made in Collini?s compact and forceful introduction, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is entirely new in Ortolano?s account is the ferocious exclusivity with which he pursues this argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to attempt to expose the idea of a disciplinary contest as almost entirely a smokescreen for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological conflict between two models of meritocracy and debates about national decline. Only a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages in and he makes the startling claim that, ?to explain the two cultures controversy by referring to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between two disciplinary cultures would be akin to explaining that witches were persecuted in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe because they were witches, or that fugitive slaves were returned to their owners because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were property? \(p. 9\). Really? Surely this kind of assertion is of the same order as Jean Baudrillard?s famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provocative statement that the Gulf War may never have happened because the reliability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of participants and witnesses must always give way to the superior \(read ironic\) perspectives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outsider, the person that Ortolano refers to as the ?historian as the stranger? who brings a different set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts and categories to the task of understanding \(in Baudrillard?s case, eg., what do we mean by war; or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even what do we mean by ?happened?\) . Ortolano states his full intent at the end of the introduction: ?this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book aims to achieve more than complicating the images of ?science? or ? literature? in this or that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy: it seeks to dislodge the ?two cultures? as a category of analysis ... to analyse any episode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the lens of ?two cultures? imposes categories born of a unique historical moment upon very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different circumstances, and those categories then shape the interpretation of that episode by situating it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a narrative of disciplinary conflict? \(p. 26\). To read according to Snow?s ?concept? then is to fall into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what \(analytical\) philosophers think of as a category error, and in this case to obscure the view of the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which the participants fail to fit their own conceptual construction, so that chatter about disciplines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masks deeply convergent views of history. Ortolano?s statement is a pointer to what is best and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious about this book. For what might appear to be wilful and unnecessary intellectual vandalism on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ortolano?s part, might be read instead as a testimony to the persistent and unignorable potency of the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity of which Ortolano claims to have ridden us: the significance of rival or divergent disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives in any complex cultural analysis, the very thing, indeed, that he claims to have ?dislodged?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this book is also, despite its claims to the contrary, another chapter in what is dismissed on its very last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page as ?the huffing and puffing of disciplinary squabbling?. But in seeking to disempower the conceptual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category which provides the title of the book, Ortolano seems to imply that the ?two cultures? controversy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?two cultures? controversy never really happened and that generations of commentators have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bamboozled by the phrase ever since. His hermeneutics of suspicion then seeks to provide a more over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined and causally complex account by diving under the generalised conceptual net applied by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants themselves \(and by literary and intellectual historians since\), in order to defamiliarise such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heuristic devices by returning them to the pressures of actual historical contingencies. Here Ortolano does )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8651 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some stirling work, including impressive and exhaustive research in the archives relating to the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Cambridge in the period 1930?60; a particularly interesting chapter about the founding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Churchill College; and a very full account of responses to and the aftermath of the delivery of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lectures. Although the book unearths little that is not already known about the life of F. R. Leavis, it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dust off and add significant detail to some forgotten chapters in that of C. P. Snow and his various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates. A useful chapter returns to the reassessment of the idea of post-Imperial British decline as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologically and politically manipulated myth and relates the findings of more recent historians in this field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the question of Britain?s ?decline? as raised by Snow in his lecture \(though it barely does justice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandiloquent ?Declinism? of the Myth of Dissociation which drove the establishment and acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Studies between 1920 and 1950\). In short, Ortolano does an excellent job in bringing to attention a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of overlooked contexts for the debate, and although his arguments are not as original as he implies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he does remind the reader too of some of the ways in which rival claims in intellectual debates are almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always underpinned by specific historical and ideological circumstances which may not be apparent to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants themselves, nor even to subsequent commentators on the debate if they accept too naively the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original terms at issue. Where the book fails is in its obsession with the need to ?dislodge? or demolish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of ?the two cultures? as a disciplinary contest in order to explore its historical subtexts. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual category was never so ahistorically lodged in the first place. One can only assume that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming to approach ?the furore as an opportunity to enter its world with the eyes of a stranger?, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims, he is, in effect, seeking to establish his )] TJ ET BT 259.328 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(own)] TJ ET BT 279.332 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( disciplinary authority to speak the last word. