%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922190211+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922190211+01'00') /Title (Atlantic Families: Lives and Letters in the Later Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4017 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Atlantic Families: Lives and Letters in the Later Eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Pearsall has found her sea legs in her analysis of Atlantic families who were launched alone and adrift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?into the ocean of the world? \(p. 47\). Family members in Britain, the Caribbean, and the American colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were divided by the Atlantic in a period of revolution and war \(1760?1815\). Using dark, dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphors of oceanic travel, she presents her separated kin as ?loose fish? in need of ties and ?lines of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority? \(p. 53\). Fortunately, hundreds of family letters served as those connecting ties and ?lines?. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provide her with valuable primary sources. Pearsall is master and commander of their contents as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyzes the complex life experiences, personal relationships, and linguistic strategies of their writers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Families)] TJ ET BT 117.020 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( capitalizes on an intense interest in letter writing, as evidenced by books, articles, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special issues of periodicals relating to British, American, and French correspondence. Indeed Pearsall wants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to stop ?thinking of familiar letters as somehow inferior, less political, or less significant texts. Letters did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count? \(p. 18\), she insists, and her book refreshingly confirms this claim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambitious goal of the book is to integrate the domestic, epistolary and Atlantic contexts of her families. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It is my hope?, she states, ?that this study will illuminate the history of the Atlantic, the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, and the history of letter-writing?. Her use of the ?Atlantic? is ?a way of circumventing national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Pearsall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199532995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Whyman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries, of correcting exceptionalist narratives \(which have particularly plagued American families\)? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10\). Pearsall?s core belief is that families were not just incidental to the growth and maintenance of Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, they were central to its development. In order to justify this claim, she uses case studies to illuminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger arguments about a changing, often violent slice of 18th-century society. In the eyes of this reviewer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she generally succeeds in these aims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearsall is also anxious to offer a corrective to stereotypes about family relationships, both in the eyes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries and subsequent historians. Rather than start from conventional models of patriarchy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female subordination, she locates evidence of more complex relationships in languages of sensibility, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiarity, and credit found in letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A particular strength of this book is the author?s command of primary and secondary sources. The letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she found cover areas including Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, England, Scotland, Ireland, Jamaica, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahamas, Grenada, and Barbados. Pearsall supplements and checks their contents by locating other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical documents such as parish records, wills, and settlements that provide background and add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective. Each new subject and case study is underpinned by a broad reading of secondary sources, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows Pearsall to set her families in a wider historical context. She also employs literary texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescriptive literature including novels, magazines, letter-writing manuals, and printed letter collections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of Pearsall?s correspondence was written by an educated, Anglo-American elite that included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant and planter families. Though she admits they comprise a ?limited stratum of society? \(p. 18\), her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies have been carefully selected to show different regions, colonies, and types of chief protagonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergoing some type of crisis. Furthermore, rare glimpses of the lives and voices of slaves are disclosed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the larger correspondence of their owners \(pp. 106?7\). They show the importance of family letters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing intimate information about people who usually lay outside the boundaries of recorded evidence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her work thus joins recent studies of letters written by paupers, prisoners, and northern labourers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.928 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.928 431.187 m 516.920 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 516.920 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest new ways to consider the extent and uses of popular literacy in the 18th-century Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To bring order to all of this material, the book first presents unifying themes and background; then it offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular trajectories in the form of interesting personal narratives. This structure reveals the unity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary practices and conventions across people and places ? a fact that evokes continuities when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyze letters. Yet it also reflects the diversity, imagination, and personal idiosyncrasies that make the genre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so valuable. We can thus see the stresses and disorderly lives endured by separated families alongside their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared set of ideals and common epistolary strategies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction presents the concept of fractured families and discusses both the perils and benefits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic mobility and distance. Since the Atlantic economy and its colonies demanded separation of kin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members had to forge the family out of factors other than simple co-residence. Connections were sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by affectionate letters that served as ?lines? of family feeling. Nonetheless, happy endings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliations were often impossible to achieve. Consequently, letter writers developed epistolary tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that bridged distance, brought hope, and revitalized connections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two through four describe the shared ideals of familiarity, sensibility, and credit and show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were deployed in epistolary language. Familiarity in letters meant more than just expressing intimacy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politeness. It implied a privileged ease and freedom that existed between particular correspondents. Over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, it replaced an older language of formality between wives and husbands, parent and children, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends. But because it excluded as well as included people, it became a ?vexed social space? in practice \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, a culture of sensibility, defined as ?the ability to possess and to display a feeling heart?\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(84\), became intimately embedded in family letters. During the century, a shift in style took place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of both sexes. Epistolary languages of deference and religion were replaced by the language of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.9277 431.5015 516.9197 443.3815 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibility, which became the dominant mode. One of the chief ways to express it was by ?writing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling? in letters \(p. 89\). How this change came about, its rise and fall, the means of its measurement, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the co-existence of other styles is not clearly set out. Nor does Pearsall mention the ?language of the head? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that accompanied ?the language of the heart? or the desire for plainly-written prose by commercial families. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, scholars have located a backlash against the cult of sensibility by the early 19th century, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental epistolary novels fell from favour.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.652 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.652 723.795 m 270.644 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the language of sensibility did find a natural home in letters, and Pearsall brings new insights by linking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it to the fragility of her families. Being a man or woman of feeling, she points out, ?served as a fantasy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these men and women, in the face of an Atlantic economy, and a political world, in which indifference and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even cruelty could be paramount? \(pp. 86?7\). The book also shows how women in subordinate positions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used the language of sensibility to advantage. Sometimes it brought them agency, as well as relief. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of familiarity, it had origins in the family; then it moved outward into other realms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, a language of credit coexisted with those of familiarity and sensibility. Defining credit as ?the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be believed? \(p. 116\), she shows how its fragility was simultaneously a domestic, political, and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue. The creation and maintenance of Atlantic trade depended upon credit and it was needed to avert ruin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on all three levels. But though it took time and effort to build, a reputation could disappear in a moment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When credit was linked to business, it became a masculine trait that could unman those who lost it. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new here is Pearsall?s claim that the family had important agency in shaping economic cultures of credit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the ideal of the man of credit was often first experienced by sons in letters from their fathers. Lest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they became prodigal and later fail in business, fathers wrangled, dunned, quizzed, and scolded them with ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality that coexisted effortlessly, ominously, with a culture of politeness? \(p. 115\). Hence market values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sat alongside sentiment in family letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the rest of the book, patterns of familiarity, sensibility, and credit are woven into a series of case studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that illustrate how families coped with the Atlantic world. Each one starts with stereotypes and standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations that seem plausible, but turn out to be either incomplete or unsatisfactory. Then the dense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information in her letters allows her to build up layers of complex analysis. As she uncovers different points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of view, we discover hidden motivations and unanticipated types of personal relationships that existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within her families. Finally, Pearsall compares her cases with those found in prescriptive literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals. The result is a detailed set of explanations enriched by epistolary evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five tells the tale of the Parker family that spans Scotland, the Chesapeake, and London. A deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rupture between James Parker and his son Patrick ends with the inability of James to forgive his son, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Patrick?s tragic death. Pearsall uses this case to probe notions of rigid loyalists and anxious patriarchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and instead focuses on pressures of sensibility and the Atlantic credit system. A supposedly tyrannical father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wayward son are revealed enmeshed in disturbing social and political circumstances. These facts help us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand the family?s unexpected behavior and relationships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter six, we see the grim reality of war and empire faced by a separated husband and wife, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy reunion fails to take place. Pearsall explains the mystery of why Catherine and Charles Dudley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained apart both before and after the American Revolution in England and New England. Both sexes use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of sensibility and familiarity to negotiate an uneasy balance between submission and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship. This rhetoric lets Charles remain a man of feeling, while he pursues masculine prerogatives. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also gives Catherine limited success in asserting female agency. Both writers promised happy kisses amidst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scenes of destruction and loss. ?They could thus avoid the implications of what it meant for a nation to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost a war against its colonies, for men to have done terrible things because of that war, and for some men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never to have come home at all? \(p. 208\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final scandalous case study shows the pressures on Anglo-Jamaican families in a brutal corner of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic, and also upon their return to England. John Tharp, a wealthy older husband, unexpectedly forgives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his young second wife Ann for adultery with his son-in-law, an Anglican priest. Also treated by Linda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colley in )] TJ ET BT 81.356 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.356 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.356 53.043 m 248.348 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.348 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Pearsall uses this case study in a different way. She employs it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6517 724.1095 270.6437 735.