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercising the specialist skills of his own discipline, he does an excellent job, but he doesn?t want to confine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to that and so the book overreaches in its argument. There are two basic problems: one is that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming that interpretative strategies must of necessity be agonistic \(?dislodge? etc\), he assumes too the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inevitability of disciplinary rivalry)] TJ ET BT 199.688 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and inadvertently therefore appears to aver performatively the very thing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he claims assertively to deny as a significant category in his account. The second follows from this: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that the skills and perspectives of his own discipline \(neither Snow?s nor Leavis?s\) might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?trump? or correct all others and hold the key to final understanding of what was really going on between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and why it caused such a long-lasting fuss. But the ?stranger? emerges at times less as one who comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearing gifts while seeking and accepting hospitality and lodgings, than one who comes to vandalise and buy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the property. Ortolano therefore overlooks or fails to acknowledge the significance or usefulness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative perspectives that arise from or are rooted in other disciplines. So he fails for the most part to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the literary style and the )] TJ ET BT 214.316 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric)] TJ ET BT 252.980 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the original lectures: there is, curiously, no close reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either, and only a cursory summary of their content. Much that is at the heart of the controversy is therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either marginalised or ignored. At the risk of sounding like F. R Leavis, I will end by trying to give some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples to illustrate this important point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snow reflects at the beginning of his lecture that the term the two cultures? was very carefully chosen: he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was searching, he said, for ?something a little more than a dashing metaphor, but a good deal less than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural map?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.668 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.668 269.859 m 116.660 269.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.660 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It isn?t difficult, re-reading the lecture, to see that the ? dashing metaphor? is the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing that, in Snow?s eyes, is likely to be offered by those on the )] TJ ET BT 347.324 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(literary )] TJ ET BT 386.324 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side of things ? colourful, slapdash, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective ? for it is not far into the lecture either before a familiar stereotype emerges of literary culture \(he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls it ?traditional? but his named targets are all modernists\) as a kind of inchoate conglomerate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degenerate aesthetes; their vanity most apparent in their insouciant attitude to science, but their real moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprehensibility apparent in their indifference to the ordinary grounding of empirical science in truth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy and attentiveness to the world outside. So, as one trained in science \(though with a vocation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer he tells us\), he prefers something that?s more substantial, a ?good deal less than a map?, but still, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly on the way to being one: gently dipped, at the very least, in the dye of the real. Plain words, caution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and care: the marks of what he later claims to be the ?moral component right in the grain of science itself?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.908 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.908 141.555 m 560.900 141.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snow is aiming to impress with his care for truth and precision. For realistically, of course \(and using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term in its scientific and philosophical sense\), an actual ?map? of a geographical terrain would need the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trigonometric correspondence to real space that has made ordinance survey our first port of call when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set off to navigate our way around a landscape. If the map failed to refer accurately to the real, and we lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our way and fell off it into a ravine, we might well feel justified in suing Ordinance Survey confident that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law would take seriously our claims. As Snow reminds us, we?d be sunk without this kind of care for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.6677 270.1735 116.6597 282.0535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.9077 141.8695 560.8997 153.7495 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 8810 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth: the kind of truth offered by classic science and, despite his training in Rutherford?s lab and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the theoretical controversies over the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, his model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of science is classically positivist, regarding regarding its mathematical models and propositional statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as reliable maps, if not always quite mirrors, of the real.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the emphasis on laying out a specifically )] TJ ET BT 252.668 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cultural)] TJ ET BT 290.672 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( map, rather than a map of disciplines, is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental to his argument. If science is not even thought of as a culture, but simply a conglomeration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic specialisms \(as suggested in Leavis?s response, in fact\), or at best a shared method resting on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logical foundation, he lays the blame for this unwholesome state of affairs at the imperialising feet of literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals. It is literary intellectuals ? mandarins ? for Snow, who have taken it upon themselves to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they )] TJ ET BT 78.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are )] TJ ET BT 97.676 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the culture. Indeed, we might agree: even the placing of the question mark in the title of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leavis?s lecture, ?Two cultures? The significance of C. P.Snow?, conveys a tone of )] TJ ET BT 439.592 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(haute )] TJ ET BT 469.256 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consternation; that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snow should be so impertinent, not simply deluded enough, to assume that a technologico-Benthamite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of ?jam tomorrow? might ever constitute a culture. In a later lecture, Leavis denied that there had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever been a debate and that it was simply ?absurd to posit a culture that the scientist has )] TJ ET BT 457.952 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 475.952 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( scientist?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.616 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.616 597.747 m 546.608 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clifford Geertz has defined a culure as ?signifying webs in which we are embedded?: a culture is a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of values, world-views, customs, beliefs, and practices, which constitute a mode of )] TJ ET BT 434.948 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phronesis)] TJ ET BT 481.616 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or practices as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to a mode of theoretical mapping. Snow seems to suggest that if science is simply grasped as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method and a body of information about the natural world, then the cultural value of the ?scientific outlook? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an extension of ordinary experience in its level-headed responsible realism will never embed its inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values as superior to those of literary intellectuals. In some ways, Snow and Leavis were both kicking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the restrictions of the positivist separation of facts and values in its last gasp and its lingering and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very real effect on disciplinary outlooks: Snow, because it inhibited the acceptance of science as a ?culture? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ie a structure of values\) and therefore inhibited the embedding of the scientific outlook as the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernising force in contemporary society; Leavis, because in detaching ?value? from ?knowledge?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positivist model was instrumental in sustaining a non-cognitivist view of literary discourses and a view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science as the )] TJ ET BT 102.992 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only )] TJ ET BT 126.656 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viable mode of knowledge. For him, the realm of ?value? as engaged by humanistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry and literary criticism, in particular, is underpinned by and inseparable from an alternative kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge ? not the knowledge of ?fact?, the explicit knowledge of the scientist ? but a kind of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective knowing that grounds human beings in their cultural worlds and provides that sense of being out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of which that other kind of knowledge ? the explicit kind, science ? has developed and on which it finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rests. Though most often read in the Romantic humanist tradition of )] TJ ET BT 363.332 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kulturkritik \()] TJ ET BT 427.004 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited from Herder?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on linguistic rootedness and national culture and from Schiller?s rather more Kantian emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the autonomous and disinterested play of the literary text as a release from the realm of natural necessity\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leavis?s idea of the centrality of language in understanding, knowledge and interpretation is often closer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th-century phenomenology with its emphasis on the importance of a sort of knowing that anchors human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness and its sense of being in the world. But Leavis clearly felt, in his embattled stance against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crass Wellsianism? and the reductive discourses of scientism, that to make this explicit would involve using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a language and a rhetoric at odds with what he is trying to adduce: the kind of knowledge that would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed in any boot-strapping attempt to find explicit definition or rules for its nature. You cannot point to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it in a laboratory, he says, in the Richmond lecture, or even on a page, for it is in the work of ?creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration?, of language as a mode of social intercourse and exchange, that we derive our fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of identity in the world. Language is what houses us in the world and in a culture and, without its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative renewal, the culture stagnates and dies. If science stands outside observing and offering causal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of natural phenomena, then literary practice expresses a world always already given to us as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value-laden, and in which we are always pre-reflexively anchored. For Leavis, literary language is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highest and densest expression of this kind of knowledge as experience. This does not mean that science is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not equally valuable in its own demesne. But for Leavis, it should be )] TJ ET BT 366.992 128.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(equality with difference)] TJ ET BT 480.320 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: and given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science had so hegemonically, as he saw it, colonised the terrain of ?knowledge?, then the discipline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary studies could only make its claims, in its own terms and language, by asserting its significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a complex performativity that eschewed, always, the explicit. That is why the terms of this debate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Snow-Leavis controversy require that the commentator begins with a responsiveness to the rhetoric and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of the participants, as well as drawing on the empirical and analytical skills of the cultural historian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 55 0 obj [53 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.6157 598.0615 546.6077 609.9415 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 6473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the ?stranger?, and the conceptual grasp and intellectual range of the historian of ideas. The attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the Two Cultures controversy should not require the further staging of yet another ?turf war?, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead offer an opportunity for a ?creative collaboration? between disciplines, in attempting to arrive at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly complex and multi-perspectival understanding. Paradoxically, however, the history of attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the significance of this particular cultural event has all too often metamorphosed into further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary skirmishes. There is much that is fascinating and illuminating in this well-written and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustively researched book: it is a pity that its author has not managed to avoid turning his very valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary perspective into yet another triumphalist contest. But perhaps we academics, even after 50 years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whatever our disciplines, still feel most at home when the gloves are off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. P. Snow, )] TJ ET BT 124.028 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Cultures)] TJ ET BT 210.044 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, introd. Stefan Collini \(Cambridge and New York, 1993\), p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.684 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.684 615.507 m 552.680 615.507 l S BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 601.251 m 78.008 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 586.995 m 170.336 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. R. Leavis, )] TJ ET BT 128.684 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two Cultures? The Significance of C. P.Snow )] TJ ET BT 351.704 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1962\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.028 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.028 572.739 m 484.016 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 558.483 m 170.336 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 544.227 m 170.336 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 529.971 m 170.336 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7 Alan Sokal, ?Transgressing the boundaries: towards a transformative hermeneutics of quantum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gravity?, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Text)] TJ ET BT 163.004 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46/47 \(1996\), 217?52 .)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.660 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.660 501.459 m 332.648 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. P. Snow, )] TJ ET BT 124.028 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Cultures)] TJ ET BT 210.044 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.044 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.044 487.203 m 291.032 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 472.947 m 170.336 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. R. Leavis, )] TJ ET BT 128.684 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nor Shall My Sword: Discourses on Pluralism, Compassion and Social Hope)] TJ ET BT 501.020 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1972\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 444.435 m 185.000 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net-reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 389.667 m 240.992 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/2/252.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 361.155 m 280.352 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 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