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.3557 53.3575 248.3477 65.2375 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demolish stereotypes of brutal West Indian tyrants as well as the powerlessness of Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the Caribbean. In an analysis of Ann?s letters, and those who wrote about her, we see how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of sensibility helped scandalous subordinates to temper the authority of the family master. Pearsall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds answers to Tharp?s complex behavior in his desire to maintain his family?s reputation as English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed gentry for future generations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of Pearsall?s attempts to translate micro history into larger arguments are inordinately stretched and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend beyond the reach of her Atlantic world evidence ? for example, arguments about the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern self. In addition, there is no mention of the impact of religion and its links to sensibility. Yet all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her claims are thoughtful and provoke the reader to test their bounds. Pearsall does show that families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were integral to the building and sustaining of the Atlantic world in a society fractured by imperial distance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global wars, and urban growth. In fact, ?family letters helped to make empire possible, bearable, justifiable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and profitable for many? \(p. 11\). They also helped to shape languages of sentiment and feeling that provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leverage for women and perhaps some benefits for slaves. In practice, ?overblown representations of loving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, perpetuated not only in print culture but also in familiar letters provided a powerfully compensatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of family feeling, one that served to ameliorate the shock and struggles of life? \(p. 243\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearsall?s epilogue about the uncertain survival of letters provokes additional thoughts. Naturally, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from male patriarchs had better chances of preservation in elite families. But chance was not the only factor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archival marginalia shows that men and women selectively preserved family papers in ways that augmented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic reputation. Documents that reflected on the family positively were more likely to be saved, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incriminating letters were often destroyed. Furthermore, lower numbers of surviving women?s letters that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depress perceived rates of female literacy are due to more complex causes. There is evidence that social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures and ideas of female modesty led many women to burn or deface their correspondence ? a fact they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freely admitted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately, the digitization of local archives and the huge expansion of online genealogical research will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly unearth an expanded universe of surviving letter writers of both sexes. In all probability, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter collections we already have represent a tiny tip of the available archival iceberg. A problem for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers and historians is how to ensure the preservation of emails for future studies like that of )] TJ ET BT 512.276 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Families.)] TJ ET BT 79.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is important, for as Pearsall warned us: ?Letters do count?. Without their varied viewpoints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intimate revelations, we would miss observing the complex family relationships that marked her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic families. It is fortunate that her ?loose fish? were connected by family letters to the dark, wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oceanic world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essex Pauper Letters)] TJ ET BT 166.004 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Thomas Sokoll \(Oxford, 2001\); Deidre Palk, )] TJ ET BT 410.312 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prisoners? Letters to the Bank )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of England 1781?1827)] TJ ET BT 174.020 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London Record Society, XLII \(London, 2007\); Susan Whyman, )] TJ ET BT 490.316 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pen and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the People)] TJ ET BT 115.004 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, October 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.304 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.304 211.107 m 289.292 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Beebe, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epistolary Fiction in Europe, 1500?1850)] TJ ET BT 340.004 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.324 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.324 196.851 m 491.312 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh)] TJ ET BT 283.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.340 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.340 182.595 m 418.328 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 157.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 127.827 m 154.700 127.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 124.495 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 106.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 106.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/850)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 105.321 m 322.316 105.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 80.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4440)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.3037 211.4215 289.2917 223.3015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.3237 197.1655 491.3117 209.0455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.3397 182.9095 418.3277 194.7895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 128.1415 154.6997 140.0215 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_social_history/v046/46.1.ditz.html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 105.6355 322.3157 117.5155 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/850) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 220 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_social_history/v046/46.1.ditz.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004729 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004948 00000 n 0000005057 00000 n 0000008618 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000015935 00000 n 0000015965 00000 n 0000016093 00000 n 0000016129 00000 n 0000016220 00000 n 0000023771 00000 n 0000023801 00000 n 0000023929 00000 n 0000023965 00000 n 0000023995 00000 n 0000024121 00000 n 0000024157 00000 n 0000024269 00000 n 0000031591 00000 n 0000031719 00000 n 0000031774 00000 n 0000031902 00000 n 0000031957 00000 n 0000032085 00000 n 0000032140 00000 n 0000032267 00000 n 0000032424 00000 n 0000032552 00000 n 0000032647 00000 n 0000032712 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32984 %%EOF